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PROTOCOL

PROTOCOLS
Protocol defines the interfaces between the layers in

the same system and with the layers of peer system Building blocks of a network architecture Each protocol object has two different interfaces service interface: operations on this protocol peer-to-peer interface: messages exchanged with peer Term protocol is overloaded specification of peer-to-peer interface module that implements this interface

PROTOCOL HIERARCHIES

Most networks are organized as a stack of layers or levels. Each layer is a kind of virtual machine, offering certain services to the layer above it. A protocol is an agreement between the communication parties on how the communication is to proceed.

Layers, protocols, and interf aces

PROTOCOL HIERARCHIES

The interface defines which primitive operations and services the lower layer makes available to the upper one. An important consideration in designing network is defining clean interface between layers, Why?? -minimizing the information -replace implementation Network architecture, is a set of layers and protocols

PROTOCOL HIERARCHIES

A list of protocols used by a certain system, one protocol per layer, is called a protocol stack.

THE RELATIONSHIP OF SERVICES TO PROTOCOLS

The relationship between a service and a protocol.

OUTLINE OF NEXT PART


LAYERED ARCHITECTURE Need For Layering OSI Reference Model TCP/IP Model

LAYERED ARCHITECTURES
Layers: grouping the common functions Benefits of layers: Simplicity: easy to design once layers and their

interaction are defined clearly Flexibility: easy to modify and develop networks by separate layers modifications Incremental changes: add new layers, add new functions to a layer

NEED FOR LAYERING


Allows Complex problems are decomposed in to small manageable units. Implementation details of the layer are abstracted. Separation of implementation and specification Layers are work as one by sharing the services provided by each other. Layering allows reuse functionality i.e., lower layers implement common once. Provide framework to implement multiple specific protocols per layer

REFERENCE MODELS
-OSI -TCP/IP

The OSI -Open System Interconnection- Reference Model -A layer should be created where a different abstraction is needed -Each layer should perform a well-defined functions -The function of each layer should be chosen toward defining ISO protocols -The layer boundaries should be chosen to minimize the information across the interface. -The no. of layers should be large enough that distinct functions.

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THE TCP/IP REFERENCE MODEL


The major design goals of TCP/IP are: The ability to connect multiple networks together in a seamless way. The ability to survive loss of subnet hardware, with conversations not being broken off. A flexible architecture for supporting applications with divergent requirements, ranging from transferring files to real-time speech transmission.

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THE TCP/IP REFERENCE MODEL


TCP (Transmission Control Protocol): a reliable connection-oriented protocol. UDP (User Datagram Protocol): an unreliable connectionless protocol

Its job is to inject IP packets into any network and have them travel independently to the destination

The TCP/IP model just points out that the host has to connect to the network using some protocol so it can send IP packets over it. This protocol is not defined and varies from host and network to network

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THE TCP/IP REFERENCE MODEL

Protocols and networks in the TCP/IP model .

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A COMPARISON OF THE OSI AND TCP/IP REFERENCE MODELS

Fundamental similarities: The same concept of a stack of independent protocols. Similar functionality of the layers. The three central concepts to the OSI model: Services: which tell what the layer does, not how entities above it access it or how the layer works. Interfaces: which tell the processes above it how to access it (i.e., what the parameters and results are), not how the layer works inside. Protocols: which are used between peer entities to implement the offered services.

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MAJOR DIFFERENCES

OSI makes the distinction between services, interfaces, and protocol clearly, however the TCP/IP model did not clearly distinguish them. The OSI model was devised before the protocols were invented, but the reserve was true with the TCP/IP model. The OSI model has seven layers, but the TCP/IP model has only four layers. The OSI model supports both connection-oriented and connectionless communication in the network layer, but only connection-oriented communication in the transport layer.

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