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Since the mid-eighties an explosive development comes in imaging technique Active field New fundamental concept introduced to logging

field Not a picture like core photo which is taken in the visible light Computer created image based on geophysical measurements of acoustic reflectivity or of electrical conductivity. Image represent formation response and provide continues record of the entire borehole. Still evolving rapidly and affecting the entire logging field

Introduced by Mobil in 1960s Low detailed Sampled every 15cm (6) One measurement per depth point

Introduced by Schlumberger in 1980s High detailed Sample every 0.25cm (0.1) 250 measurements per depth point.

Generally called BHTV Used detailed acoustic response of formation to create an image Provide full coverage around the borehole 360 degree. Function in holes filled with any type of liquid, fresh water, water-based barite mud and oil-based mud.

Evolved from Dipmeter technology. Use detailed electrical response of the formation to create their image Provide partial borehole coverage Water-based only

The tool use a rapidly rotating pulsed sound source, which is a piezoelectric transducer, which send and receive the sound signal, that is in a pulse echo mode. It sweeps the entire borehole circumferences several times a second making over 200 measurements of amplitude and travel time during each revolution.

The amplitude varies with the acoustic impedance of the reflecting borehole wall due to lithology and physical features. As the tool is pulled up the hole with rotating transducer a very dense matrix of paired data point is collected from around the borehole wall which is processed into an image.

Company

Symbol

Name

Description

BHTV

Borehole Televiewer Circumferential Borehole Imaging Tool Ultrasonic Borehole Imager Circumferential Acoustic Scanning Tool Acoustic Scanning Tool

General Name

Western Atlas Schlumberger

CBIL UBI

6 revolutions/sec 250 samples/rev 7.5 revolutions/sec 180 samples/rev 12 revolutions/sec 200 samples/rev 4 revolutions/sec 200 samples/rev

Halliburton

CAST

BPN

AST

Western Atlas (Company) 12m long with rotating transducer. Bowstring keep this part of tool centered. Orientation , telemetry electronics and spectral gamma ray sonde is placed above the bowstring.

Bowstrings

When tool is logging, the transducer In pulse echo mode , 6 revolutions per seconds Taking 250 digitized samples on each revolution Logging speed 3m per minute Tool scan each 0.83cm borehole circumference of depth Acquiring a matrix of 30,000 sample points of paired data readings (30,000 readings of amplitude & 30,000 readings of travel time

Transducer is piezoelectric, activated by an electric pulse. Normally made from a thin circular disc, size (1-2) in diameter. Transducer is hemispherical and has a concave surface facing outwards which has the effect of collimating (focusing) the sound pulse. Transducer produce an ultrasonic pulse 1500 times per second with frequency of 250 KHz.

The tool can only be used in holes with lower density muds. CBIL uses a lower frequency signal which improves operating ranges (distinct penetration), so that it can be used with mud densities up to 1.7-1.9 Other companies frequency ranges:

Mobil ----------------------- 2MHz Amoco --------------------- 1.3 MHz

Low Penetration

Raw acoustic travel time and amplitude data are generally processed to color image or into grey scale and presented in the unwrapped borehole format. In the processing the measurements compared and placed side by side to construct an image Each sample is represented by one pixel Pixel matrix is built up from 250 measurements The actual area of borehole wall represented by a pixel will depend on borehole size(diameter) and the logging speed. Unwanted effects are removed by filtering, equalization, edge detection and other techniques

Resolution is the ability to separate two objects. Features resolution is controlled by transducer size and tool electronics (beam characteristics)

Borehole geometry and tool position Mud weight Acoustic impedance contrast Borehole surface

The juxtaposition of two acoustic image log, the reflected amplitude and the travel time from borehole wall is an aid to interpretation

Dip and azimuth Investigate fractures Borehole breakouts Lithological boundaries Texture Some sedimentary features

When two log processing (amplitude & travel time) are displayed for comparing: Amplitude scale use lighter color or shades for log amplitude and black color for zero amplitude The travel time scale for near reflections darker shade and for far reflection non at all (light only) Amplitude log gives lithological information and travel time log gives borehole geometry (ovality and breakouts).

The mutual interpretation of both logs provide information about fractures is open or closed Open fracture: loss of signal in both cases Closed fracture: filled fracture provide image on the amplitude log

Book: The geological interpretation of well logs by Malcolm Rider Acoustic and optical borehole-wall imaging for fractured-rock aquifer studies John H. Williams, Carole D. Johnson