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Submitted To: Mr. I.J. Bhandola
GPS- At a glance
Segments of GPS Position Calculation
Basics Official name of GPS is Navigation Satellite Timing And Ranging Global Positioning System (NAVSTAR GPS) Global Positioning Systems (GPS) is a form of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Only completely functional one of its kind at this time First developed by the United States Department of Defense .
Basics • Consists of 28 GPS satellites in medium Earth orbit inclined at an angle of 55 degrees to equator .
Determines the position of. The receiver computes position using trilateration. and distance to at least three satellites to reduce error. To get the distance to each satellite. The signal travels at a known speed. .Operation Overview A GPS receiver can tell its own position by using its own data and compares that data with 4 or more GPS satellites. The signals carry information about the satellite’s location. the GPS receives data from the satelites. The system measures the time delay between the signal transmission and signal reception of the GPS signal.
Parameters to be determined: 1) Longitude 2) Latitude 3) Height 4) Time error .
Segments of GPS GPS systems are made up of 3 segments Space Segment (SS) Control Segment (CS) User Segment (US) .
Three Segments of the GPS Space Segment User Segment Control Segment Ground Antennas Master Station Monitor Stations .
Powered by solar cells. . the satellites continuously orient themselves to point their solar panels toward the sun and their antenna toward the earth. Orbital planes are centered on the Earth Each planes has about 55° tilt relative to Earth's equator in order to cover the polar regions.200 km and with a period of 12 hours.Space Segment GPS satellites fly in circular orbits at an altitude of 20.
Sidereal .Time it takes for the Earth to turn 360 degrees in its rotation It passes over the same location on Earth once each day.Space Segment (Continued) Each satellite makes two complete orbits each sidereal day. . Orbits are designed so that at the very least. six satellites are always within line of sight from any location on the planet.
Space Segment (Continued) There are currently 24 actively broadcasting satellites in the GPS constellation. Data is transmitted at a frequency of 9575. Details contained: o o Data Time & Synchronization .42 MHz and signal strength is between -158 to -160 db.
Control Segment The CS consists of 3 entities: Master Control System Monitor Stations Ground Antennas .
velocities and derived right ascension and declination of GPS satellites at specific times for eventual upload to GPS satellites. .Master Control Station The master control station is responsible for overall management of the remote monitoring and transmission sites. GPS ephemeris is the tabulation of computed positions.
position. Diego Garcia Atoll in the Indian Ocean. and overall health of the orbiting satellites. Hawaii. and Kwajalein Island in the South Pacific Ocean. Each of the monitor stations checks the exact altitude. . Cape Canaveral. speed. Ascension Island in the Atlantic Ocean. Florida.Monitor Stations Six monitor stations are located at Falcon Air Force Base in Colorado.
. are passed along to the master control station. by each station.Monitor Stations (continued) This "check-up" is performed twice a day. sun and the pressure of solar radiation. as the satellites complete their journeys around the earth. Variations such as those caused by the gravity of the moon.
Ground Antennas Ground antennas monitor and track the satellites from horizon to horizon. They also transmit correction information to individual satellites. .
They can also include a display for showing location and speed information to the user. receiver-processors. As of recent. receivers usually have between twelve and twenty channels. . tuned to the frequencies transmitted by the satellites.User Segment GPS receivers are generally composed of an antenna. A receiver is often described by its number of channels this signifies how many satellites it can monitor simultaneously. commonly a crystal oscillator). and a highly-stable clock.
Restricted Precise code (P-code) . The P-code is a similar code broadcast at 10.023 bit long pseudo-random code broadcast at 1. the anti-spoofing mode. the P code is first encrypted into the Y-code. The C/A code is a 1. .23 MHz. which can only be decrypted by users a valid key. In normal operation.023 MHz. but it repeats only once a week.reserved for military usage.freely available to the public.Navigational Systems Satellites broadcast two forms of clock information Coarse / Acquisition code (C/A) . or P(Y).
2. 3.Position Calculation In order for a GPS receiver to determine its position.Sat4).. are designated as where the subscript i is the satellite number and has the value 1. When four satellites are measured at the same time. y... or 4. and z components of position.Δt4 The x..to enable it to calculate signal transit time Δt1. . it has to receive time signals from four different satellites (Sat1. and the time sent. the point where the four imaginary spheres meet is recorded as the location of the receiver.
since the signal is affected for a longer time.Issues That Affect Accuracy Changing atmospheric conditions change the speed of the GPS signals as they pass through the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere. Effect is minimized when the satellite is directly overhead Becomes greater for satellites nearer the horizon. .
. These delayed signals can cause inaccuracy. When the GPS antenna is moving.Issues That Affect Accuracy (cont’d) GPS signals can also be affected by multipath issues Radio signals reflect off surrounding objects at a location. Less severe in moving vehicles. the false solutions using reflected signals quickly fail to converge and only the direct signals result in stable solutions.
jeeps. ships. GPS satellites also can contain nuclear detonation detectors. tanks. bombers.Applications – Military Military GPS user equipment has been integrated into fighters. . and soldiers' equipment. helicopters. military applications of GPS include target designation of cruise missiles and precision-guided weapons and close air support. tankers. In addition to basic navigation activities. submarines.
. highways. not to mention the built in GPS navigational systems from automotive manufacturers. exits etc. Some of the market leaders in this technology are Garmin and TomTom. speed you are traveling. buildings. They show moving maps and information about your position on the map.Applications – Civilian Automobiles are often equipped GPS receivers.
Applications – Civilian (cont’d) Agriculture GPS provides precision soil sampling. Accurately monitored yield data enables future sitespecific field preparation. data collection. Ability to work through low visibility field conditions such as rain. . and data analysis. fog and darkness increases productivity. dust. enable localized variation of chemical applications and planting density to suit specific areas of the field.
Applications – Civilian (cont’d) Other Applications not mentioned here include Railroad systems Recreational activities (returning to the same fishing spot) Heading information – replacing compasses now that the poles are shifting Disaster relief Marine Applications Many more! .
Links: http://en.References: Books: Fundamentals of GPS by P.org/wiki/Global_positioning_syst em http://upload.wikipedia.wikimedia.jpg .L.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8 d/GPS_Satellite_NASA_art-iif.N Raju.
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