“Tank farm operations.
TANK FARM OPERATION & GAUGING •TANK /SAMPLES TYPES & SAMPLING •DIPPING, DENSITY & TEMP. MEASUREMENT •PREPARATION OF OUTTURNS •OIL ACCOUNTING & LOSS CONTROL •PIPELINE LOSS/GAIN RECONCILATION
TYPE OF TANKS: MAINLY OF TWO TYPES: •FLOATING ROOF TANKS ( FOR LIQUIDS WITH HIGH VAPOUR PRESSURES SUCH AS CRUDE OIL, MS) - EITHER SINGLE DECK OR DOUBLE DECK •FIXED ROOF TANKS ( FOR LIQUIDS SUCH AS HSD, SKO)
Floating Roof Tanks
• When the Tank is in operation, the Roof should always be in floating condition • In resting or semi-floating condition, the tank should not be operated • The seal should be checked periodically • The roof should also be checked periodically (especially during Monsoon) to ensure that there is no water accumulation at the deck.
•SHELL PLATE IS OF VARYING THICKNESS THICKEST PLATE FOR THE LOWEST COURSE AND DECREASING THICKNESS FOR UPPER COURSES. •THE PLATES ARE ARRANGED SO THAT THERE IS AN OFFSET BETWEEN TWO VERTICALS •PLATES ARE FLUSH FROM TANK INSIDE SO THAT I.D. OF THE TANK DOES NOT CHANGE. THIS ARRANGEMENT IS ALSO A MUST FOR THE FLOATING ROOF TANKS.
•INLET NOZZLE •OUTLET NOZZLE •WATER DRAW OFF •PRODUCT DRAW OFF •CLEAN OUT DOOR •ROOF DRAIN •TANK STIRRER NOZZLES/ JET MIXER NOZZLES
INLET AND OUTLET NOZZLES
BOTTOM REINFORCEMENT PLATE
TANK INLET NOZZLE
TANK OUTLET NOZZLE
•BOTTOM PLATES USUALLY 0F 8 MM THICKNESS INCLUSIVE OF CORROSION ALLOWANCE •LAYING SHOULD BE SUCH THAT IT FACILITATES FLOW OF MUCK TOWARDS THE SLOPE (EITHER INWARDS OR OUTWARDS). •MINIMUM WIDTH IS RECOMMENDED TO BE 72 INCH •JOINED BY FULL FILLET WELDING •REINFORCEMENT PLATE IS RECOMMENDED TO BE WELDED WHERE INLET JET IMPINGES ON THE TANK BOTTOM
•EACH COMPARTMENT HAS A MANWAY FOR INSPECTION
DOUBLE DECK FLOATING ROOF •ROOF IS CONSTRUCTED ON TEMPORARY SUPPORTS ERECTED ON THE TANK BOTTOM •BOTTOM DECK IS KEPT AS FLAT AS POSSIBLE •THE TOP DECK PLATE. •THE TOP DECK IS SUPPORTED ON RAFTERS AND TRUSSES. OF BOXES CALLED PONTOONS. •EACH PONTOON IS A LEAK TIGHT COMPARTMENT MADE FROM •CIRCUMFERENTIAL AND RADIAL BULKHEADS. USUALLY OF 5 MM HAS SLOPE TOWARDS THE ROOF DRAINS •THE SPACE BETWEEN THE TOP DECK AND BOTTOM DECK IS DIVIDED INTO A No.
DURING INITIAL FLOATING OF THE ROOF. IT SHOULD WITHSTAND 10” RAINFALL IN 24 HOURS. ALL THE PONTOONS ARE VISUALLY INSPECTED FOR ANY LEAKS OR SWEATING.
. THE DECK SHOULD HAVE SUFFICIENT BUOYANCY WITH TWO ADJACENT PONTOONS PUNCTURED.TANK ROOF
ROOF DESIGN AND INSPECTION THE DECK IS SO DESIGNED THAT WITH ALL THE DRAINS INOPERATIVE.
ROOF APPURTENANCES AND FEATURES
•ROOF MANWAYS •INSPECTION HATCH •RIM VENT WITH RELIEF VALVE •AUTO BLEEDER VENT •EMERGENCY DRAIN •GAUGE WELL PIPE AND ANTI ROTATION DEVICE •ROOF DRAIN •FOAM DAM •ROLLING LADDER
EITHER SINGLE DECK OR DOUBLE DECK
TOP DECK SUPPORTING LEGS SEAL AREA ROOF DRAIN
FLOATING ROOF .
FLOATING ROOF .EITHER SINGLE DECK OR DOUBLE DECK
TOP DECK SUPPORTING LEGS SEAL AREA ROOF DRAIN
water finding paste.Sampling
• Important aid to Quality control • For ascertaining the stock conformity to the relevant specifications • Sampling aids like sample grabber. sample thief. sample containers • Sealing of the sample container with proper seal.
. Sealing Wax not permitted.
Type of the Samples
• • • • • • • • Top sample Upper Sample Middle Sample Lower Sample Bottom Sample All Level Sample Composite Sample Water Draw off Line Sample
Sample: A portion extracted from a total volume that may or may not contain the constituents in the same proportion that are present in the total volume. SPOT SAMPLE: A sample taken at a specific location or at specific time from a flowing stream TOP SAMPLE: A sample obtained 15 cm below the top surface of the liquid UPPER SAMPLE: A sample drawn from the middle of the upper one third of the tank contents (or one sixth of the total tank contents)
COMPOSITE SAMPLE: A blend of U M and L Samples ALL LEVEL SAMPLES: A sample obtained by submerging a stoppered beaker or bottle to a point as near as possible to the draw off point and raising it at a rate such that it is 75 % .80 % full as it emerges out of the liquid.Samples
MIDDLE SAMPLE BOTTOM SAMPLE LOWER SAMPLE: A sample drawn from the middle of the lower one third of the tank contents (or five sixth of the total depth of the liquid.
. M and L samples for product depth above 4 Meters U and L samples for product depth between 2M to 4 M Middle sample for product depth below 2 meters.Samples
COMPOSITE SAMPLE: The composite sample shall be a mixture of an equal quantity of : U.
• Only the type of sample required for the relevant specification to be tested.Sampling Procedure – (p. shall be taken.½)
• The sampling bottle and sample containers shall always be kept clean. • Before use. • The sample quantity collected shall be sufficient for carrying out the relevant tests. they shall be rinsed with the product under sampling.
• Sample details shall be entered in the form (as per Appendix-11/Appendix 11A) as applicable and fixed to the container.
• Sample shall be taken preferably during the cooler part of the day and under shade. • Sampling and filling of the sample container shall be personally supervised by an officer well conversant with the procedures. • The sample container shall be properly closed and it shall be ensured that there are no leaks.Sampling Procedure.
100. RON • Distillation
– IBP – Recovery % Vol at 70. 180 deg C
.Weathering of Volatile Samples
• Avoid vapor loss of samples due to evaporation. particularly the retention samples
– Direct exposure to sun-light/heat – Air Current
The Gauging operations include: • Measuring volumetric quantity of the tank by dipping or ullaging • Recording the temperature of the product • Measuring the density of the product
Lower the bob through the Gauge Hatch. Weight for the ripples to subside and then slowly lower the bob until it just touches the datum plate.
. Raise the Tape and note the Gross Dip and the water dip. till the reading is 30 cms short of the reference height.(p 2/3)
Method for recording gross and water dips: Apply water finding paste to the bob. Apply oil finding paste around the range of estimated Gross Dip.Gauging Procedures. 2 cms above the previous water dips.
. For tanks which are to be kept bone dry.Gauging Procedures. it should be at least 2 cm above the Datum Plate. the same shall be assured by draining product through water draw off lines.(p 3/3)
In tanks. In case of tanks where water level is below the Datum Plate. where water dip is maintained. the same shall be checked through the Centre Hatch.
Layering in storage Tanks
• Heavier product in lighter product
• Interface Heavier at the bottom • Circulation of product – Jet Mixtures
• Master instruments : Hydrometers.
. Thermometers • Validity : 5 Years • In-use instruments : Yearly comparison and records.
• Calibration of Hydrometers and Thermometers: Calibration to carried out at 3 – 4 points in the instrument’s range • If the error is within +/.0.0005 at 15 deg C • If the error is within +/.5 deg C
PRODUCT LOSS CONTROL
• Petroleum Products being volatile. But these losses can be minimised. product loss is unavoidable under certain circumstances. • They cause safety hazards and pollute the environment. • The losses erode profit.
.PRODUCT LOSS CONTROL
• Identify the cause and initiate steps to eliminate it. • Regular Inspections and Preventive Maintenance • Awareness of employees.
Factors contributing to Pipeline Losses
• Defective Gauging Equipment/ Gauging errors/ Accounting errors • Sludge/ Water in the tanks • Gauging Errors • Migration of Product • Pilferage/ Leakage in the Pipeline
Control on Pipeline Losses
At the Pumping end: • The tanks should be free from water/ sludge • Proper settling time (Minimum 24 Hrs) to be given to the tank • Positive segregation from other tanks • Pumping of hot product to be avoided • Use of standard Gauging Equipment.
. The same equipment to be used for Opening and closing operations.
.Control on Pipeline Losses
At the Receiving end: • The tanks should be free from water/ sludge • Water dips to be noted before and after the receipts (Care to be taken for rain water) • Positive segregation from other tanks • Use of standard Gauging Equipment. The same equipment to be used for Opening and closing operations.
THIS CORRECTED VALUE IS CALLED STANDARD VOLUME. THE MASS OF THE PRODUCT IS OBTAINED BY MULTIPLYING THE STANDARD VOLUME BY THE PRODUCT’S DENSITY AT STANDARD TEMPERATURE.
• CALCULATIONS ACCORDING TO ASTM. ARE BASED ON THE PROCEDURE WHERE A VOLUME MEASURED AT A GIVEN TEMPERATURE IS RECALCULATED TO A VOLUME AT THE STANDARD TEMPERATURE USING VOLUMETRIC CORRECTION.
THE CORRECTION FACTORS ARE AVAILABLE IN THE FOLLOWING ASTM TABLES: • TABLE 53 A : CORRECTION OF OBSERVED DENSITIES TO DENSITY AT 15 DEG c OF CRUDE OILS • TABLE 53 B : CORRECTION OF OBSERVED DENSITIES TO DENSITY AT 15 DEG c OF PRODUCTS • TABLE 54 A : CORRECTION OF VOLUMES TO 15 DEG C AGAINST DENSITY AT 15 DEG c FOR CRUDES • TABLE 54 B : CORRECTION OF VOLUMES TO 15 DEG C AGAINST DENSITY AT 15 DEG c FOR PRODUCTS
M AT 15 DEG C CORRESPONDING TO A HYDROMETER READING AT OBSERVED TEMPERATURES OTHER THAN 15 DEG C. TWO CORRECTIONS ARE NECESSARY AND HAVE BEEN APPLIED: THE CHANGE IN VOLUME OF GLASSS HYDROMETER WITH TEMPERATURE (STEM CORRECTION) CHANGE IN THE VOLUME OF PRODUCTS WITH TEMPERATURE
TABLE 53 B: GIVES THE VALUE OF DENSITY IN KG/CU.
TABLE 54 B: GIVES THE VOLUME CORRECTION FACTORS FOR CONVERTING PRODUCT VOLUMES OBSERVED AT TEMPERATURES OTHER THAN 15 DEG C TO CORRESPONDING VOLUMES AT 15 DEG C.
cu.7 KG/ M CU
If the Hydrometer Reading for a Gasoline at 22 deg C is 733 kg/m. what is the density of gasoline corrected to 15 deg C.
If the Hydrometer Reading for An HSD at 30 deg C is 836 kg/m. what is the density of HSD corrected to 15 deg C.0 KG/ M CU
54336.7 kg/m cu.ASTM TABLES
What is the volume at 15 deg C of 55000 cu M at 30 deg C of heating oil the density of which at 15 deg c is 845.
.7 m cu.
Calculate MT by : V at 15 deg C x WRF
.0011 from Density at 15 deg C) 6. Compute Net Oil at Observed Temperature 3. Compute WRF (subtract 0. From the Dip Memo. Compute VRF against Observed Tank Temperature 5. Calculate volume at 15 deg C by: V (obs temp)xVRF 7. calculate the Gross Dip Quantity and water Dip quantity 2. Compute 15 deg C Density from the observed sample Temperature and the hydrometer Reading 4.Out turns
FOR CONE ROOF TANKS: 1.
FOR FLOATING ROOF TANKS: 1. All the steps as in cone roof are involved with one extra step i.e.
. Roof correction. Volume displaced by the Roof = Weight of roof / Density of the product 3. The displaced volume is subtracted from Gross oil to get the Net oil at Observed temperature.
7 cm Water Dip (c) 0.0 cm 0.829 0.0 deg C 21. 18.0 deg C 21. 18. 3 Type : Cone Roof Product : HSD Parameters Opening Closing Gross Dip 61.1 cm 415.0 deg C Observed density 0.Out turns
Prepare an OTR for the following data: Tank No.831
.0 cm Tank Temp.5 deg C Sample Temp.
5cm Water Dip (c) NIL Nil Tank Temp. 16. 11 Type : Floating Roof Product : MS Parameters Opening Closing Gross Dip 295.5 deg C Sample Temp.745 0. 17.0 deg C 15.Out turns
Prepare an OTR for the following data: Tank No.5 cm 1396.740
.0 deg C Observed density 0.0 deg C 16.
• • • • • • • • • • A COMPARISON OF OPENING AND CLOSING BALANCES OPENING BALANCE CONSISTS OF QUANTITY PUMPED QUANTITY UNDER PUMPING OPENING LINEFILL CLOSING BALANCE CONSISTS OF QUANTITY DELIVERED QUANTITY UNDER DELIVERY CLOSING LINEFILL ALL QUANTITIES ARE VOLUMES AT 15 DEG C
Form No.7 cm. 18. 0. OP 28 INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LTD.796
BONDED BEFORE RECEIPT
DATE TIME TANK TEMP. 21.470
.831 0.0 Ltrs.01. C SAMPLE DENSITY DENSITY AT 15 DEG.15 HRS.00 HRS.8350 415. IN DEG.0 0.0 0. (MARKETING DIV.9975 628723 627150 520. IN DEG. 0. IN MT
14.8310 61.0 cm. / 628723 Ltrs. / 0.2004 10. AT (N) NET OIL LTRS. AT 15 DEG.C SAMPLE TEMP.2004 PRODUCT : HSD AFTER RECEIPT 17. VOLUME REDUCTION NET OIL LTRS.C NET OIL QTY.0 Ltrs. 0.829 0.9946 3483008 3464200 2888. IOC 3 OUT TERN FOR RECEIPT OT NO. 3133 LOCATION : DELHI DATE : 21.C OIL & WATER HEIGHT/LTS WATER HEIGHT/LTS. 0. / 3483008 Ltrs.0 18.) TANK NO.5 21. / 0.01.01.1 cm.0 cm.2004 14.
MTS. UPTO DATUM GROSS QTY. : : : 61.7 cms = 34830086 = 0 3483008 0 0
CERTIFIED THAT THE PARTICULARS GIVEN ARE CORRECT PLACE ______NEW DELHI _______DATE __________PLANT TERMINAL MANAGER REGD. IN KLS AT VOL CORR.NET QTY.
PIPELINE CENTRAL EXCISE
DETAILS OF CALCULATIONS VOL.326 MTS
BATCH NO = HSD HSD-309UL
SUMMARY BONDED RECEIPT FROM PIPELINE EX-MATHURA FOR INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LTD. IN LTRS. BANDRA(EAST) BOMBAY – 400 051(INDIA)
. OFFICE : G-9 ALI YAWAR JUNG MARG.
2854. WATER QTY.05 KLS
AT 15 DEG.285 KLS
2837.1 cms = 628723 8 = 0 628723 0 0 415. IN LTRS. ROOF CORR. IN LTRS.
C OIL & WATER HEIGHT/LTS WATER HEIGHT/LTS.C
SAMPLE TEMP. AT (N) NET OIL LTRS.) OUT TERN FOR RECEIPT OT NO.0 0.0 Ltrs. IN MT
17.0 0.01. 0.805
16.20042 07.7400 1396. 0. / 1407233 Ltrs.01.7458 295.740 0. IN DEG.15 HRS.0 cm.5 cm. OP 28 INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LTD.C NET OIL QTY.2004
TANK NO. (MARKETING DIV. / 0.Form No. C SAMPLE DENSITY DENSITY AT 15 DEG.0 cm.01. AT 15 DEG.434
.9983 6323423 6312673 4664.30 HRS. 0.745 0. VOLUME REDUCTION NET OIL LTRS.0 Ltrs.2004 10.9978 1352250 1349275 1004.
17. / 0.5 cm.
TANK TEMP. 4547 LOCATION : DELHI DATE : 23. 0. / 6378777 Ltrs. IN DEG.
BONDED BEFORE RECEIPT
PRODUCT : MS AFTER RECEIPT 21.
4971. WATER QTY. IN LTRS.5 cms = 2259 = 0 1407232 54982 0 1395 cms = 6372021 1.NET QTY. RECEIVED
AT 15 DEG.629 MTS
SUMMARY BONDED RECEIPT FROM PIPELINE EX-MATHURA FOR INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LTD.5 cms = 6756 = 0 6378777 55354 0
CERTIFIED THAT THE PARTICULARS GIVEN ARE CORRECT PLACE ______NEW DELHI _______DATE __________PLANT TERMINAL MANAGER REGD. UPTO DATUM GROSS QTY.0 cms =1404974 0. OFFICE : G-9 ALI YAWAR JUNG MARG.
DETAILS OF CALCULATIONS VOL. C
MTS. BANDRA(EAST) BOMBAY – 400 051(INDIA)
. IN LTRS. : : : 295. IN KLS AT VOL CORR. IN LTRS.173 KLS
BATCH NO = MS MS-311PG