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--- E1 and T1 --- SDH and PDH --- DWDM --- CDMA --- Clocking

T1/E1 Overview

Digital Telephony Digital voice Basic Time Division Multiplexing T1 and E1 Applications

Digital Telephony

Advantages of digital telephony are:

More efficient because multiple voice channels are multiplexed and transmitted over a common transmission path. More economical when compared to the number of equivalent analog lines that would be required.

More reliable in that repeaters maintain the integrity of the digital signals over long distances.

Digital Voice

Product of Analog to digital conversion.

Involves sampling, quantization and bit encoding.

Basic Time Division Multiplexing


Sampling Quantization Bit encoding Adaptive Differential PCM

T1/E1 Technology

T1/E1 Multiplexing T1/E1 Framing T1/E1 Signaling

Industrial Standards For T1

AT&T Publication 43801 AT&T Publication 54016 AT&T Publication 62411 ANSI T1.403-1989 Bell core TR-TSY-000194

Industrial Standards For E1


Recommendation Recommendation Recommendation Recommendation Recommendation Recommendation Recommendation

G.703 G.704 G.706 G.711 G.732 G.823 I.431



Increase the bit rate Nonlinear effects that can affect waveform quality.

Increase the number of wavelengths

Several wavelengths, or light colors, can simultaneously multiplex signals of 2.5 to 40 Gbps each over a strand of


Sonet and TDM

TDM interfaces

WDM interfaces

Process Of DWDM

OC-48c/STM-16c interface operating at the 1310-nm wavelength. Conversion of incoming optical signals into the precise ITU-standard wavelengths to be multiplexed, transponders are currently a key determinant of the openness of DWDM systems.

Transponder converts the client optical signal from back to an electrical signal. This electrical signal is then used to drive the WDM laser. Each transponder within the system converts its client's signal to a slightly different wavelength. The wavelengths from all of the transponders in the system are then optically multiplexed. In the receive direction of the DWDM system, the reverse process takes place. Individual wavelengths are filtered from the multiplexed fiber and fed to individual transponders, which convert the signal to electrical and drive a standard interface to the client.

Access Schemes:

Each pair of communicators is allocated part of the spectrum for all of the time.

Each pair of communicators is allocated all (or at least a large part) of the spectrum for part of the time.

Every communicator will be allocated the entire spectrum all of the time.


CDMA uses unique spreading codes to spread the baseband data before transmission. The receiver then uses a correlator to despread the wanted signal, which is passed through a lowpass filter. The rate of a spreading code is referred to as chip rate rather than bit rate.

The Spreading Process

CDMA uses Direct Sequence spreading by combining the baseband information to high chip rate binary code. The Spreading Factor is the ratio of the chips (3.84Mchips/s) to baseband information rate. Spreading factors vary from 4 to 512.


reference source of timing information

Free run clocking occurs when local oscillator is lost with external synchronization reference.

Synchronization Techniques

Loop Clock Settings

Local Clock Settings

Clocking Levels

Stratum 1
Completely autonomous timing source, Stratum 1 timing is an atomic standard or reference oscillator Example: Primary Reference Source (PRS) as defined in ANSI T1.101.

Stratum 2:
Tracks an input and holds to the last best estimate of the input reference frequency The drift of a Stratum 2 with no input reference is required to be less than 1.6 x 10-8 per year.

Stratum 3:
Stratum Level 3 is defined as a clock system that tracks an input as in Stratum 2, but over a wider range.
A Stratum Level 3 clock system requires a minimum adjustment range of 4.6 x 10-6.

Stratum 4:
Stratum Level 4 is defined as a clock system that tracks an input, except that the adjustment and drift range is 3.2 x 10-5. Stratum 4 clock has no holdover capability so in the absence of a reference it free runs within the adjustment range limits.