GIS IN TRANSPORTATION
Presenting By Somesh MU 110950009
• • • • • • • • • • • •
Introduction Objectives Need for data and systems integration Advantages of data Integration Role of GIS in Transportation GIS Models Used in Transportation GIS-T Data Representations GIS-T Analysis and Modeling GIS-T applications GIS and Transportation Case Studies Challenges for GIS-T Conclusions and Recommendations
• A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a collection of computer software, hardware, data, and personnel used to store, manipulate, analyze, and present geographically referenced information. • Geographic Information systems (GIS) represent a powerful new means to efficiently manage and integrate the numerous types of information necessary for the planning, design, construction, analysis, operation, maintenance, and administration of transportation systems and facilities.
• Secondly it is intended to point out the need for Geographic Information Systems in Transportation and • To explore the applications of GIS in transportation.
• The primary objective of this paper is to bring forth the importance of the need for data and systems integration within transportation agencies and across multiple units of government.
• This causes problems with integration at the functionalarea level or interagency level. has often been application-specific or even project-specific.
. and most other government agencies. information systems and database development within most transportation agencies.THE NEED FOR DATA AND SYSTEMS INTEGRATION
• In the past.
and. nearly all of the data managed by transportation agencies in general are.
. in fact. the Clear Air Act. the Hazardous Waste Act. or can be and should be geographically referenced.THE NEED FOR DATA AND SYSTEMS INTEGRATION CONT…
• All of the data required by the ISTEA management and monitoring systems. • Therein lies the key to integration.
.ADVANTAGES OF DATA INTEGRATION
• Benefits of data integration include data-collection cost reduction. data maintenance cost reduction. • As an integrated system grows. improved data reliability. the cost of providing the linkage is rapidly offset by the value of the increase in information that the system provides. and most important applications not otherwise possible. • Integration generally makes it possible to study many relationships among two or more data elements.
software. people. analyzing.
.. storing. 1993).e. transportation systems and geographic regions) about the Earth (Vonderohe et al. and institutional arrangements for collecting. data. and communicating particular types of information (i. organizations.ROLE OF GIS IN TRANSPORTATION
• Geographic information systems for transportation (GIS-T) can be defined as interconnected hardware.
. transportation impact analysis. design and management. and public transit planning and operations to intelligent transportation systems (ITS). from infrastructure planning. traffic safety analysis.ROLE OF GIS IN TRANSPORTATION CONT…
• GIS-T applications are currently used broadly by transportation analysts and decision makers in different areas of transportation planning and engineering.
roads.. three classes of GIS models are used in transportation.. lines or polygons) populate space (e.g.
. urbanized areas). • Network models to represent topologically-connected linear entities (e. land elevation).GIS MODELS USED IN TRANSPORTATION
• In general. depending on which discrete entities (points. toll barriers. rail lines.g. which include:
• Field models of the continuous variation of a phenomenon over space (e. or airlines) that are fixed in the continuous reference surface.g.
• Discrete models..
GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR TRANSPORTATION (GIS-T)
In general. topics related to GIS-T studies can be grouped into three categories:
• GIS-T Data Representations
• GIS-T Analysis and Modeling • GIS-T applications
For example linear referencing data (e.. Vector GIS therefore are better candidates for such transportation network representations.GIS-T DATA REPRESENTATIONS
• GIS-T studies have employed both vector and raster GIS data models to represent the relevant geographic data. highway mileposts) cannot be properly handled by the 2-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system used in most GIS data models. • Some transportation problems tend to fit better with one type of GIS data model than the other.
. network analysis represents a network as a set of nodes interconnected with a set of links.g. • There also exist other types of transportation data that require extensions to the general GIS data models. For example.
we still face many challenges of developing better GIS data models that will improve rather than limit what we can do with different types of transportation studies. • Existing GIS data models provide a good foundation of supporting many GIS-T applications.
• However. one critical component of GIS-T is how we can best represent transportation-related data in a GIS environment in order to facilitate and integrate the needs of various transportation applications.GIS-T DATA REPRESENTATIONS CONT…
• In short. due to some unique characteristics of transportation data.
GIS-T ANALYSIS AND MODELING
Like many other fields. Examples include • shortest path and routing algorithms. and
• land use-transportation interaction models. • network flow problems. • travel demand models. transportation has developed its own unique analysis methods and models. • spatial interaction models. • facility location problems.
Marketing Manage Land Records Trade Area Analysis Customer Profiling
Urban Planning Risk Analysis
Asset Management Site Selection
and • intelligent transportation systems (ITS). • transportation safety analysis. • travel demand analysis. • design and management.GIS-T APPLICATIONS CONT…
• GIS-T applications covered much of the broad scope of transportation. such as
• infrastructure planning. • public transit planning and operations. • environmental impacts assessment.
. • hazards mitigation. • traffic monitoring and control.
Applications of GIS-T are highly appreciated in major fields like:
• • • • • Aviation Fleet Management and Logistics Highways and Streets Mass Transit Railroads
. including roadways and railways.GIS-T APPLICATIONS CONT…
• • • • Transportation facilities. are planned and managed using GIS. Both passengers and freight shipments arrive on schedule and more safely. Public and private fleets are being made more efficient and effective through the application of GIS. bridges and tunnels. due to the growing number of GIS-based information systems. air and sea ports.
and to plan re-routing and contingency plans for weatherrelated or other emergencies. and defense-related airfields use GIS to
• • • • • • Manage facilities. emergency. both airside and landside Model and monitor noise Facilitate environmental compliance Manage construction and maintenance Improve airside parking operations Track flight paths
Airlines and flight control groups use GIS to analyze routes and capacities. capacities.
GIS provides an excellent means of visualizing flight paths.AVIATION
Commercial. or noise contours.
Remaining competitive often means slashing wasteful spending and building a capacity for "just-in-time" inventory management.
GIS can provide this critical information. and profitability all stand to gain. pickup. effective deployment.
Knowing where a vehicle. competitive position. Customer satisfaction. Efficient operations require accurate. timely decision making.
. timely response. or delivery is at any given time leverages assets for optimum deployment and cost savings.FLEET MANAGEMENT AND LOGISTICS
The process of delivering goods and services to market is changing as corporations restructure distribution channels and re-engineer inefficient practices.
which may be the critical factor leading to a decision about design. construction.
• GIS can be used to determine the location of an event or asset and its relationship or proximity to another event or asset. at any stage of development.HIGHWAYS AND STREETS
• Transportation infrastructure represents one of the largest and most critical investments made in any nation. or maintenance.
. • The movement of people and goods either domestically or internationally is vital to every aspect of that economy.
current location. and riders can make better decisions about their jobs and transportation when they have reliable information. emergency situations and locations. • Information on bus routes.MASS TRANSIT
• Improving the mobility of today's citizens is a great challenge for public transit operators.
• Drivers. and employment centers are all factors that can be used to improve transit performance. demographic changes. route planners. subway stop location. dispatchers. management personnel. maintenance workers.
. track condition.
MASS TRANSIT CONT…
• GIS is successfully used for
• Route planning and analysis • Bus dispatch and emergency response • Automatic vehicle location and tracking • Bus stop and facility inventory • Rail system facility management
• Accident reporting and analysis
• Demographic analysis and route restructuring • Ridership analysis and reporting • Transportation planning and modeling
Railways around the world find great utility in using GIS. power. and signaling Asset tracking Emergency response management Environmental and construction management Intermodal management Passenger information Capacity planning Site selection Risk management
. Major functions or disciplines in which GIS has been successfully deployed in railway organizations include • • • • • • • • • • Real estate management Facility management: track.
GIS AND TRANSPORTATION CASE STUDIES
Case Study 1: To define the best route for the buses • The Crestwood School District. It dealt with the complexities of transportation data and the potential impacts on land area and how demographic information contained within the area affect the transportation infrastructure. has asked for a revised bus route and schedule to run a newly developed Summer Program. and optimal bus usage. Michigan.
. The primary focus is to define the best route for the buses in the school district according to predefined conditions such as demographic data. administrative considerations. In this Case Study. ArcView's Network Analyst extension tool is used.
• A screen shot of the map is automatically captured and sent to a dedicated Web site workstation.
. joins it with the map. • They wrote the continuous-loop ArcView program in Avenue that regularly captures the speed data from a text file. and then refreshes the map display to show the different colors that represent real-time speeds.CASE STUDY 2: SAN DIEGO REAL TIME FREEWAY SPEEDS TRACKED WITH GIS
• The Real Time Freeway Speeds application is a joint venture between District Traffic Operations staff and District Planning GIS staff. • They related the highway segments on the map to the locations of speed data collectors and created the ArcView framework.
. • SHA is responsible for building and maintaining a safe. pavements.500 bridges. bridges. highways. and secondary roads and more than 2. primary. efficient highway system for the entire State of Maryland.CASE STUDY 3: MARYLAND DOT ROLLS OUT A HIGHWAY MONITORING APPLICATION
• State Highway Administration integrates five significant data sets-accidents.000 lane miles of interstate. and traffic control devices-into one GIS-based application to improve transportation planning and analysis within the agency. • The Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) rolled out a new ArcView GIS-based application to improve transportation planning and analysis within the agency. • This includes managing more than 16.
000 records for bridges and other structures like noise walls and retaining walls. speed limits. as well as high-accident intersections and road sections.000 records for devices like traffic signals. highways. traffic sensors. pavements. • The pavement database includes information about pavement construction history.
• The accident data set includes all accidents recorded during the past five years. • The bridge database includes more than 6. and traffic control devices.CASE STUDY 3 CONT…
• SHA developed five significant digital data sets containing data on accidents. bridges. and average traffic volume. friction. • The Highway database includes road characteristics like number of lanes. • The traffic control device database includes close to 5. and variable-message signs.
. and ruts.
CASE STUDY 4: VIRGINIA DEPT. OF TRANSPORTATION MAPS ITS FUTURE WITH GIS
The Cartography Department recognized the need for a fully automated mapping program to facilitate accurate and efficient map production.
. VDOT decided to develop their GIS base data using ESRI's ArcInfo software with the flexibility to support data transfer to the department's existing cartography software. They also recognized a unique opportunity for the entire agency to establish a base-level GIS road network for those roads included within the VDOT maintenance system in addition to fulfilling the mapping needs. This required a database design effort in which ArcInfo coverage files would be sufficiently normalized and attributed to retain a similar "look and feel" in both the ArcInfo environment and the department's CAD software.
• The information was then incorporated into an ArcInfo LIBRARIAN tiling scheme based on jurisdictional (county and city) boundaries. traffic volume data. and inventory elements like current road conditions.CASE STUDY 4 CONT…
• After the initial data compilation and quality control process. each county data set was edge matched to produce a seamless transportation network database. VDOT demonstrated GIS-T functionality between the GIS data and VDOT's legacy road tracking systems in an ArcView GIS environment.
• In addition to developing GIS data files. and other critical information were incorporated.
. • Event themes. segment data.
and Distributed computing (need for more powerful analytical tools to fit the limited distributed computing resources)
. and dynamic routing algorithms) Large data sets (need for pioneering system designs). and data quality/exchange standards) Real-time GIS-T (need for access data models. error models in transportation data.CHALLENGES FOR GIS-T
Thill (2000) categorized major GIS challenges brought by suffix “T” as follows:
• • Legacy data management system (need for data integration) Data interoperability (need for map matching algorithms. spatial data combination techniques.
Often. technology. and full benefits could be realized only if data were viewed as a “corporate” resource. these datasets have diverse origins in individual divisions. and institutions represented the three primary considerations that had to be addressed to promote the implementation of GIS-T.CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
• From the potentials for GIS-T. it is concluded that data. • It is concluded that a geographic referencing scheme was a highly viable means to organize these data. lack common location reference schemes. and suffer from poor data definition and lineage tracking making their integration difficult. Hence. • It was found that transportation agencies own numerous datasets.
. the uses and costs of GIS should be shared throughout an agency.
DOTs are often in a position to play a leadership role in this regard. not for its own sake and not because it is likely to serve some good.CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS CONT…
• The DOT strategies for adaptation and exploitation of information technology should be needs-driven rather than technology-driven. well-defined needs. New technology should be adopted and used because it meets specific. • DOT GIS-T plans should address staffing and training issues. A GIS-T implementation team and core staff should be identified. but ill-defined purpose. • Coordination with other state agencies should be an integral part of the DOT GIS-T planning process.