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made by Abhishek Arora 1RV10CS005 Abhishek Jain 1RV10CS006

Greentelligent

Honeywell Green jet fuel

Now renewable jet fuels offer the industry an alternative carbon-reduction strategy with no aircraft or engine modifications required. Honeywell Green Jet Fuel has a tremendous capability to provide a sustainable solution to meet energy challenges today and tomorrow

Features
Meets All Flight Specifications
Originally developed under a U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) contract, UOPs Renewable Jet Fuel process produces high-quality, renewable jet fuel that performs just like petroleum fuels. Made from non-food, second-generation feedstocks like camelina, jatropha and algae, Honeywell Green Jet Fuel meets or exceeds all critical specifications for flight. At a 50-percent blend, it can be a drop-in replacement, requiring no changes to fleet technology or the fuel storage and delivery infrastructure.

Lower Emissions, Higher Efficiency

Honeywell Green Jet Fuel is a sustainable option that is also practical. It has shown high energy density in flight, meaning aircraft can fly the same distance with a given amount of fuel, and it is clean burning because it contains low levels of aromatics and sulfur. It offers a remarkable 65 to 85 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions relative to petroleumbased fuels. And as second-generation feedstocks are developed and become more commercially viable, sustainable biofuels will be priced competitively with current jet fuel.

Second generation feed stocks

Second-generation feedstock's are non-food natural materials that do not interfere with valuable food, land or water resources. They are exponentially more efficient and sustainable sources of energy. Examples include camelina, algae and jatropha. The UOP process successfully converts any of these inedible feedstock's and many others to produce on-spec jet fuel. This flexibility gives fuel producers the ability to choose the bio feedstock that best suits their location and operating goals.

Properties

Jet A-1 specification

Green Jet Fuel From camelina 45

50-50 Of Jet-A1 & camelina 46

Flash Point

Min 38

Freeze point
Net heat of combustion, MJ/kg Aromatics %volume Sulfur %mass

Max -47
Min 42.8 Max 22 Max 0.3

-57
43.9 <0.3 <0.001

-57
43.6 8.5 .05

UOP Renewable Jet Fuel Process Technology The Renewable Jet Fuel process licensed by UOP is based on traditional refining hydro processing technology. It works by adding hydrogen to remove the oxygen from the feedstock and then further refining this product to meet the required specifications. The process produces a bio-synthetic paraffinic kerosene (bio-SPK) or Green Jet Fuel that is then blended with standard jet fuel for use in flight. The resulting fuel meets all of the jet fuel specifications set by qualifying agencies.

Deoxygenation

Selective Hydrocracking

Product Seperation

H2
Sustainable Feedstocks

CO2

Light Fuels

Green Jet Fuel (Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene or SPK)

Green Diesel Water

Flight proven

Overall the trip to Paris of the transatlantic flight resulted a cutoff in emissions of 68% after adding back the CO2 emissions during the transportation and processing of camelina. So far the company has produced enough fuels for 20 round trips from LA to London. But they say that to make a meaningful share they need to produce around 60 millions galleons of fuel per year. It saved 5.5 metric tons of carbon fuels per year

Camelina Seeds
As far as camelina is concerned it a weed that grows in north Europe (it can even be processed into vegetable oil) and is grown on fallow land in rotation with wheat in water scarce region that cant support lucrative crops. To discourage farmers from growing just camelina they are not willing to pay premium weeds

Future of the Fuel


Reksoke does some back to back calculations and comes up with a figure that around 15 to 20 millions acres of fallow land is available in the US. Five million acres would produce about 1.4 million galleons of Green Jet Fuel. Although the daily demand in just US is 46 million galleons. He also predicts that Honeywell will produce between 5millions to 10 millions galleons of Green jet Fuel in 2012 with rapid growth to follow at price almost two times the conventional jet fuel prices.

What is Green Concrete ?

Engineers and architects have choices of the material and products they use to design projects. When it comes to a building frame the choice is typically between concrete, steel and wood; for paving applications the choice is generally between concrete and asphalt. Material choice depends on several factors including first cost, life cycle, cost and performance for a specific application. Due to growing interest in sustainable development engineers and architects are motivated to choose materials that are more sustainable. However this is not so easy as selecting an energy star rated appliance or a vehicle providing high gas mileage. On what measurement basis can engineers and architects compare materials and choose one that is more sustainable or specify a material in such a way as to minimize environmental impact?

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) seems to offer a solution. LCA considers materials over the course of their entire life cycle including material extraction, manufacturing, construction, operations, and finally reuse/recycling. LCA takes into account a full range of environmental impact indicatorsincluding embodied energy, air and water pollution (including greenhouse gases), potable water consumption, solid waste and recycled content. By building rating systems they can help engineers and architects select materials based on their environmental performance or specify materials in such a way as to minimize environmental impact. One potential drawback of LCA however is that the person conducting the analysis often has discretion to set which environmental impact indicator is most important. And often times conducting a full LCA is so complex that only a partial LCA is conducted with a focus on one or two phases of the life cycle. The problem with this approach is that it forces engineers, architects and product manufacturers to focus their efforts on reducing greenhouse gas emissions without regard to other sustainable practices.

Concrete and CO2

CO2 emissions from 1 ton of concrete produced vary between 0.05 to 0.13 tons. 95% of all CO2 emissions from a cubic yard of concrete is from cement manufacturing. It is important to reduce CO2 emissions through the greater use of SCM. It is important not to focus solely on CO2 emissions from cement and concrete production. Doing so limits the total global CO2 reduction possible to at best 2%. Concrete is very effective in reducing energy consumption due to its high solar reflectivity, and high thermal mass among other benefits. Focusing solely on CO2 emissions from cement and concrete production increases the perception that concrete is not sustainable which is inaccurate since operationally concrete has substantial sustainability benefits. An incorrect perception can lead to a less sustainable material choice.

Focusing solely on CO2 emissions from cement and concrete production does not encourage the use of recycled or crushed returned concrete aggregates; use of water from ready mixed concrete operations; use of sustainable practices such as energy savings at a ready mixed concrete plant and use of sustainable transport practices. This is because only 5% of CO2 emissions from a cubic yard of concrete is due to use of virgin aggregates, water, plant operations and material transport to the plant. Removal of prescriptive specification restrictions and focusing on performance and the use of incentives is an effective way to encourage sustainable concrete with low CO2 emissions.

Artificial leaf
oUsing

sunlight to split water molecules and form hydrogen fuel is one of the most promising tactics for kicking our carbon habit. oResearchers led by MIT professor Daniel Nocera have produced something theyre calling an artificial leaf: Like living leaves, the device can turn the energy of sunlight directly into a chemical fuel that can be stored and used later as an energy source. oone possible further development: tiny particles made of these materials that can split water molecules when placed in sunlight making them more like photosynthetic algae than leaves. The advantage of that, the small particles would have much more surface area exposed to sunlight and the water, allowing them to harness the suns energy more efficiently. oThe parallel with nature is not exact: a real leaf does start by ripping up water, but does not end by breathing out hydrogen. Instead, it diverts the hydrogen into reactions with carbon dioxide, eventually creating sugar molecules.

Its composition
o

The artificial leaf a silicon solar cell with different catalytic materials bonded onto its two sides needs no external wires or control circuits to operate. Simply placed in a container of water and exposed to sunlight, it quickly begins to generate streams of bubbles: oxygen bubbles from one side and hydrogen bubbles from the other. If placed in a container that has a barrier to separate the two sides, the two streams of bubbles can be collected and stored, and used later to deliver power: for example, by feeding them into a fuel cell that combines them once again into water while delivering an electric current. The device, is made entirely of earth-abundant, inexpensive materials mostly silicon, cobalt and nickel and works in ordinary water. Other attempts to produce devices that could use sunlight to split water have relied on corrosive solutions or on relatively rare and expensive materials such as platinum