A PAPER ON

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CONTENTS:

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION GENERAL THEORY MATERIALS USED AS AN ABRASIVE
ADVANTAGES TO ABRASIVE JETS MACHINING

APPLICATION CONCLUSION

ABSTRACT

Cutting tests were conducted on such materials as aluminum, glass, titanium and Graphite composites Abrasive-water jet cutting is among the most efficient methods of energy utilization for high precession material cutting, removing and plaining.

Above: Cutting under water to reduce Noise and splash

INTRODUCTION: A machining operation is basically a material removal process, where material is removed in the form of chips.
A machining operation is basically a material removal process, where material is removed in the form of chips. Abrasive-water jets are formed in a small abrasive-jet nozzle.

GENERAL THEORY:
Water is pressurized up to 400 MPa Typical particle velocities are 300-600 m/s with mass flow rates of about 10 g/s. Cutting or controlled depth penetration (milling) of the target Material occurs as a result of complex erosion phenomena Abrasive-water jet parameters,which include
• Hydraulic parameters
-Waterjet orifice diameter - Supply pressure

• Mixing nozzle parameters
- Mixing chamber dimensions - Nozzle material

• Abrasive parameters
- Material (density, hardness, shape) - Size , feed method - Flow rate,abrasive condition

•Cutting parameters
- Traverse rate,number of passes - Standoff distance,angle of cutting

A machine shop without a waterjet, is like a carpenter without a hammer - Sure the carpenter can use the back of his crow bar to hammer in nails, but there is a better way..."

Both technologies use the principle of pressurizing water to extremely high pressures, and allowing the water to escape through a very small opening (typically called the "orifice" or "jewel").

(Above: Pure-water "Waterjet")

The inlet water is typically pressurized between 20,000 and 60,000 Pounds per Square Inch (PSI). (Or 1300 - 4000 "bar" if you prefer metric). This is forced through a tiny hole in the jewel, which is typically 0.007" to 0.015" in diameter (0.18 - 0.4mm) This creates a very high velocity beam of water!

A diagram of an abrasive jet. Notice that it is just like a water jet with more stuff underneath the jewel.

An actual photograph of the same nozzle, with the guard removed, cutting out some parts.

THE MATERIAL USED AS AN ABRASIVE:
The materials commonly used in this area are: GARNET, SILICA SAND and GLASS BEADS

A different pattern of traverse on every pass will complicate the milling process. a) Garnet b) Silica sand c) Glass beads

Which nozzle is best for my material?
Water Jet Nozzle Soft rubber Foam Extremely thin stuff like Foil Carpet Paper and cardboard Soft Gasket material Candy bars Diapers Soft, or thin wood ...All sorts of other soft stuff AbrasiveJet Nozzle Hardened tool steel Titanium Aluminum Hard Rubber Stone Inconel® Hastalloy Copper Exotic materials Hard, or thick Wood Glass (even bullet proof!) Marble Plastic Nylon Graphite Many ceramics Carbon Fiber Composites mild steel Stainless Steel Kevlar Granite Mixed materials Brass

In Fact, there are very few materials that abrasivejets can't cut!

ADVANTAGES TO ABRASIVE JETS MACHINIG
Extremely fast setup and programming Very little fixturing for most parts Machine virtually any 2D shape (and some 3D stuff) Very low side forces during the machining Almost No heat generated on your part No start hole required Machine thick stuff Environmentally friendly

APPLICATIO N

Printed Circuit Boards:

Wire Stripping:

Food Preparation:

Tool Steel:

Wood Cutting:

Cleaning Applications:

CONCLUSION:

And Finally I Conclude this by saying that, it’s definite that this technology has over ridden the present conventional cutting, milling, and polishing operation which are widely used in the manufacturing technology.

K N A H T

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