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Underpinning Of Click to edit Master subtitle Structures style

Jamani Mohammedabbas R (SD0510)

Faculty Guide : Prof R.J.Shah School Of Building Science And Technology CEPT University , Ahmedabad
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Contents

Introduction is underpinning of underpinning and disadvantages is underpinning required

What Why

Methods

Advantages Case

study
22

conclusion
4/16/12 underpinning of structures References

Introduction
The

construction industry over the years has faced many problems right from the time of its inception problems related to the construction can be classified under two major categories i.e. i) superstructure.

The

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ii) substructure. underpinning of structuresstructures underpinning of

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Several

techniques have been developed in order to deal with these types of problems by the engineers but the feedback obtained from the engineers is the problems related to superstructure can be solved and rectified much easily as compared to the substructure

is one of the engineering underpinning of structures deal with solutions 4/16/12 underpinning of structures to 44

Underpinning

What is underpinning ????????


The

word underpinning is used in foundation engineering to denote the process of transferring the weight of an existing structure from its original foundation to temporary supports and from them to a new permanent substructure.

may also denote the construction of new foundation under the structureunderpinning of structures intermediate without the 4/16/12 55

It

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When This

the work is completed, the structure is said to be underpinned. may be necessitated occasionally by the inadequacy of original foundations or by their harmful settlements.

most cases, however, it is caused by the fact that the new work in the immediate vicinity of the structure or even in the building itself, 4/16/12 underpinning of structures 66

In

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Successful

underpinning requires a knowledge of the state of balance of a building, its foundation and of the ground conditions. of load transfer need to be fully investigated within any structure to be underpinned.

Paths

will help us in knowing the probable concentrations of stress the 4/16/12 underpinning of structures 77 building is subjected to.

It

Why underpinning ????


Some of the construction modifications and

Likely to make underpinning of existing Structures necessary are the following.


Provision

of a basement in a building that had none before. of tunnels , sewers under or near columns or walls. tanks, wells 88

Installations

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Construction of ofpits, underpinning structures

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of subways. Lowering of water table by adjacent excavations that endanger the safety of footings on piles. Increase of loads on columns or walls that requires replacement of present foundations. The construction of deep foundations in positions that endanger present ones. Loweringunderpinning ground surface by the of structures 4/16/12 99
Construction

General Principles
The process of underpinning involves great care and patience as conditions are likely to differ for every job and every job is special in its own way. The load has to taken off the existing footing and held by temporary means while a new support is provided. The load is then has to be 4/16/12 underpinning of structures 10 transferred to the new bearing.

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It

is important to do all this in a manner that does not require or produce raising or lowering of the structure sufficiently to cause cracking or other harm to it. are several means to achieve the above mentioned objective but the common ones are use of wedges and screw jacks, hydraulic jacks etc.
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There

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Methods Of Underpinning
Several methods used for underpinning are as Follows:
Conventional Micro Angle

concrete underpinning.

piles. piles piles. beams. of structures underpinning


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Bracket
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Needle

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Piled

R.C. Raft. piles. grouting. pipe piles.

Sheet Steel

Pressure

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underpinning of structures

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Conventional Concrete Underpinning


Conventional

concrete underpinning is accomplished from small, sheeted and braced pits constructed beneath the foundation
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Traditional Underpinning
This

method stabilizes existing wall foundations by digging under the present foundation in sequenced bays to a depth where firm strata exists and replacing the excavated material with mass concrete. loading capabilities are based upon the strata encountered.
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The

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In

some circumstances when the existing footing is adequate to span between supports, intermediate piers can be used to reduce cost, i.e miss out piers 2 and 4 as shown on the diagram below.

suitable bearing stratum is assessed by the Supervising Officer or Building Inspector upon completion of thestructures sequence of 4/16/12 underpinning of first 16

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Traditional

Underpinning is usually applied when the existing foundations are at shallow depth. are excavated generally 1.0m 1.2m in length, 0.6m wide, and up to 2.5m from ground level. However a mini-piled solution would be more economical over depths of 1.5m.
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Bays

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Traditional underpinning underpinning of structures

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Advantages
simple

engineering understood. for heavy loads.

and

easily

Suitable

Occupants

can remain in the property as work is under taken from outside. can be used in restricted access areas. Suitable underpinning of structures new cellars for formation of 19

Method 4/16/12

Needle Beam Method


This

method stabilises existing wall foundations by the use of piles installed either side of the wall. A small pocket is broken out below the ground level and a reinforced concrete needle beam is cast in-situ connecting the piles and supporting the walls.

the span between needle 4/16/12 underpinning of structures 20 beams can accommodate very high

Reducing

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However,

the bearing capacity of the underlying strata will determine the number, diameter and spacing of piles used.

system is used where traditional underpinning is not appropriate due to the existing foundations being deep, or that good-bearing strata is so deep that it is uneconomical to dig. (Depths greater than 1.5m) . 21 4/16/12 underpinning of structures

This

Advantages
Suitable Needle

for restricted access.

beam constructed at a higher

level if the existing foundation is too deep.


Faster High More
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than tradition underpinning.

load capability. economical at greater depths. disruption, less spoil generated underpinning of structures 22

Less

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Needle beam underpinning of structures method

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Piled R.C. Raft


This

method stabilizes existing wall foundations to whole rooms. Mini-piles are installed within the property and capped with an integral reinforced concrete raft. Needle beams project from the slab into to the walls below ground level.

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underpinning of structures

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Reducing

the span between projecting needle beams and increasing pile numbers can accommodate highly loaded structures. However, the bearing capacity of the underlying strata will determine the number, diameter and spacing of piles used.
underpinning of structures Load Capabilities using mini-piles: 25

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This

system is used where whole rooms or whole structures are to be underpinned and includes the provision of a new internal floor slab. is appropriate when existing foundations are deep, or that goodbearing strata is so deep that it is uneconomical to dig. (Depths greater than 1.0m).
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It

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Piles

are installed at determined by loadings.

centers

Pockets

are then broken out and reinforced needle beams are placed to pick up the walls. A ring beam is constructed linking the needles, mesh is laid and the whole structure poured.
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Piled R.C raft method


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Piled R.C raft method


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Advantages
Provides

lateral and traverse ties throughout the structure. new completion. 1.0m. floor slab upon

Provides

Economical No
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at depths greater than

need for external access.


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Cantilever Beam Method

This method stabilises existing wall foundations either internally or externally whichever the most appropriate. mini-piles are installed, one compression and one tension.

Two A

pocket is broken out into the existing wall and a reinforced concrete beam is cast linking the 4/16/12 underpinning of structures 31 two piles.

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This

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system is used where traditional underpinning is not appropriate due to the existing foundations being deep, or that good-bearing strata is so deep that it is uneconomical to dig. (Depths greater than 1.5m). Or
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Reducing

the span between cantilevers can accommodate high loads. However, the bearing capacity of the underlying strata will determine the number, diameter and spacing of piles used.

are installed at approximately 1.0m 1.5m centers and 1.2m apart 4/16/12 underpinning of structures 33 determined by loadings.

Piles

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Then

pockets are broken out and reinforced beams are placed to pick up the walls. Beams are usually cast alternate. Capabilities using mini-piles: i) 105mm dia SWL 60KN . ii) 150mm dia SWL 80KN.

Load

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Cantilever method underpinning of structures

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Cantilever method
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Advantages
Faster

than traditional underpinning. one side only.

Access

from Occupants can

stay in the property during construction.


Economical

at depths greater than

1.5m.
Suitable
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for restricted access.


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Micro-piles
Micro-piles

are small diameter (100 to 300 mm in diameter), reinforced load transfer elements capable of supporting design loads in excess of 200 tons. Micro-piles can be installed through almost any type of subsurface condition, from sands to clay to bouldery soils to rock.
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Micro-piling

is accomplished using low-vibratory drilling techniques, a critical consideration when working around sensitive structures. The micro-piles can readily be installed in confined space and low headroom situations.

Often installation can be accomplished without disrupting 4/16/12 39 normal underpinning of structures operations. facility

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Vertical

and/or inclined micro-piles can be installed to provide additional foundation support needed to withstand increased structural loading, underpin existing shallow foundations during adjacent new construction, arrest ongoing settlement, and for seismic retrofit.
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Case Study
Imperial Location

College. : London

Considered

as a major centre for teaching and research in science and engineering. of structure :- load bearing brick walls. in the beginning of the
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Type

Constructed
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19th century underpinning of structures

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Method Soil

used :- needle beam with the help of concrete stools. profile:- soil consisted of gravels overlyed by clay. table was at approx 2m below the existing basement level.

Water

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The

first stage was to excavate a very deep basement at the rear of the main building. walls of main building comprised of a series of heavily loaded piers each of 1m thick* 2m wide. most heavily loaded pier carried at load of 4000 KN and the staircase wall loading was 250 KN/m.
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The

The

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The

depth of basement excavation was required to be 9 m below the existing basement floor level and walls were underpinned to a depth of 11m. beam method was used to underpin the wall.

Needle

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underpinning of structuresstructures underpinning of

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Intial stage of beam construction


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Reinforcement between stools


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Placing of stools underpinning of structures

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Final stool underpinning of structures positions

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Schematic view
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Conclusion
Underpinning

of a structure is a complex and a time consuming process. is necessary to study in detail the pre-requites before taking the underpinning process.

It

should be allocated to the consultants who have already worked on similar nature of projects 4/16/12 underpinning of enough to achieve 50 and are confident structures

Work

References
Underpinning Foundation
Dr. K .R. Arora

and retention

S .Thorburn and G. S. Littlejohn

engineering and framing

Underpinning
J.F.S Pyrke

Differential

movement of domestic
51

buildings
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Experience

along with expertise is necessary to deal with any kind of structural problems and the aim of the construction should be to carry out the work with all the strength and quality required along with skill and economy.

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underpinning of structures underpinning of structures

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4/16/12

underpinning of structures