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What is Transmission Channel ? A channel (transmission channel, information channel, etc.

) is a single electrical, radio, or optical signal used for transmitting information from one location to another A channel may be analog or digital A channel may be twisted pair, coax cable, radio, fiber optic Examples of digital channels Computer connections, telephone modems, cable modems Local area networks (LANs) in homes and offices Digital cell phone calls, cell phone messaging CD music recordings, digital video disks High-speed transmission systems used by telcos (digital radio, fiber optics, etc.) One-way transmission channels may be used in special circumstances Music CDs Video (television) transmission The transmission channel has certain characteristics Bit rate Bandwidth Error and noise performance

What are the major difficulties of Analog Networks Signal attenuation Analog signals fade out, amplification must be provided Noise accumulation Noise is added along the analog signal path Signal distortion Analog repeaters contribute to accumulation of signal distortion (linear and nonlinear) Echo and singing (feedback)

What are advantages of Digital Networks ? Ease of multiplexing Use of digital logic, VLSI, DSP techniques Transmission/switching integration Noise immunity and signal regeneration Voice/data/video integration Data networking and packet switching methods Digital switching and signaling methods Performance monitoring and operations methods

Explain the process of Switching _ A switch transfers signals from one input port to an appropriate output. _ A basic problem is then how to transfer traffic to the correct output port. _ In the early telephone network, operators closed circuits manually. In modern circuit switches this is done electronically in digital switches. _ If no circuit is available when a call is made, it will be blocked (rejected). When a call is finished a connection teardown is required to make the circuit available for another user.

What is Crossbar Switch A crossbar switch with N input lines and N output lines contains an N x N array of cross points that connect each input line to one output line. In modern switches, each cross point is a semiconductor gate.

What are the desirable properties for Line Codes _ Transmission Bandwidth: as small as possible _ Power Efficiency: As small as possible for given BW and probability of error _ Error Detection and Correction capability: Ex: Bipolar _ Favorable power spectral density: dc=0 _ Adequate timing content: Extract timing from pulses _ Transparency: Prevent long strings of 0s or 1s

What is the line coding scheme used for the DS-1 signal? The line coding can be either AMI or B8ZS according to how the equipment is set up along the path and at either end.

What is Manchester encoding? Manchester Coding is a method of transmitting bits which enables the receiver to easily synchronize with the sender. It splits each bit period into two, and ensures that there is always a transition between the signal levels in the middle of each bit Manchester code: A code in which(a) data and clock signals are combined to form a single self- synchronizing data stream (b) each encoded bit contains a transition at the midpoint of a bit period, (c) the direction of transition determines whether the bit is a "0" or a"1," and(d) the first half is the true bit value and the second half is the complement of the true bit value.

How does Manchester Encoding let hosts keep synchronized? Manchester encoding is a synchronous clock encoding technique that uses bit transitions in place of binary code.

Why NRZ encoding has been replaced by manchester encoding?? For NRZ we require large bandwidth,because transition will not occur in middle of bit.whereas in Manchester encoding transition will occur middle of the bit so Data rate = Modulation rate/2

Why does Ethernet use Manchester encoding? Ethernet uses Manchester encoding for two reasons. First, binary encoding does not differentiate between a 0 bit (0 volt) and an idle sensor (also 0 volts). Manchester encoding in Ethernet systems use +0.85 volts for a high signal and -0.85...

What is bit rate of Ethernet when Manchester encoding is used?? bit rate is half the baud rate