and measure two to six metres (6 to 19 feet) tall.1. Native to edit Master subtitle style Click to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South Asia.Introduction Sugarcane refers to any of six to 37 species (depending on which taxonomic system is used) of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum. tribe Andropogoneae). 4/16/12 . they have stout jointed fibrous stalks that are rich in sugar. All sugar cane species interbreed. and the major commercial cultivars are complex hybrids.

sugar cane Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Poales Family: Poaceae Subfamily: Panicoideae Tribe: Andropogoneae Saccharum Genus: 4/16/12 .

Ethanol is produced on a large scale by the Brazilian4/16/12 . is used as raw material in human food industries or is fermented to produce ethanol.Sugarcane belongs to the grass family (Poaceae). rice. The main product of Click to edit Master subtitle style sugarcane is sucrose. an economically important seed plant family that includes maize. Sucrose. and sorghum and many forage crops. wheat. which accumulates in the stalk internodes. extracted and purified in specialized mill factories. a low pollution fuel.

2-History In India. followed by the Greeks. the Persians. discovered Click to edit Master subtitle style 4/16/12 . between the sixth and fourth centuries BC.

History of sugarcane Click to edit Master subtitle style 4/16/12 .

1Climatic conditions: Sugarcane cultivation requires a tropical Click to edit Master subtitle style 4/16/12 .3-Cultivation 3.

Both plentiful sunshine and water 4/16/12 .2Soil: Click to edit Master subtitle style Sugarcane can be grown on many different soils ranging from highly fertile well drained mollisols.3. infertile acid oxisols. peaty histosols to rocky andisols. through heavy cracking vertisols.

Click to edit Master subtitle style sugarcane cultivation 4/16/12 .

and some up to 33°N and 33°S.[16] When sugarcane crop is found outside this range. The crop does not tolerate severe frosts. Therefore. most of the world's sugarcane is grown between 22°N and 22°S. for a continuous period Click to than six to seven of more edit Master subtitle style months each year. such 4/16/12 . either from natural rainfall of through irrigation.3.3Areas: Sugarcane is cultivated in the tropics and subtropics in areas with plentiful supply of water.

Click to edit Master subtitle style 4/16/12 .

000. (note: source verification. Worldwide) Worldwide sugarcane production. C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate (may include official.816.A P = official figure.000 285.000 29. * = Unofficial/Semi-official/mirror data.068.000F 30.400 50. in February 2012.525F.492.743.500.000F 32.400 Click to edit Master subtitle style 49.157. F = FAO estimate.500.284.045. semi-official or estimates). suggests cane yields above are off by an order of magnitude 4/16/12 .700 38.272 People's Republic of China  Thailand  Pakistan  Mexico  Colombia  Philippines  Australia  Argentina  World 66.029.000   116.251.top ten sugarcane Production Country Footnotes producers (Tons)  Brazil  India 672.000F 1.

3. without harming the stalks and roots. and kills any lurking venomous snakes. . The fire burns dry leaves. Hand harvesting accounts for more than half of production. Click to edit Master subtitle style the field is first set on fire. and is dominant in the developing world. A skilled harvester can cut 500 kilograms (1. Harvesters then cut the cane just above ground-level using cane knives or machetes. In hand harvesting. Mechanical harvesting uses a 4/16/12 combine.100 lb) of sugarcane per hour.4Harvesting: Sugarcane is harvested by hand and mechanically.

Click to edit Master subtitle style A sugarcane harvesting machine at work in a farm 4/16/12 .

the cane sends up new stalks. called ratoons. Each cutting must contain at least one bud. a stand can be harvested several times. Once planted. Billets harvested from a mechanical harvester are planted by a machine which opens and Click to edit Master subtitle style recloses the ground. In more technologically advanced countries like the United States and Australia. modern stem cutting has become the most common reproduction method. billet planting is common.Although sugarcanes produce seeds. sugarcane ratoon ready 4/16/12 . and the cuttings are sometimes hand-planted. Two to 10 harvests are usually made depending on the type of culture. after each harvest. Successive harvests give decreasing yields. eventually justifying replanting.

and 4/16/12 . agricultural mulch. and filtercake. Other products of the processing include bagasse. is used for several purposes:[23] fuel for the boilers and kilns. Click to edit Master subtitle style Bagasse. the residual dry fiber of the cane after cane juice has been extracted. production of paper.4-Processing Sugarcane processing produces cane sugar (sucrose) from sugarcane. molasses. paperboard products and reconstituted panelboard.

Brown and white sugar crystals Manually extracting juice from sugar Click to edit Master subtitle style Evaporator with baffled pan and foam dipper for making ribbon cane syrup A fuel pump in Brazil. offering cane ethanol (A) and gasoline (G 4/16/12 .

23 mg (1%) 0.37 mg (3%) 41.35 grams 111.98 g 0.01 mg (1%) Nutrient Information from ESHA Research Percentages are relative to US recommendations 4/16/12 for adults.96 mg (1%) 17.56 kcal) 27.27 g 11. .Sugarcane as a food foodfrom. Nutritional value per serving sugarcaneCaipirin ha.51 g 26. a cocktail made derived Cachaça Serving size Energy Carbohydrates .13 kJ (26.Sugars Protein Calcium Iron Potassium Sodium 28. Click to edit Master subtitle style Freshly squeezed sugarcane juice.

Click to edit Master subtitle style 4/16/12 .

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