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Biotechnology Scotland Project

5 14 Biotechnology
Trial Materials

Improving Science Education 5-14


Planning framework - Unit 32 Biotechnology respiration
give the main distinguishing features of microorganisms describe the harmful and beneficial role of microorganisms explain the role of chromosomes and genes in inheritance

outline the principles of modern biotechnology and explain its significance now and for the future

Main distinguishing features


of micro-organisms
Size very small, use microscope
Reproduction can be very rapid given appropriate conditions Ubiquitous found everywhere

Looking at Micro-organisms
Types & Size - Microscopy
Hanging drop preparation
Algae Protozoa Wet preparation Yeast Prepared slides/photographs Bacteria Viruses

Working with Micro-organisms


Health & Safety Considerations
COSHH Regulations Safety
Code of Practice

Microbiology Techniques Microbiology techniques Cards Micro Safety and Techniques CD-Rom from SSERC Contact SSERC in 1st instance

Training required to level 3

Growing Micro-organisms
- effect of temperature
Inoculate plates with yeast
refrigerator room

room

room

oven

room

Growing Micro-organisms
- where are they found?
inoculate control test
Seal plates Incubate room Temp

control

test

Do not re-open

Autoclave

Harmful & Helpful Effects of Micro-organisms


Baddies and Buddies Harmful Effects Food spoilage bread moulds Food poisoning - hygiene Other diseases - antifungals

Helpful Effects Food manufacture dough race Decomposition compost column

Harmful Micro-organisms
- bread mould investigation
Use different types of bread
White Brown Use double self-seal plastic bags

Organic
Non-organic Long-life

Leave at room temperature


Observe appearance and progression of mould growth

Do not open
Autoclave on completion of investigation

Harmful Micro-organisms
- effect of cleaning
unwashed water unwashed water

disinfectant

disinfectant

Harmful Micro-organisms
- antifungals

control

antifungal Tape plates closed, do not re-open Autoclave on completion

Helpful Micro-organisms
- dough race
1 Flour Water 2 Flour Yeast 3 Flour

Yeast
Sugar

Greater respiration in 3 causes greater CO2 production and dough to rise further

Role of chromosomes & genes


in Inheritance

Extraction of DNA Fruit Full of DNA

Electrophoresis Wizard genes

Role of chromosomes & genes


- fruit Full of DNA

Keep materials cool where indicated Squash fruit in plastic bag to mechanically break up cells Add washing up liquid, salt and heat to 60C for 15 min to disrupt cellular membranes Filter to remove cell debris Precipitate by adding cold methanol

DNA appears as white strands in methanol

Role of chromosomes & genes


- Wizard DNA Gel Electrophoresis
Gel Electrophoresis negative charge on molecules gel is porous molecules travel through gel according to size when electrical current applied smaller molecules travel faster

Role of chromosomes & genes


- Wizard DNA Electrophoresis
Electrophoresis of a mixture of food dyes

Importance of gel electrophoresis


Gene identification, manipulation and sequencing Forensics, paternity cases

Practical introduces the idea of separating mixtures and using bands to assist in identification