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Ethylene Units Purpose
The main objective of the unit 10 and 210 is to produce high purity of ethylene by the thermal cracking of ethane beside the other feeds being used in the unit 210 such as propane and naphtha in order to produce other products as it’s multi feed unit.
Ethylene production is used by YANPET to produce ethylene glycol and polyethylene.
5 T/h 120 T/h Production of Olefins Cracking Quenching Compression and Chilling Distillation Olefins No.Ethylene Units Ethylene Units Unit Ethylene unit 10 Ethylene unit 210 Feed Facility Single Multi feed Feed Ethane Ethane Propane Naphtha Product Ethylene Propylene Ethylene Hydrogen Propylene By Products Capacity 90 T/h 2. 2 .
Ethylene Unit 210 Block Diagram No. 3 .
naphtha. Steam cracking refers therefore to the process whereby a hydrocarbon feedstock—in this case ethane—in the presence of steam and heat. changes to other hydrocarbons.Production Process 1. Steam is added either direct of through gas feed saturators at controlled rates in order to increase the petrochemical yield and to minimize carbon deposits (coke) forming in the furnace tubes to enhance the effectiveness of the cracking reaction.Cracking Feed stocks to the ethylene unit 210 are ethane. Presence of steam and heat. at around 845°C. 4 .U-21 consists of Ten furnace. propane. changes to other hydrocarbons. Fresh feed and recycled are thermally cracked in the presence of steam in a ten SRTIII type heaters. Each heater is capable of processing feed from any one of the three feed headers and also capable for co-cracking for gas feed (ethane & propane ) and liquid feed (naphtha and recycle C4/C5). where the most desired overall reaction is: C2H6(g) → C2H4(g)+ H2(g) No. The feed is subjected to short residence time of extreme heat. nine Furnaces are normally in operation with the remaining heater as a spare. causing the splitting of the molecule into other hydrocarbons.
5 .Production Process Ethylene and other high value chemicals have been produced by the cracking reaction. The remainder of the process steps are to get the ethylene separated out so that it can be sent to the end user. Furnace cracking Feed charging Desired Product No. However it is mixed in with many different hydrocarbons. It needs to be separated out to get product that is over 99.9% pure.
and the water is used to raise dilution stream which is then returned to the cracking furnaces. against circulating quench water. The gasoline is used for reflux in the quench oil tower. The heat recovered in the quench water is used to reboil different exchanger.Quenching The cracked gas from the heaters is quenched to stop the undesired reaction such as : C2H4(g) + H2(g)→ C2H6(g) C2H6(g) + H2(g)→ C2H8(g) The heat from effluent gas is covered to heat boiler feed water in the transfer heat exchangers. The cracked gas is further cooled by direct injection of quench oil and then by passage up the quench oil tower where it is cooled by circulating quench oil and. gasoline and water are condensed out. The heat recovered in the quench oil is used to heat various other process streams. The cracked gas is further cooled in the quench water tower. No. in the top section. 6 . by a gasoline reflux stream. Also in the quench water tower.Production Process 2.
QUENCH SYSTEM TO COMPRESSORS 2C-1200 QUENCH WATER 2C-1202 2C-1201 2D-1212 FEED OIL & HEAVIES FUEL OIL OIL No. 7 .
8 . As the gas stream after compression is going to be cooled to temperatures as low as –100°C in the chilling train. The gas compression in this section of the plant occurs in five stages to compress the gas to a pressure of approx. The cracked gas stream from the quench tower is compressed using a centrifugal compressor. any remaining water would form ice compounds thereby blocking pipes and pipe strainers. 3500 KPa. No. The gas is cooled by heat exchangers between each stage of compression.Production Process 3.Compression and Chilling The purpose of this stage is to liquefied the effluent gas from quench tower prior to sent it to distillation columns for separation. This is necessary because when a gas is compressed without breaking up the compression steps it heats up and exposes the compressor to thermal stress and also fouling formation on the internal parts. and water and gasoline condensed.. the final compressor discharge is dried using molecular sieves desiccant to less than 1ppm water content. Treatment of the cracked gas to remove impurities occurs between the third and fourth stages of the compressor. the gas is scrubbed with a caustic soda solution to remove acid gases H2S and CO2 in the caustic tower. Therefore.
On one side of the heat exchanger is the dried compressed gas that needs to be cooled and on the other side of the heat exchanger is the refrigerant. liquid ethylene or propylene.Production Process The chilling train is a series of heat exchangers and cold box. which cools the gas. The cooling process condenses most of the methane and heavier hydrocarbons and leaves a hydrogen-rich stream. No. Neither stream comes into direct contact with the other. Hydrogen-rich gas flows through the pressure swing adsorption unit (PSA) for hydrogen purification to supply unit hydrogenated reactors with pure hydrogen and also export hydrogen to other user inside the plant. 9 . The excess hydrogen-rich gas and methane off gas are recovered and used as plant fuel.
6 Deg C STAGE 5 2D-1306 2D 1 3 3861 KPa 0 94.COMPRESSORS DRYER 2D-1351 A/B/C TO 2D-1305 2C-1302 TO 2C 1505 936.3 KPa 47. 10 .35 Deg C STAGE 4 2D 1 3 0 5 1919 KPa 38 Deg C 2D 1 3 0 9 TO CHILING TRAIN 1942 KPa 101.12 Deg C 7 No.
61.21 °C 2E-1405 2D 1 3 5 1 A B C .26.CHILLING TRAIN 2E-1412 .70.2 °C °C .69 °C 2E-1406 2E-1501 2E-1521 No.65 °C 2E-1413 .36 °C .2 °C 2D 1 4 0 1 .449 2E-1404 16 °C .75 °C 2E-1403 .18.47. 11 .34.60.
In the de-ethanizers. It is then sent to fuel mix drum to be used as fuel gas.9% purity hydrogen then the hydrogen is feed to the methanator. The demethanizer bottom is feed forward to the deethanizer. Liquid methane from demethanizer reflux pump discharge goes to methane ballast system for acetylene converting ethylene and the vapor is methane rich off gas.Distillation The condensed methane and heavier liquid stream flow to the distillation columns to separate out the different chemical compounds. 12 . which adsorb all impurities in the hydrogen and produced 99. The demethanizer reflux drum overhead goes to ethylene recovery unit#2 for ethylene recovery. The stream is then dried and sent to the acetylene converters and battery limits. Most of the hydrogen-rich stream flows through the pressure swing adsorption unit (PSA). the overhead is sent to the acetylene converter. where the acetylene is hydrogenated with a catalyst into ethylene. The demethanizer This stream is fed to the demethanizer column where the overhead liquid is used for reflux and cooling in the cold box. The refrigeration section chills the dried gas from the compressor section.Production Process 4. which is sent to fuel. C2H2(g) + H2(g)→ C2H4(g) No. The hydrogen-rich stream is used to provide low-level refrigeration.
or other sulfur compounds. and delivered to battery limits. (Green oil is a low-grade ethylene polymer) the absorber overhead vapor is then dried and fed to the ethylene splitter. The effluent from MAPD flows to C3 splitter to produce propylene and before leaving the unit the propylene is treated in a series of guard beds to remove any Arsine. The deethanizer bottom is fed to the two depropanizer towers to separates C3’s from the heavier hydrocarbons in the feed stream. No. superheated. Depropanizer overhead is selectively hydrogenated to convert methyl acetylene/propadiene (MAPD) to propylene in the MAPD reactor. Propane leaves the bottom of C3 splitter to furnace as recycled feed. The splitter is integrated with the ethylene refrigeration system and the column overheads eventually become ethylene product. and recycled as feed to cracking Furnace. superheated. Ethane leaves the bottom of the splitter and vaporized. 13 . which separates ethylene from ethane. COS. The ethylene product leaves the fractionators as a side stream liquid and then it is pumped.Production Process The vapor product from the convertor is cooled and sent to an absorber where green oil formed during the conversion is removed. vaporized.
The overhead stream is the mixed C4's /C5’s product which is sent to the C4/C5 reactor for total hydrogenation and then the hydrogenated steam is sent back to furnace for co-cracking with naphtha feed. 14 . Where a selective hydrogenation take place through two stage of reactors to eliminate the undesired component in pyrolysis gasoline product (Py-Gas) such as diolefins. diene and other unstable compounds. The bottoms from depentanizer is cooled. Py-Gas (C6-C8) product leaves the unit to Sabtank through pipeline as final product. styrene compounds. No.Production Process The depropnizer is diverted to depentanizer column to separate C4's /C5’s from the C6 and heavier fractions from the depropanizer bottoms and the Quench Water Settler. and sent to the Pyrolysis Gasoline Hydrogenation (DPG) Area. C9+ is transferred as fuel to boiler and wash oil is utilized as solvent inside U-210. The C9+ and wash oil are extracted from tailing tower at DPG area.
81 91.45 1.22 98.06 64.01 1.DEMETHANIZER 2C-1401 P CH4 A B C E P S H R K 60.89 S 2Y 1 4 0 A 1 D1 B 2Y-1401-E3 2D 1 4 0 2 C K D 2E-1408 2Y-1401-E4 E 2Y-1401-E1 2G-1401/S 2E-1412 R H 2E-1413 No.19 62.88 54.73 49.43 26.7 95.84 14.73 0.02 0 5. 15 .94 0.58 62.93 C2H4 31.
47 50 .94 0.94 2E-1503 P A S1 A S2 B 2Y-1401-E1 B 62.88 0 7.25 50 2G-1501/S P H 2E-1307 R2 2E-1502A/B H 2E-1502S No. 16 R1 2E-1501 S R 66.06 C3H7 7.06 70.2 0 0.DEETHANIZER 2C-1501 2D 1 5 0 1 C2H4 62.
33 45.9 0.56 66.06 39.37 66.35 0 0 B P B R S H H R . 17 A 2G-1510A/B From 2C-1501 bottom 50 8.79 25.09 0.DEPROPANIZER 2C-1505 2D-1510 2E-1525 P S C3H7 A C4H6 11.22 No.
04 0 56. 18 .33 0.DEPENTANIZER 2C-1506 2E-1528 O 2D-1513 P A From 2C-1505 bottom B C4H6 A B H&R 39.15 0.94 C6H6 19.24 0 2G-1512A/B 2G-1511A/B 2E-1529A/B 2E-1530 P&O H R No.57 59.
19 .Thank you No.