SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY

SOUTH EAST ASIAN ARCHITECTURE
South East Asian Countries MAINLAND Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Myanmar MARITIME Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Brunei, Singapore, Timor Leste

• • •

Diversity of cultural, historical and geographic influences. Mostly have a strong traditional character. All countries in SEA were at one time in history was ruled by a foreign power except for Thailand.
SOUTH EAST MODERN HISTORY

BACKGROUND

SOUTH EAST ASIAN ARCHITECTURE
Colonisation of South East Asian Countries • • colonisation brought along significant influence on building styles and techniques. The colonist first came to SEA in the 16th century as traders but eventually ruled over the region as they required more control over trade routes. This colonisation of mainland SEA took about 60 years, while maritime SEA it took 300 years.

The major changes brought by the colonisation of SEA mainly on :


• •

Creation of new boundaries that did not exist in the ancient SEA Empires.
Vast areas of land were transformed into rice fields, rubber plantations, tin mines etc Infrastructure such as roads and the railways were constructed to facilitate the economic and expansion that linked for the first time the SEA to the European market economy Colonisation also left a legacy of government based on western model. SOUTH EAST MODERN HISTORY

BACKGROUND

SOUTH EAST ASIAN ARCHITECTURE
Four Major Building Type Group:
• • • • Religious Architecture Traditional & Indigenous Architecture Colonial & Early Modern Era Contemporary Global Architecture

Modern Architecture in South East Asia cities
• • • Rapid population growth. Partly due to increase in life expectancy. A strong requisite to achieving and maintaining national unity and identity. In modern SEA there is also a departure from local traditional values.

Modern architecture in South East Asian city facing a crucial challenge between keeping up with latest trend or holding upon Asian value.
SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

INDONESIAN ARCHITECTURE
• • Reflects the diversity of cultural, historical and geographic influences. Invaders, colonisers, missionaries, merchants and traders brought cultural changes that had a significant effect on building styles and techniques. Significant foreign influence – Indian, Chinese, Arab & European.

INDONESIA

SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

INDONESIAN ARCHITECTURE
RELIGIOUS ARCHITECTURE


• • •

Religious architecture has been widespread in Indonesia & most developed in Java.
Uniquely Javanese styles Hindu, Buddhist, Islamic, and later Christian architecture. Large and sophisticated religious structures (candi) were built in Java during the peak of Indonesia's great Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms between the 8th and 14th centuries. • The earliest surviving Hindu temples in Java are at the Dieng Plateau. • Prambanan complex near Yogyakarta; second Kingdom of Mataram. • Borobudur was built by the Sailendra Dynasty between 750 and 850 AD,

With the decline of the Mataram Kingdom, Eastern Java became the focus of religious architecture.
SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

INDONESIA

INDONESIAN ARCHITECTURE
TRADITIONAL VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE

• Rumah adat - distinctive style of traditional house - unique to each ethnic group in Indonesia.
• Despite diversity characteristics: of styles common

• Timber construction.
• Varied and elaborate roof structures. • Post and beam construction. • Nail-less joints. Use mortis and tenon joints and wooden pegs. • Hardwood generally for post/column. • Combination of soft and hard wood for upper non-load bearing walls. • Wooden or bamboo walls • Thatch – coconut, sugar palm leaves, alang alang grass and rice straw.
INDONESIA SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

INDONESIAN ARCHITECTURE
TRADITIONAL VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE

• House provides the main focus for the family and its community.
• Traditional house are not designed by architect - villagers build their own homes under the direction of a master builder and/or a carpenter. • Common features throughout South East Asia and the South West Pacific, Indonesian traditional house are built on stilts (with the notable exceptions of Java and Bali) • A raised floor serves a number of purposes:

• Allows breeze to moderate the hot tropical temperatures.
• Elevates the dwelling above stormwater runoff and mud. • Allows houses to be built on rivers and wetland margins. • Keeps people, goods and food from dampness and moisture.

• Lifts living quarters above malaria-carrying mosquitos.
• Less affected by dry rot and termites.
INDONESIA SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

INDONESIAN ARCHITECTURE
TRADITIONAL VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE • Some significant and distinctive rumah adat include: • Batak House (North Sumatra) - boatshaped house of Toba Batak people, with dominating carved gables and dramatic oversized roof. • Minangkabau House of West Sumatra. Rumah Gadang, distinctive multiple gables with dramatically upsweeping ridge ends.

Batak House

Minangkabau House
INDONESIA SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

INDONESIAN ARCHITECTURE
TRADITIONAL VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE • Nias House. Built on massive ironwood pillars with towering roofs. Almost impregnable to attack but flexible nail-less construction provide proven earthquake durability. • Riau House – Village houses built on stilts over waterways. • Bubungan Tinggi, Banjarese South Kalimantan royalty and aristocrats house - Steeply pitched roofs, large homes. • Balinese Traditional House Collection of individual, open structures (separate structures for the kitchen, sleeping areas, bathing areas and shrine) within a highwalled garden compound.
INDONESIA

Nias House House
SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

TRADITIONAL HOUSE - INDONESIA

Fishing Village – Riau Archipelago

Bumbungan Tinggi - Banjar
INDONESIA SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

INDONESIAN ARCHITECTURE
TRADITIONAL VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE • Some significant and distinctive rumah adat include: • Lumbung House - Sasak people of Lombok - Bonnet-roofed rice barns, that are often more distinctive and elaborate than their houses. • Dayak People - traditionally live in communal longhouses that are built on stilts. The houses can exceed 300m in length, in some cases forming a whole village. • Toraja of Sulawesi - Renowned for Tongkonan, houses built on stilts and dwarfed by massive exaggerated-pitch saddle roofs.

Sasak Community

Toraja - Sulawesi
INDONESIA SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

INDONESIAN ARCHITECTURE
TRADITIONAL VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE • Rumah adat of Sumba have distinctive thatched "high hat" roofs and are wrapped with sheltered verandahs. • Dani of Papua live in small family compounds comprised of several circular huts known as honay with thatched dome roofs.

Dani of Papua Man

• Unlike most South East Asian vernacular homes, Javanese rumah adat are not built on stilt.
• Vernacular style most influenced by European architectural elements.

Javanese House
INDONESIA SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE - INDONESIA

Flores Community

Tongkonan House - Toraja
INDONESIA

Mentawai House
SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

INDONESIAN ARCHITECTURE
COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE

• The 16th and 17th centuries - arrival of European powers in Indonesia.
• Used masonry for much of their construction. • Previously, timber almost exclusively used in Indonesia, with the exception of some major religious and palace architecture. • One of the first major Dutch settlements was Batavia (Jakarta) in the 17th and 18th centuries. A fortified brick and masonry city. • For almost two centuries, the colonialists did little to adapt their European architectural habits to the tropical climate.

Sasak Community

Pre-war Bandung house. An example of 20th century Indonesian Dutch Colonial styles

INDONESIA

SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

INDONESIAN ARCHITECTURE
COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE

• Years later the Dutch learnt to adapt their architectural style with local building features (long eaves, verandahs, porticos, large windows and ventilation openings).
• The Indo-European hybrid villas of the 19th century would be among the first colonial buildings to incorporate Indonesian architectural elements and attempt adapting to the climate.

Ceremonial Hall, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung. End of 19th Century
INDONESIA SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

INDONESIAN ARCHITECTURE
COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE

• Modernistic buildings required for new development. Mostly were heavily influenced by international styles.
• These new buildings included train stations, business hotels, factories and office blocks, hospitals and education institutions. • The largest stock of colonial era buildings are in the large cities of Java, such as Bandung, Jakarta, Semarang, and Surabaya. • Bandung is of particular note with one of the largest remaining collections of 1920s Art-Deco buildings in the world.

INDONESIA

SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

INDONESIAN ARCHITECTURE
POST INDEPENDENCE ARCHITECTURE

• Early 20th modernisms are still very evident across much of Indonesia, mostly in Java.
• The 1930's world depression, restricted the development of the built environment.

Monas National Monument

• Further, the Javanese art-deco style from the 1920s became the root for the first Indonesian national style in the 1950s.
• Political turbulent 1950s - Indonesia unable to afford the new international movements such as modernist brutalism. • Continuity from the the 1920s and 30s through to the 1950s was further supported Indonesian planners. • Despite the new country's economic woes, government-funded major projects were undertaken in the modernist style, particularly in the capital Jakarta.
INDONESIA

Istiqlal Mosque
SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

MODERN ARCHITECTURE - INDONESIA

INDONESIA

SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE - INDONESIA

INDONESIA

SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE - INDONESIA

INDONESIA

SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE - INDONESIA

INDONESIA

SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

Reunification Palace, Vietnam

ARCHITECTURE OF SINGAPORE
• Displays a range of influences and styles from different places and periods. • These range from: • Eclectic Styles and hybrid forms of the colonial period • Contemporary Architecture incorporate trends from around the world. • In both aesthetic and technological terms, Singapore architecture may be divided into: • Traditional pre-World War II colonial period. • Modern post-war and post-colonial period.

SINGAPORE

SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE OF SINGAPORE
TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE IN SINGAPORE

• Vernacular Malay houses.
• Local hybrid shophouses • Colonial black & white bungalows • Traditional places of worship

• Colonial Civic & Commercial architecture (neo- classical, gothic, palladian & renaissance styles)

MODERN ARCHITECTURE IN SINGAPORE • Began with the transitional Art Deco style. • International Style - from 1950s to 1970s, especially in public housing apartment blocks. • Brutalist style - popular in the 1970s. Coincided with the great urban renewal & booming periods. Most common architectural styles seen on the island.
SINGAPORE SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

SINGAPORE ARCHITECTURE
RELIGIOUS ARCHITECTURE

Thian Hock Keng Temple

Chee Tong Temple

SINGAPORE

SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

SINGAPORE ARCHITECTURE
RELIGIOUS ARCHITECTURE

Assyafaah Mosque Sultan Mosque
SINGAPORE SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

SINGAPORE ARCHITECTURE
COLONIAL ERA ARCHITECTURE

Singapore Museum

Fullerton Hotel Lai Chun Yuan opera house
SINGAPORE SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE OF SINGAPORE
• MODERN ARCHITECTURE IN SINGAPORE

• Post-modern architecture experiments, either 'historicist' or deconstructivist - made an appearance in the 1980s. Relatively muted in its expression.
• Conservation programme of historic buildings, often adapting them to new uses. • From the late 1990s, Singapore government consciously pursue to develop 'iconic' landmarks, as a means to: Golden Mile Complex

• Strengthening Singapore brand identity
• Attract foreign tourists • Skilled immigrants • Investments

• Buzz.

SINGAPORE

SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE OF SINGAPORE
• MODERN ARCHITECTURE IN SINGAPORE • Several such landmark projects have since been developed. • Sometimes through open or closed architectural design competitions. These include: • The Esplanade - Theatres on the Bay arts centre, • The Supreme Court of Singapore • The new National Library, Singapore • Marina Bay Sands Integrated Resort • The Singapore Flyer

SINGAPORE

SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE OF SINGAPORE

Old Supreme Court

New Supreme Court

SINGAPORE

SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE OF SINGAPORE
Marina Bay Sands Integrated Resort

ARCHITECTURE OF SINGAPORE

SINGAPORE

SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE OF SINGAPORE

SINGAPORE

SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE OF SINGAPORE

• Can the Architecture of South East Asia countries retain their individual identities, the product of a rich and complex cultural, religious, geographical and historical influences ?

SINGAPORE

SOUTH EAST ASIAN MODERN HISTORY

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