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CHAPTER 3

Click to edit Master subtitleAND COORDINATION style

RESPONSE

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The Changes in External and Internal Environment


An organism experiences changes in the internal and external environment all the time. 2. The changes which cause responses in our bodies are called stimuli. 3. There are two types of stimuli, the external stimuli from the external environment of an organism and internal stimuli from the internal environment of an organism. 4. Mammals detect stimuli through specialized sensory cells called receptors. 5. A response is the way an organism reacts after detecting a stimulus. 4/16/12 6. The part of the body that makes responses is

Extern al stimulu s Stimulus

Light Sound Smell Taste Touch Temperatu re Pressure Sugar level in the blood and osmotic pressure of blood. To regulate the equilibrium4/16/12 of the

Intern al stimulu s

Coordination is a process involved in the detection of stimulus and the subsequent ., response of the organism towards the stimulus which involves both the nervous system and endocrine system.
Receptor specialised sensory cells to detect a stimulus.

stimulus

reaction to a stimulus.

Response

changes which cause responses in the body.


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organ that carry out the responses to a stimulus.

Effector

4 Carries nerve impulses 3 Afferent neurone triggers nerve impulses Receptor 2

Integrating centre ( brain ) Sends nerve impulses Efferent neurone Carry nerve impulses Effector (muscles, endocrine glands) Reacts to cause Response 7
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(sensory organs) Detected by 1 Stimulus

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Role of Human Nervous System


Human nervous system

Central nervous system (CNS)

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

X W : Brain X : Spinal cord

Y Y : Cranial nerve Z : Spinal nerve


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Y: Cranial nerve

W : Brain _ b) Central Nervous System X: Spinal cord_

a) Peripheral Nervous System Z:Spinal nerve

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HUMAN BRAIN
The human brain fuctions as a coordinating and intergrating centre to : A- Receive information in the form of nerve impulses from receptors B- Analyse information C- Intergrate information D-store information E-Transmit instruction in the form of nerve impulses to effectors. The brain consist of three main parts;

Cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata


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HUMAN BRAIN

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i. Cerebrum

iv. Hypothalamus

ii. Pituitary gland iii. Medulla oblongata

v . Cerebellum

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Parts

Functions - interprets information from the receptors. - controls the movement of skeletal muscles in voluntary activities - The site of intelligence such as learning - coordinating centre for body movement.

Cerebrum

Cerebellum

- receives information regarding position of the bodY. coordinates contraction of muscles - maintain homeostasis. - centre for regulating body temperature, water balance and blood pressure. -controls involuntary actions of the body that do not require conscious effort.
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Hyphothalamu s Medulla oblongata

THE CROSS-SECTION OF THE SPINAL CORD

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Spinal nerve

Dorsal root

Grey matter

Ventral root

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The

spinal cord consist of a grey matter( cell body of neurone) in the shape of H in the middle and a white matter ( fibre of the neurone) around it. Spinal nerves arise from the spinal cord. Each spinal nerve branches into dorsal root and ventral root before it joins with the spinal cord. In the centre of spinal cord is the central canal which is filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
Function

of spinal cord: Link the brain to the peripheral nervous system 4/16/12 Control reflex action

The

nervous system consists of nerve cells called neurones. Neurones carry information in the form of electrical signals called nerve impulses. neurone consist of: A-One cell body that contains a nucleus and cytoplasm. B-Axon that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body while dendron carries nerve impulses towards the cell body
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STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF NUERONE

Each

C-The dendron branches to form threadlike structures called axon terminals with a synaptic knob at its end. D- The myelin sheath is made up of fats and has many gaps along it called nodes of Ranvier. of myelin sheath: -to protect the nerve fibre or axon from injury -to supply nutrients to axon -as an insulator to the nerve impulses -to increase the speed of transmission of the nerve impulses.
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Function

NEURON E

There are three type of neurones: A-Afferent neurone B-Efferent neurone C-Interneurone

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Match the function to the correct neurones Functions Neurones

Carry sensory information from receptor cells into the brain and spinal cord Carry information from the brain or spinal cord to effectors Convey impulses between various parts of the brain and spinal cord

Efferent neurones Afferent neurones interneurones

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COMPARISON BETWEEN VARIOUS TYPES OF NEURONES


ASPECT Passage of impulse AFFERENT NEURONE From receptor to central nervous system INTER NEURONE EFFERENT NEURONE

Position of In grey matter cell body Distribution Whole body in the body Function Receives and sends impulses to brain and spinal cord
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STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF SYNAPE


There

is a narrow gap between two neurones that is called synapse. At the end of axon terminal is the synaptic knob which contains many mitochondria and vesicle. The vesicles contain chemicals called neurotransmitters which transmit the nerve impulses across the synapse. Example: acetylcholine and noradrenaline.

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TRANSMISSION OF INFORMATION ACROSS SYNAPSE


A

nerves impulses arrives at a synaptic knob of the axon terminal. Synaptic knob contains abundant mitochondrian to generate energy for transmission. The nerves impulses stimulates the vesicles to release neurotransmitter into the synapse. The neurotransmitter molecules diffuses across the synapse to the dendrite to another neurons. The dendrite of another neurons is stimulated to trigger a new impulse which travel down a long neuron.
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There (a) (b)

TYPES OF COORDINATED RESPONSE

are two types of coordinated response: Voluntary action Involuntary action

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VOLUNTARY ACTION

COMPARISON BETWEEN VOLUNTARY ACTION AND INVOLUNTARY ACTION


ASPECT

INVOLUNTARY ACTION

Under control of will

TYPES OF ACTION INTEGRATING CENTRE Medulla oblongata

Involved external stimulus

STIMULUS RECEPTOR Specialised internal receptors

Impulses transmit from the brain to skeletal muscle

TRANSMISSION OF IMPULSES EFFECTOR AND The effector produces RESPONSE involuntary action such as heartbeat and 4/16/12 peristalsis

REFLEX ACTION
Reflex

action is an involuntary action that occur automatically and spontaneously without conscious control towards stimulus. Reflex action is controlled by spinal cord and does not involve the cerebrum. It acts as protection against injuries and dangerous situation. Examples; (a) Knee jerk (b) Blinking of eyes (c) Changes in the size of the pupil in the eyes

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REFLEX ARC
Reflex

arc is the pathway that a nerve impulse travels from the receptor to the effector in a reflex action. The pathway of nerve impulse in a reflex action: Receptor Afferent neurone (dorsal root) interneurone synapse

Effector Efferent neurone ( ventral root)

synapse
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REFLEX ACTION KNEE JERK two types of neurons The knee jerk action involves
named afferent and efferent neurons.
When

a hammer hits a tendon that connected to quadriceps muscle in the thigh to a bone in the lower leg. the hammer strike, the force stretches the quadriceps muscle and stimulates the stretch receptors in the muscles, triggering nerve impulses. nueron transmit the information to the 4/16/12 efferent neuron in the spinal cord.

As

Afferent

The

efferent neurons transmit the information to the quadriceps muscle and the muscle contracts swing the leg forward. the patient is able to swing the leg forward, it indicates that the patients nerve system is still functioning. there is no response, it shows that the patients nervous system fails to function properly.

If

If

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WITHDRAWAL OF THE HAND FROM A HOT OBJECT

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WITHDRAWAL OF THE HAND FROM A HOT OBJECT When the hand accidently touches a hot object, the sensory receptors of the skin are stimulated. Nerve impulse is generated and travels along the afferent neurone to the spinal cord. In the grey matter of the spinal cord, the nerve impulse is transmitted across the synapse to an interneurone. The efferent neuron carries the nerve impulse out of the spinal cord to the effector(biceps) through the ventral root. The biceps are stimulated to contract, causing the hand to be with-drawn automatically from the hot object.
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needle

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The sharp needle that pokes the finger act as a stimulus The sensory receptor for pain at the skin receives the stimulus. The sensory receptor produces nerve impulse. The impulse is sent by the afferent neuron to the spinal cord. The afferent neuron will synapse with the interneurone found in the grey matter of the spinal cord. The interneuron will form a synapse with the efferent neuron. The efferent neuron will bring the nerve impulse to the effector which consists of muscles. The muscles will contract and pull the hand away from the stimulus.
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DISEASES RELATED TO THE NERVOUS SYSTEM


Two

types of diseases that are related to the nervous system and commonly occur among the elderly are : ALZHEIMERS DISEASES Caused by the shrinkage of the brain tissue and lack of neurotransmitter system such as lack of acetylcholine in the brain. 2. Usually affected the elderly 3. Symptoms of Alzheimers disease are: - Loss of memory - Lack of concentration or forgetfulness - Confusion and hallucination -. Poor judgement -. Loss of ability to speak, read write, eat and walk.
1.

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PARKINSONS DISEASES
1.

2. 3. -.

-. -. -. -.

Caused THE REDUCED LEVEL OF NEUROTRANSMITTER CALLED DOPAMINE IN THE BRAIN. The hardening of the cerebral arteries. Symptoms of Parkinsons disease are: Slow movement due to stiffness and tremor Jerkiness Weak muscles Muscles stiffness and cramps Impaired balance and coordination
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HOMEWORK!!!!

TRIAL SBP 2006


1. i-What

is meant by the term synapse. ( 2 marks )

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ANSWER
1.

Synapse is a narrow gap between an axon terminal and dendrite of another neuron. A chemical is used by neuron to transmit an impulse across a synapse. The chemical called neurotransmitter.

.A

nerves impulses arrives at a synaptic knob of the axon terminal. .Synaptic knob contains abundant mitochondrion to generate energy for transmission. .The nerves impulses stimulates the vesicles to release neurotransmitter into the synapse. .The neurotransmitter molecules diffuses 4/16/12

3.
ALZHEIMERS DISEASES Caused by the shrinkage of the brain tissue and lack of neurotransmitter system such as lack of acetylcholine in the brain. 2. Usually affected the elderly 3. Symptoms of Alzheimers disease are: - Loss of memory - Lack of concentration
1.
1.

PARKINSONS DISEASES Caused THE REDUCED LEVEL OF NEUROTRANSMITTER CALLED DOPAMINE IN THE BRAIN. The hardening of the cerebral arteries. Symptoms of Parkinsons disease are: Slow movement due to stiffness and tremor Jerkiness Weak muscles Muscles stiffness and cramps Impaired balance and coordination 4/16/12

2.

3.

-.

-. -. -.

-.

The knee jerk action involves two types of neurons named afferent and efferent neurons. When a hammer hits a tendon that connected to quadriceps muscle in the thigh to a bone in the lower leg. As the hammer strike, the force stretches the quadriceps muscle and stimulates the stretch receptors in the muscles, triggering nerve impulses. The efferent neurons transmit the information to the quadriceps muscle and the muscle contracts swing Afferent neuron transmit the information to the the leg neuron efferent forward.in the spinal cord. If the patient is able to swing the leg forward, it indicates that the patients nerve system is still functioning.
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