History of advertising

Babylonian clay tablet of 3000 B. C. bearing inscription for an ointment dealer, and a shoemaker. Papyri found in the ruins of Thebes show announcements offering rewards for the return of runaway slaves.

 a. Traditional forms Trade marks Signs Town cries . b. c.

     Age of print 1441-Johannes Gutenberg creates moveable type Mid-1400s-printed hand bills 1472-first ad in English “ Pyes of Salisbury” 1477-The first known printed ad in English by William Caxton of London The first ad in any language.The evolution of advertising 1. to be printed on a circulated sheet appeared in German news pamphlets in about 1525 .

weekly newspapers called „Mercuries‟ started to appear in England 1841Volney Palmer becomes first ad sales agent 1850-George P Rowell becomes first ad space wholesaler .       1600s – news papers emerge 1622-First ad in London's Weekly Relations News 1655.First use of the term “Advertising” The first ad in America appeared in 1704 in the Boston Newsletter By the middle of the 17th century.

Walter Thompson forms JWT agency. focuses on news  1888-George Eastman creates first Kodak camera .2. first account executive  1872-First Ward‟s illustrated mail-order catalog  1879-P & G introduces Ivory soap  1880s-John Powers pioneers copywriting. Industrial revolution and emergence of consumer society  1850s-First branded items such as Baker‟s Chocolate appear in stores  1864-J.

Earnest Elmo Calkins and Ralph Holder develop image copy 1890s.Lord and Thomas agency forms .  1890s.

Pure food and drug Act  1908. Kennedy describes advertising as “salesmanship in print”  1905-1930s.Pepsi uses ad famed racecar driver Barney Oldfield  1912.Claude Hopkins develops scientific mailorder copy testing  1906.Beginning of celebrity endorsements.John E.3. Modern era of advertising  1904-1940s Albert Lasker pioneers „Reason Why‟ copy  1905.truth in advertising movement .

Radio advertising surpasses magazines as leading advertising medium .Stanley and Helen Resor develop account services. and status appeals  1930s. brand names.American association of advertising agencies formed  1918.4. Age of agencies  1917.

Clyde Bedell develops “selling stratagems” 1950s TV becomes important advertising medium 1950s Rosser Reeves develops “ unique selling propositions” 1960sLeo Burnett creates brand icons and inherent drama .     1932.John Caples applies scientific methods to mail-order copy and headlines 1940.

5. Creative era  1960s David Ogilvy develops research based image advertising and story telling  1960s.Bill Bernbach focuses on the art of persuasion .

6. mass customization  2001. growth of interactive technology. niche marketing. relationship marketing. globalization  1990s-2000s-IMC. Accountability era  1980s-1990s-Mergers and acquisitions.Advertising takes on new responsibilities .

Walter Thompson is known as the inventor of modern advertising agency . In late 1880s John E Power Emerged as a great copywriter.Modern advertising     Began in mid 19th century Volney B Palmer was the first advertising agent who established an office in Philadelphia.

Manendra Mohan .-AMA “The dissemination of information concerning an idea.Definition of advertising   “Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas. service or product to compel action in accordance with the intent of the advertiser”. goods and services by an identified sponsor”.

it says. „I am going to sell you a product or an idea. Willis L Winter and Sherilyn K Zeigler “Advertising is a message paid for by an identified sponsor and delivered through some medium of mass communication.  “Advertising is controlled.”John S Wright. it is not unbiased. It is not neutral.‟ ”-J Thomas Russell and W Roland Lane . Adverising is persuasive communication. identifiable information and persuasion by means of mass communications media.

it is not unbiased . goods and services An identified sponsor Controlled Mass communications media Persuasion It is not neutral.        Any paid form Non personal presentation and promotion Ideas.

Roles of advertising     Marketing Communication Economic societal .

Functions of advertising        Builds awareness of products and brands Creates a brand image Provides product and brand information Persuades people Provides incentives to take action Provides brand reminders Reinforces past purchases and brand experiences .

Objectives of advertising         Sales as objective Communication Prompt direct action Encourage customer to ask for information Giving message of need and its satisfaction Products success stories to reinforce product brand loyalty The benefit story Attitude change .

Purpose of advertising          launch of a new product modifications in products change in price new packaging Promotional plans Distributors and retailers address Educating the customers for proper use of the product To retrieve lost sales Reminder ads and for maintaining sales .

          To recruit staff To appoint distributors To invite technical staff of industrial customer to ask for literature Competitive comparative advertising To assist retail sales To help salesperson get a foot in the door of industrial customers To attract investors through special ad campaigns To export or go international To announce financial results of the firm To sell direct .

Advertising and marketing mix     Advertising and product Advertising and place Advertising and promotion Advertising and price .

Based on target  Consumer advertising  Industrial advertising  Trade advertising  Professional advertising  Institutional advertising .Types of advertising 1.

 a. c. d. b. Non-product advertising Public service advertising Service Financial personal .

Direct action ad b. Type of impact required by ad  Demand advertising a. Selective c.2. Primary b. surrogate  Action a. Indirect action ad .

3. Based on geographical area  National advertising  Local advertising  Global advertising .

On the basis of nature or purpose of advertising  Brand building advertising  Tactical advertising  Corporate advertising  Advocacy advertising .4.

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