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Just In Time (JIT)

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The Just In Time concept of production was

introduced in Japan under the name Kanban. According to this concept, materials and components are supplied to the work station just at the time when they are required for use vendors have to be in close proximity and liasion

This means the production unit and

JIT is a logistic approach, wherein, the level

of inventory is kept at the minimum because these are made to arrive just in 4/17/12 time when they are needed to be used

The success of JIT depends on the

following things:-

Customer orientation Focus on long term objective All departments work as one team

It is common knowledge that in majority of

organizations, both in developed and developing countries, the prevailing working conditions are not conducive to promote the concept of JIT

Elements of JIT manufacturing


Eliminating the waste

JIT is a management philosophy that

eliminates sources of manufacturing waste by producing the right art at the right place at the right time cost without adding value

Waste results from any activity that adds In a JIT system, underutilized (excess)

capacity instead of buffer inventories to hedge against problems that may arise manufacturing processes in which the 4/17/12 same products and components are

JIT concept applies to repetitive

There are six major sources of waste

Over production Time spent waiting Transportation Processing time Inventory Defects

Under the JIT system, the waste is aimed at

to be eliminated by the application of the following steps 4/17/12

Material handling and shipping is reduced or

virtually eliminated eliminated

All the un- needed production steps are Set up times are reduced and the production

rates are increased

All the unnecessary human motions are

eliminated or avoided

The defects are eliminated. This also

eliminates the inspection


Enforced Problem Solving & Continuous Improvement

In traditional manufacturing, in process

inventories allow production to continue even if production problem occurs problem solving

JIT, on the other hand is system of enforced The approach in JIT is to lower inventory

gradually to expose problems and find their solution production interruptions, problems are highly visible and cannot be ignored

With no buffer inventories to offset

There are a few safety factors in JIT

Every material is expected to meet quality


Every part is expected to arrive exactly at the

time promised and precisely at the expected place intended without breakdowns

Every machine is expected to function as

However the job of eliminating production

problems is never finished. Therefore, Kaizen is central to the philosophy of JIT


The purpose of Kaizen is to eliminate

Parallel Processing
JIT believes in parallel processing rather

than series processing

This helps in saving the time, which is

considered the most significant asset in Japanese manufacturing

OP 1 OP 2 OP 3 OP 4

Series Processing Suppose, Cycle time for each 4/17/12 operation=1 hour

OP 2 OP 1 OP 4 OP 3 OP 5 OP 6 OP 7

Parallel Processing

Kanban Production System

Kanban is the means of signaling to the

upstream workstation that the downstream workers are ready for the upstream workstation to produce another batch of parts are

There are two types of Kanban cards. These

A conveyance card (C- Kanban) A production card (P- Kanban)


The process of Kanban will involve the

following steps

The worker takes the C- Kanban from the

container he just emptied

He finds a full container of the needed part in


He places the C- Kanban in the full container

and removes the P- Kanban from the full container and places it on a post at the previous work centre
4/17/12 Kanban back to his own work center

He takes the full container parts with its C-

JIT Purchasing
Is an approach to purchasing that requires

long term agreements with few suppliers term relationship between customer and supplier

Aims at building co-operative and long

Supplier section is based not only on price,

but also on delivery schedules, product quality and mutual trust

JIT is known as the purchase of goods or

materials such that a delivery immediately precedes demand or use


Traditional large 1. JIT Purchasing Relatively Smaller lot sizes

Purchasing lot sizes 2. More frequent 2. deliveries Less deliveries at higher quantities
3. 2% rejection from 1. No rejection from

supplier the supplier 4. Lowest price is 2. Long term the main contracts objective

5. Time consuming, 1. Buyer decides formal framework 4/17/12

delivery schedule

7. Minimal paper


8. Less formal



Reducing inventories through set up reduction

Under JIT manufacturing, set up times and

lot sizes are reduced in order to reduce inventories streamlined flows

Factory outlay is changes to allow This is called installation of Flexible

Manufacturing Systems (FMS)

In JIT, it is aimed to reduce the lot size to

reduce the carrying inventory level

However, this could increase the set up



For successful implementation of JIT Manufacturing following points are to be kept in mind


Reduce or eliminate set up times done

through better planning, process redesign, and product redesign purchasing)

Reduce lot sizes (manufacturing and Reduce lead times (production and

delivery)- production lead times can be reduced by moving work station closer together, applying group technology, reducing queue length

Preventive maintenance Flexible work force

Just-in-Time (JIT) involves inventory and

quality control, industrial relations and supplier-manufacturer practices that differ from traditional business practices emphasize long term business relationships

Japanese business practices tend to The main objective of JIT manufacturing is

to reduce manufacturing lead times

A central feature of JIT is the ability to


operate with minimal levels of inventory

Computer Aide Design (CAD)/ Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM)

Factories of Future Click to edit Master subtitle style


Computer Aided Design (CAD)

Is the use of a wide range of computer

based tools that assist engineers, architects and other design professionals in their design activities within the Product Lifecycle Management process and involves both S/W and sometimes special purpose hardware

It is the main geometry authoring tool

Also known as computer assisted ,

computer aided drafting, CADD (computer aided design and drafting), CAID (computer aided industrial design) or a 4/17/12 similar phrase

CAD is used to design and develop

products which can be goods used by end consumers or intermediate goods used in other products and machinery used in the manufacture of components

Also extensively used in the design of tools


Areas of use
10. Machinery 1. Architectural design 11. Ship building 2. Civil engineering and infrastructure 12. Electronic and electrical (ECAD) 3. Roads & highways 13. Manufacturing systems 4. Water & sewer process planning 14. Digital circuit design 5. Mapping & surveying 15. Software applications 6. Mechanical (MCAD) 16. Apparel and 7. Automotive Textile CAD 8. Aerospace 9. Consumer goods

Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM)

Is the use of a wide range of Product

Lifecycle Management computer based software tools that assist engineers in the manufacture of product component type of tool, machining process of paths that are to be used
Machining Process- most Machining

This involve the engineer in selecting what

Progresses through three stages, each of which is implemented by a variety of basic and sophisticated strategies, depending upon the material and software available. These 4/17/12 stages are:-

Roughing- rough model of the final project Semi finishing- this process begins with a

roughed part that unevenly approximates the model and cuts to within a fixed offset distance from the model finishing is left at a constant thickness over the final surface, so during this process there is little change in the metal removal rate, following the results to be accurate

Finishing- the excess material from semi


Areas of usage- In
Mechanical engineering In electronic design automation, CAM tools

prepare printed circuit board (PCB) and integrated circuit design data for manufacturing
CAE or Computer Aided Engineering used for

testing the model whether it is working properly or not

DMU or Decision Making Unit is often referred

to as a group of people involved in the process of making a decision (eg purchasing a product 4/17/12 or service)