Chemical Equations & Reactions

Chapter Six

Outline
• Chemical Equations • Balancing Equations • Types of Chemical Reactions
– Combination – Decomposition – Single Replacement – Double Replacement
• Gas forming • Precipitation • Neutralization

– Oxidation-Reduction

Chemical Equations
• • Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes in matter. Changes in matter are chemical reactions Chemical reactions are described symbolically by __________________ Before  After Reactants  Products Reactants _________ products.

• •

Chemical Equations
• Reactant1 + Reactant2 Product1 + Product2

• Subscripted numbers • Coefficients • Symbols

Balancing Chemical Equations
Guiding Principle - Law of ________________________ How to achieve a balanced equation? - select _____________________ to make the numbers of each atom the ________ on the reactant and the product sides of the chemical equation.

Balancing Chemical Equations
• Identify an element that appears in only one substance on each side of the equation. • If several atoms satisfy this condition, select the substance that has the largest number of atoms of a single element. • Balance the number of atoms of that element by placing the proper coefficients in front of each substance with that element on each side of the equation. • Balance atoms of other elements by the same process. • Next, balance atoms that appear in two or more places. • Reduce all coefficients to __________________.

Examples of Balancing Equations
• Nitrogen and hydrogen react to form ammonia

• Aluminum hydroxide reacts with sulfuric acid to yield aluminum sulfate and water

Indicators of a Chemical Reaction
• _____________ formation • Formation of ______________________ • A __________________ change • Evolution or absorption of ____________

Types of Chemical Reactions
• • • • Combination Decomposition Single Replacement Double Replacement
• Gas forming • Precipitation • Neutralization

• Oxidation Reduction

Combination Reactions
• the union of two or more ______________ to produce a one or more complex substance(s):
– X + Y  XY

• Examples: C (s) + O2 (g)

CO2 (g)

Decomposition Reactions
• the breaking down of a substance into two or more simpler substances:
– XY  X + Y

• Examples: the decomposition of carbonates, nitrates and chlorates

Single Replacement Reactions
• an element is substituted into a compound for another element in the compound:
– A + BY  AY + B

• Example: the reduction of metal oxides with carbon •

Double Replacement Reactions
• two compounds exchange atoms or groups of atoms to produce two different compounds:
– AX + BY  AY + BX

• Example: the reaction of a metal carbonate with an acid

Double Replacement Reactions
• Precipitation
– two soluble ionic compounds form an insoluble product, a precipitate, when mixed based on _____________________________________ – AX (aq) + BY (aq)  AY (s) + BX (aq)

– AX (s) + H2O (l)  A+ (aq) + X- (aq) – BY (s) + H2O (l)  B+ (aq) + Y- (aq)

Will a precipitate form?
• What are the possibilities when solutions of two ionic compounds, AX and BY are mixed?
– _________________________ forms or – _________________________ forms.

• How to determine which result is correct? • Apply solubility rules (Table 6.1)

Solubility Rules in Water (Table 6.1)
• All ionic compounds of alkali elements (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium & cesium) and ammonium ions are soluble. • All nitrates, chlorates and perchlorates are soluble. • Chlorides, bromides and iodides are soluble except Pb2+, Ag+ & Hg22+ • All sulfates are soluble except Sr2+ , Ba2+ Pb2+ and Hg22+

Insolubility Rules in Water (Table 6.1)
• All carbonates(CO32-), chromates(CrO4 2- ) and phosphates(PO4 3- ) are insoluble except ammonium and alkali elements. • All hydroxides (OH-) are insoluble except those of alkali elements, ammonium ions, except Sr2+ , Ba2+ and Ca2+ • All metal sulfides (S 2- ) are insoluble except those of alkali elements and ammonium ions

Neutralization Reaction: the reaction of an acid with a base
• What is an acid?
– a substance which makes _______________ when dissolved in water.

• The general formula for an acid is HX
– Examples:

Neutralization Reaction: the reaction of an acid with a base
• What is a base? • a substance which makes ________________ when dissolved in water. • General formula for a base is BOH
– Examples:

Neutralization Reaction: the reaction of an acid with a base
• HX + BOH  BX + H2O • More concretely • HCl + NaOH  NaCl + H2O

• The neutralization of an acid with a base yields ____________________________.

Common Acids and Bases
• Inorganic
– Acids – HF, HBr, HI, HCl, HNO3 & H2SO4 – Bases – LiOH, NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2 Ba(OH)2

• Organic
– Acids – have COOH group, acetic acid CH3COOH – Bases – contain nitrogen and are called amines, methylamine CH3NH2

• Amino acids – a combination of a carboxylic acid with an amine group yields________________________________

Oxidation & Reduction
• Oxidation – the ______________________ • Reduction – the _____________________ • Both oxidation and reduction occur to conserve matter. • An atom or atoms loses electrons, is oxidized . • And another atom or atoms gains electrons, is reduced. •

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions: Electron Transfer Reactions
• Oxidation-reduction (also called redox) reactions have been shown earlier. • Combination:
– C + O2  CO2

• Single replacement:
– C + Fe2O3  Fe + CO2

• Decomposition
– NaNO3  NaNO2 + O2

Oxidation Numbers
• Oxidation numbers (ON) – a “bookkeeping” system for keeping track of __________________________________ _ • Oxidation number is __________________________________ _ for an atom, an ion or a polyatomic ion or molecule.

Rules for ON Assignment
• Assignment of ON is based upon ________________________________ • ON for an element in elemental state is ____ • ON of a monoatomic ion is the ___________________________________ • Metals have positive ON in compounds • ON for hydrogen is mostly,___________ • ON for oxygen is mostly _____________

Rules for ON Assignment
• ON for fluorine is _______________. • ON for Cl, Br and I are –1 except when combined with _________________. • Algebraic sum of the ONs for all atoms in a molecule is ____________________. • Algebraic sum of the ON for all atoms in a polyatomic ion is the same as the _________________________

Examples of Oxidation Numbers
• CO2 • CH4 • Na + • NH4 + • MnO4 H2O HF BrSO4 2BrO3 SO3 2-

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