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Presented By
Aparna Mahato Aprajita Puri Ridhika Kundra Saurav Swaraj Soumita Mukherjee Sukriti Sharma

What is an attitude?
the way we think, feel, and act toward some aspect of our environment Hawkins, Best and Coney a learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object Fishbein & Ajzen

Attitudes are a learned predisposition Attitudes have consistency Attitudes occur within a situation

Characteristics of Attitudes
Difficult to measure
Indicated by behavior, reactions to individual situations, social values

May create inflexibility and stereotypes

Based on inconsistencies, incorrect assumptions or other false data

Demonstrated by behavior

Formed largely from the continuous process of socialization Positive or negative Once formed not easily changed Attitudes may be affected by age, position, and education

Attitude Formation
How attitudes are learned Conditioning and experience Knowledge and beliefs Sources of influence on attitude formation Personal experience Influence of family Direct marketing and mass media Personality factors

Attitude Formation and Attitude Change

Direct Instruction Involves being told what attitudes to have by parents,schools, Community, organizations, religion,friends, etc.

Operant Conditioning It is based on the Law of Effect and involves voluntary responses. Behaviors (including verbal behaviors and maybe even thoughts) tend to be repeated if they are reinforced (i.e., followed by a positive experience). Conversely, behaviors tend to be stopped when they are punished (i.e., followed by an unpleasant experience).

Classical conditioning It is another simple form of learning. It involves involuntary responses and is acquired through the pairing of two stimuli. Two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become fused and before long the person responds in the same way to both events.
Social (Observational) Learning It is based on modeling. We observe others. If they are getting reinforced for certain behaviors or the expression of certain attitudes, this serves as vicarious reinforcement and makes it more likely that we, too, will behave in this manner or express this attitude.

Cognitive Dissonance It exists when related cognitions, feelings or behaviors are inconsistent or contradictory. Cognitive dissonance creates an unpleasant state of tension that motivates people to reduce their dissonance by changing their cognitions, feeling, or behaviors. For example, a person who starts out with a negative attitude toward marijuana will experience cognitive dissonance if they start smoking marijuana and find themselves enjoying the experience. Rational Analysis It involves the careful weighing of evidence for, and against, a particular attitude. For example, a person may carefully listen to the presidential debates and read opinions of political experts in order to decide which candidate to vote for in an election.

Strategies of Attitude Change

Changing the Basic Motivational Function
Associating the Product with an Admired Group or Event
Red & White Bravery Awards ITC with Sports Eye Donation and Ashiwarya Rai

Resolving Two Conflicting Attitudes

By making consumers see that their negative attitudes towards a product, a specific brand or its attributes is really not in conflict with another attitude, they may be induced to change their evaluation of the brand. Eg. Tea Consumption

Altering Components of the Multiattribute Model

(1) Changing the relative Evaluation of the Attributes: Persuade consumers to view a attribute in a more positive/negative light. (2) Adding an Attribute: Adding an attribute that has been previously ignored or one that reflects an improvement or technological innovation

Changing Beliefs about Competitors Brands

Changing Brand Beliefs: Most common form of advertising appeal. Reminding consumers that the brand/product has more of a certain attribute or is better

Structural Models of Attitudes

Tricomponent Attitude Model Multiattribute Attitude Model The Trying-to-Consume Model Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model

Tricomponent Attitude Model

Affective Component - This consists of the emotional reactions people have to attitude objects. For instance, if you have a favorite singer and you hear their voice come on the radio you might have feelings of happiness or excitement. If there is a car you think is ugly looking you might feel annoyed when you spot one on the road. Behavioral Component - This consists of actions or observable behavior that is the result of an attitude object. If you hear a song you like on the radio then you might go home and research the singer so you can buy their album. You might then spend all your free time listening to this album. The attitude object has changed your behavior and actions. Cognitive Component These are the thoughts and beliefs people have about an attitude object. For instance, you might like a singer because he or she has a melodic voice and catchy lyrics. You might also believe that the singer is a lot like you are which makes the music easier to relate to.

Multiattribute Attitude Model

Attitude models that examine the composition of consumer attitudes in terms of selected product attributes or beliefs.

The Trying-to-Consume Model

An attitude theory designed to account for the many cases where the action or outcome is not certain but instead reflects the consumers attempt to consume (or purchase).

Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model
A model that proposes that a consumer forms various feelings (affects) and judgments (cognitions) as the result of exposure to an advertisement, which, in turn, affect the consumers attitude toward the ad and attitude toward the brand.

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