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Environmental impacts of groundwater intensification in India

Sunderrajan Krishnan Trishikhi Raychoudhary Chaitali Purohit Ankit Patel

Definition of problem
Any disturbance from the natural regime of
groundwater flows or geochemistry caused by intensification of groundwater use that results in significant impact on environment and on humans

Challenges: To define natural regime To isolate role of GW use on the impact, eg. coastal salinity

Which issues are being studied


- Fall in water tables and rise in water tables regionally - Highly fluctuating water table - Quality problems emanating from exploitation eg. salinity in coastal areas, increasing mineralization of deeper aquifers, release of geogenic heavy metals associated with exploitation - Quality problems due to use of poor quality water for irrigation -Related surface water issues eg. tanks that recharge aquifers, being in disuse , partly due to gw use

Which issues are not considered


- Pollution from industries; pollution from agrochemicals

-Existing natural contaminants eg. Iron, Fluoride, Arsenic contamination when existing without any disturbance - Ecological aspects eg. impact of phreatic plants due to deepening water tables, biomagnification of contaminants through environmental media

Building blocks of study


Region based (4 regions)

Issue Based (2 issues)

Nation-wide analysis (at district level)

Building blocks of study


Region based (4 regions)

Issue Based (2 issues)

Nation-wide analysis (at district level)

Nation-wide analysis at district level


Objectives: To delineate zones of GW vulnerabilty using different criterion: a) Volumetric information: GW recharge, GW use for various purposes;
Proportion GW used for irrigation

b) Depth to Groundwater Table: Median depth to water table; Median


fluctuation of water table

c) Impact of well interference: well density and hydrogeology together


impacting well interference

Overlap these zones to mark regions of varying vulnerablity

Nation-wide analysis at district level contd


Objectives: To demonstrate the impact of a) Variability b) Uncertainty in district level figures ; therefore also on looking at GW vulnerability using these figures This analysis will be performed for 5 districts by varying: 1. Rainfall: inter-annual variability 2. Uncertainty on Hydrogeological parameter: eg specific yield

Building blocks of study

Region based (4 regions)

Issue Based (2 issues)

Nation-wide analysis (at district level)

Studies in four regions


- Bist-Doab of Punjab: overexploitation and agropollution; groundwater balance and trend analysis - North Gujarat: overexploitation, Fluoride, Salinity, urban exploitation and pollution

- Coastal West Bengal and Orissa: saline water intrusion and urban subsidence of land
- Central Tamil Nadu: Noyyal sub-basin of Cauvery: overexploitation, pollution, demand from urban areas

Studies in four regions

Bist-Doab

North Gujarat

Coastal WB, N. Orissa

Noyyal sub-basin of Cauvery

Studies in four regions


Objectives: Detailed characterization of environmental impacts of groundwater use in the region

Extrapolation to parts of the country that are similar to this region


Eg. North Gujarat: overexploitation of aquifers; Fluoride contamination; Urban demand of groundwater from Ahmedabad area; Coastal and inland salinity of groundwater Can be extrapolated to parts of Rajasthan

Studies in four regions


Fresh studies: - Collecting long-term groundwater hydrographs from Bist-Doab for better hold on groundwater balance

- Collecting geochemical data in Baleshwar district, Orissa to delineate zones of differing salinity content

Building blocks of study


Region based (4 regions)

Issue Based (2 issues)

Nation-wide analysis (at district level)

Issue 1: Coastal salinity of groundwater

Issue 1: Coastal salinity of groundwater


Compiling the conceptual picture of coastal salinity across the coast Information on: Geomorphology, Hydrogeology, Tidal patterns, Observed salinity data

Important regions:
Gujarat (Kutch, Saurashtra, South Gujarat) Tamil Nadu (North) Central Andhra Pradesh Orissa (Central to North) West Bengal

Issue 2: Urban groundwater exploitation


Patterns of groundwater use in urban areas:

- Major growth of urban areas is happening in 1,00,000 1 million population - Most of these cities are highly dependant on groundwater ; much more than million+ cities - The locus of future GW demand in urban areas will be these towns Main data: proportion dependence of urban area on GW
100 % dep On GW 0 1lakh 1 Million Million +

Issue 2: Urban groundwater exploitation

Aquifers in urban areas are increasingly exploited Data collection on coning in Ahmedabad city

Subsidence problems (Kolkata) because of overexploitation The situation in various other cities: Chennai, Delhi,

Structure of report
Chapter 1: Summary Chapter 2: A national picture 2.1 National level statistics and District level analysis 2.2 A theoretical description of each specific impact and regions experiencing them Chapter 3: Analysis of four regions 3.1 Groundwater exploitation in Bist-Doab, Punjab 3.2 Exploitation, contamination and urban demands in North Gujarat 3.3. Salinity, Arsenic, Land subsidence and exploitation in Coastal West Bengal and North Orissa 3.4 Exploitation, pollution and urban demands for groundwater in Noyyal sub-basin of Cauvery in Tamil Nadu Chapter 4: Coastal salinity of groundwater in India Chapter 5: Groundwater exploitation in urban areas of India Chapter 6: An ecological look at groundwater exploitation

Timeline
March: presentation in Anand on work till then - Preliminary analysis of nationwide district level data - Initial data collection from all 4 regions - A synthesis of coastal salinity - Presentation of collected data in urban groundwater study

July: final report

Growth of Abstraction Structures (000)


12000 10000 8000 Abstruction structures 6000 (000) 4000 3860 2000 0 7786 8742 9407 10120 10501 6743 4754 3359 2132 90 33.3 46.2 63.6 67.6 32.4 Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar '51 '80 '85 '90 '92 '97 5379

Dug wells Pvt. TW Pub. TW

Cumulative Irrigation Potential Created from Ground Water (Mha)


60 50 irrigation potential 30 (MHa) 20 10 0 Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar '51 '80 '85 '90 '92 '97 6.5 40 27.82 22 35.62 38.89 50.31

Distribution of Fluoride in Ground Water

Objectives
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Define coastal saline area of 500ppm A plan view specifying different concentration saline area Very high saline area (salinity: more than7500mg/l) High saline area (salinity: 4000mg/l-7500mg/l) Moderate saline area (salinity: 1500mg/l-4000mg/l) Low saline area (salinity: 500mg/l-1500mg/l) Construction of a pictorial view of vertical cross-section of Aquifer system of Indian coast Pictorial vertical cross-sectional of saltwater intrusion mechanism of specified area. Agricultural and Aquaculture activity of Indian coast Preventive or Remedial measure taken in different part of Indian coast

Specific Objectives
Geomorphology Coastal area specification and Geography, river basin and other natural surface details of the area Aquifer system coastal hydro-geology Salinity related study Surface soil-salinity condition Seasonal variation of saltwater and groundwater profile in a specific focused area Special variation of salinity over years (movement of salinity profile of fixed concentration over time) Groundwater table depletion over time in that area. ( to compare saltwater intrusion with groundwater depletion)

Methodology
1. Data Collection
Govt. Organization: CGWB, GSI, CSSRI, State Water and Irrigation Department (SWID) Non-Govt. Organization and Universities: Universities (BEC,Howrah etc) and NGOs Literature Review: Published papers and Books

2. Linking, analyzing and processing of data


3.

Preparation of Report

Patterns of present and future groundwater in urban areas


Demographic study Maximum growth in urban population is occurring in 1,00000 to 1 million population cities Census population, 1971, 81, 91, 2001 & trend of 2011, 21, 31.. cities of > 1 millions : 34 cities Class I >100,000-1 million Class II = 50-100,000 Class III = 20-50,000 Class IV = 10-20,000 Total = 4378 cities > 1 millions = 35 cities Methodology: Review of demographic studies done by UNDP, Kundu et al., Census projections Individual studies done by others will be collected (literature review) for 35 cities. Total water use Proportion of SW & GW in total water use To take @ 20 cities from these 35

For rest, 400 cities will be classified into broad category, class I 100,000 to 1 million and class II, III & IV as 10,000-100,000. We would consider Class I for our study
Cities in different regions will be identified based on several factors (i.e. cities above hard rock strata/ with alluvium strata, river bank, coastal, hill stations, rainfall, GW quality) Probable Source of data for, total water use: Through, irrigation data - statewise (as many as possible), SW supply to the towns CGWB district water data & estimating GW use Sewerage disposal of towns & estimation of total water use Samples from various classifications - Tree, leaves @ 30 towns Check histograms of population -True Vs Sample, for both cities/towns Expected out put: Weighted Indicators with final GW use pattern, Ex. CART analysis (ref: Sunder)