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Basic Information About


What is AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)

Acquired disease is not hereditary but develops from contact with a disease causing agent (HIV). Immunodeficiency weakening of the immune system. Syndrome group of symptoms indicate a disease. Certain infections, as well as a decrease certain cells in a persons immune system

What is HIV?
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that causes AIDS

What is the difference between HIV and AIDS?

When HIV enters your body, it infects your "CD4 cells" and kills them. CD4 cells sometimes called T-helper cells) help your body fight off infection and disease. When you lose CD4 cells, your immune system breaks down and you cant fight infections and diseases as well. AIDS -if you have HIV and certain diseases

What are some of the diseases I can get?

"opportunistic infections" Candidiasis (Thrush) Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a viral infection that causes eye disease Mycobacterium avium complex -recurring fevers, general sick feelings, problems with digestion, and serious weight loss

What are some of the diseases I can get?

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) cause a fatal pneumonia. Toxoplasmosis (Toxo) is a protozoal infection of the brain. Tuberculosis (TB)

HIV and Its Transmission

sexual contact sharing needles and/or syringes (primarily for drug injection) Babies born to HIV-infected women less commonly through transfusions of infected blood or blood clotting factors

Which body fluids transmit HIV?

These body fluids have been shown to contain high concentrations of HIV: blood semen vaginal fluid breast milk other body fluids containing blood

health care workers may come into

contact with: fluid surrounding the brain and the spinal cord fluid surrounding bone joints fluid surrounding an unborn baby


For regular partners who were active in anal sex, the risk for transmission was 1 in 10 risk of HIV infection during vaginal intercourse :
1 in 200,000 infected women to men 1 in 100,000 infected men to women.


sharing needles to inject drugs next greatest risk for HIV infection is from unprotected sexual intercourse
anal intercourse Vaginal intercourse Oral sex

You cannot get HIV:

By working with or being around someone who has HIV. From sweat, spit, tears, clothes, drinking fountains, phones, toilet seats, or through everyday things like sharing a meal. From insect bites or stings.

You cannot get HIV:

From donating blood. From a closed-mouth kiss (but there is a very small chance of getting it from openmouthed or "French" kissing with an infected person because of possible blood contact).

How can I protect myself?

Dont share needles and syringes abstain from sexual intercourse, or to be in a longterm mutually monogamous relationship (uninfected )

How can I protect myself?

correct and consistent use of latex condom Dont share razors or toothbrushes you are pregnant or think you might be soon, talk to a doctor about being tested for HIV

How can I protect myself?

washing hands and other skin surfaces immediately after contact with blood or body fluids the careful handling and disposing of sharp instruments during and after use. the routine use of barriers (such as gloves and/or goggles) when anticipating contact with blood or body fluids

Management of Occupational Blood Exposures

Provide immediate care to the exposure site. Wash wounds and skin with soap and water. Flush mucous membranes with water.

Management of Occupational Blood Exposures

Determine risk associated with exposure by type of fluid (e.g., blood, visibly bloody fluid, other potentially infectious fluid or tissue) and type of exposure (i.e., percutaneous injury, mucous membrane or nonintact skin exposure, and bites resulting in blood exposure).

Management of Occupational Blood Exposures

Evaluate exposure source*. Assess the risk of infection using available information. Test known sources for HBsAg, anti-HCV, and HIV antibody (consider using rapid testing). For unknown sources, assess risk of exposure to HBV, HCV, or HIV infection.

Management of Occupational Blood Exposures

Evaluate the exposed person. Assess immune status for HBV infection (i.e., by history of hepatitis B vaccination and vaccine response). PEP (prophylaxis)

The following may be warning signs of infection with HIV:

rapid weight loss dry cough recurring fever or profuse night sweats profound and unexplained fatigue swollen lymph glands in the armpits, groin, or neck diarrhea that lasts for more than a week

The following may be warning signs of infection with HIV:

white spots or unusual blemishes on the tongue, in the mouth, or in the throat pneumonia red, brown, pink, or purplish blotches on or under the skin or inside the mouth, nose, or eyelids memory loss, depression, and other neurological disorders
no one should assume they are infected if they have any of these symptoms. Each of these symptoms can be related to other illnesses

Signs of infection with HIV:

About half of the people who get infected dont notice anything. Symptoms generally occur within 2 to 4 weeks If you have any of these symptoms and if there is any chance that you were recently exposed to HIV, talk to your doctor

What is the treatment for HIV or AIDS?

Many drugs are used together to treat HIV. These drugs often include "antiretroviral" medicines. These medicines are powerful drugs, but they are not cures for HIV

How do I know if I have HIV or AIDS?

You might have HIV and still feel perfectly healthy. The only way to know for sure if you are infected or not is to be tested

You are more likely to test positive for (be infected with) HIV if you:
Have ever shared injection drug needles and syringes or "works." Have ever had sex without a condom with someone who had HIV. Have ever had a sexually transmitted disease

You are more likely to test positive for (be infected with) HIV if you:
blood transfusion or a blood clotting factor between 1978 and 1985. Have ever had sex with someone who has done any of those things

Why Get Tested?

You can have HIV and remain healthy for many years, but without treatment most people will eventually get sick.

How the HIV Test Works

A nurse or aide takes some blood from your arm using a needle.

How the HIV Test Works

Your blood is tested for signs of HIV. If the first test (called ELISA) is positive (shows signs of HIV), the blood will be tested again. If the second test is positive, another kind of test (called a Western blot) will be done to confirm the result. Test results come back to the clinic

How the HIV Test Works

the ELISA method of detection is 99 percent accurate a more sensitive Western Blot test is used to confirm a positive result.

How long after a possible exposure should I wait to get tested for HIV?
Most people will develop detectable antibodies within two to eight weeks (the average is 25 days). 97% will develop antibodies in the first three months following the time of their infection

How the HIV Test Works

positive test result means you've been exposed to HIV; it doesn't mean you have AIDS negative test result means you haven't been exposed to the virus or that it's too early to tell (up to 6 months)

The ABC's of AIDS Prevention

Abstain Be Faithful Use Condoms