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Community Interactions

Forest of New Guinea
 Community

includes nine species of

pigeons that partition the food supply
 Pigeons

disperse seeds of the trees

that provide their food (fruit)
 These

are just a few of the many

interactions that shape this community

Community 
 All the populations that live together in a 

habitat
 Habitat is the type of place where 

individuals of a species typically live 
 Type of habitat shapes a community’s 

structure

Factors Shaping Community Structure
 Climate

and topography foods and resources of species in community

 Available

 Adaptations  Species  Arrival

interactions disturbances

and disappearance of species

 Physical

Question 1
 1.A(n)

______ is the type of place  where individuals of a species typically  live.

Answer 1
 1.A

habitat is the type of place where  individuals of a species typically live.

Question 2
 2.

All the populations that live together in  a habitat is known as the _________.

Answer 2
 2.

All the populations that live together in  a habitat is known as the community.

Question 3
3. Cite three (3) factors which shape community structure. There are several.

Answer 3
3. Cite three (3) factors which shape community structure. There are several.
     

Climate and topography Available foods and resources Adaptations of species in community Species interactions Arrival and disappearance of species Physical disturbances

Niche
Sum of activities and relationships in which a species engages to secure and use resources necessary for survival and reproduction

Realized & Fundamental Niches
 Fundamental

niche

– Theoretical niche occupied in the absence of any competing species
 Realized  Realized

niche

– Niche a species actually occupies

niche is some fraction of the fundamental niche

Species Interactions
 Most

interactions are neutral; have

no effect on either species
 Commensalism

helps one species

and has no effect on the other
 Mutualism

helps both species

Species Interactions
 Interspecific

competition has a

negative effect on both species
 Predation

and parasitism both benefit

one species at a cost to another

Symbiosis
 Living

together for at least some part

of the life cycle
 Commensalism,

mutualism, and

parasitism are forms of symbiosis

Mutualism
 Both species benefit  Many examples in nature  Some mutualisms are obligatory; 

partners depend upon each other

Yucca and Yucca Moth
 Example  Each

of an obligatory mutualism

species of yucca is pollinated

only by one species of moth
 Moth

larvae can grow only in that

one species of yucca

Mycorrhizae
 Obligatory

mutualism between

fungus and plant root
 Fungus  Root

supplies mineral ions to root

supplies sugars to fungus

Laccaria bicolor basidioma developing on a Pinus strobus seedling under controlled environment.

Question 4
4. Define niche.

Answer 4

4. Define niche. Sum of activities and relationships in which a species engages to secure and use resources necessary for survival and reproduction (Its role in the environment).

Question 5
 5.

What is mutualism? Give an example.

Answer 5
 5.

What is mutualism? Give an example. close relationship where both species benefit. moth and Yucca

A

 Yucca

Question 6
 6.

What is commensalism? Give an example.

Answer 6
 6.

What is commensalism? Give an example.

 Commensalism

helps one species and has no effect on the other  Snail and shrimp

Competition
 Interspecific ­ between species  Intraspecific ­ between members of the 

same species
 Intraspecific competition is most intense

Forms of Competition
 Competitors

may have equal access

to a resource; compete to exploit resource more effectively
 One

competitor may be able to

control access to a resource, to exclude others

Question 7
 7.

There are two major types of competition. What are they?

Answer 7
 7.

There are two major types of competition. What are they? within the species between species

 Intraspecific:  Interspecific:

Question 8
 8.

How do river otters reduce intraspecific competition?

Answer 8
 8.

How do river otters reduce intraspecific competition? avoid each other (partition the river).

 They

Competitive Exclusion Principle
When two species compete for identical resources, one will be more successful and will eventually eliminate the other

Resource Partitioning

Apparent competitors may actually have slightly different niches

Species may use resources in a different way or time

Minimizes competition and

Question 9
 9.

Define competitive exclusion principle.

Answer 9
 9.

Define competitive exclusion principle. two species compete for identical resources, one will be more successful and will eventually eliminate the other.

 When

Question 10
 10.

What is the adaptive advantage of resource partitioning?

Answer 10
 10.

What is the adaptive advantage of resource partitioning? competition and allows coexistence

 Minimizes

Predation
 Predators are animals that feed on other 

living organisms
 Predators are free­living; they do not 

take up residence on their prey

Coevolution
 Natural

selection promotes traits that

help prey escape predation
 It

also promotes traits that make

predators more successful at capturing prey

Predator-Prey Cycles
 Predator

and prey populations may show an apparent correspondence
PREY POPULATION

PREDATOR POPULATION

Variation in Cycles
 An

association in predator and prey

abundance does not always indicate a cause and effect relationship
 Variations

in food supply and

additional predators may also influence changes in prey abundance

Prey Defenses
 Camouflage  Warning coloration  Mimicry  Moment­of­truth defenses

Stay Out of Harm’s Way…
 

Fri Feb 17, 12:35 AM ET CANBERRA (Reuters) - A tiger's roar might be scary, but Australian researchers have found that the predator's poo is just as potent. Researchers at the University of Queensland said on Friday they had successfully trialled a tiger poo repellant, warding off wild goats for at least three days. "Goats wouldn't have seen a tiger from an evolutionary point of view for at least 15 generations but they recognize the smell of the predator," repellent creator Peter Murray said in a statement.

 

Predator Responses
 Any

adaptation that protects prey

may select for predators that can overcome that adaptation
 Predator

adaptations include stealth,

camouflage, and ways to avoid chemical repellents

Question 11
 11.

How are predators different from parasites?

Answer 11
 11.

How are predators different from parasites?

 Predators are free­living; they do not 

take up residence on their prey.

Question 12
 12.

What are two examples of predator responses?

Answer 12
 12.

What are two examples of predator responses? adaptations include

 Predator

stealth, camouflage, and ways to avoid chemical repellents

Parasitism
 Parasites drain nutrients from their 

hosts and live on or in their bodies
 Natural selection favors parasites that 

do not kill their host too quickly

Types of Parasites
 Microparasites  Macroparasites  Social

parasites

 Parasitoids

Social Parasites
Once limited to grasslands, brown - headed cowbirds have extended their range to all 48 contiguous states and Canada. They are a major threat to songbirds.

“Of 220 species known to have been parasitized by Brown-headed Cowbirds, and 144 have raised young Brown-headed Cowbirds successfully.” http://www.birds.cornell.edu/bfl/speciesaccts/parasites.html

Male butterflies of the genus, Pieris, pass an anti-aphrodisiac during mating to females. This chemical, benzyl cyanide, renders the mated females less attractive to other males. This strategy tends to maximize the mating males chances of getting their genes into the next generation. Or so it was thought….

Chemical communication: Butterfly anti-aphrodisiac lures parasitic wasps

The female wasps are attracted to the anti-aphrodisiac of the mated female butterflies. Often they will hitch a ride on the female butterfly. When butterfly lays her eggs, the wasp inserts her egg into the butterfly egg. The larval wasp eats its host alive.

The Wasp highjacks the Sexual Communication Signal of the Butterfly

A Serve Limitation on the Butterfly Populations

This parasitism constrains the butterfly populations. “If this fascinating strategy is wide spread in nature, it could severely constrain the evolution of sexual communication between hosts.” The wasp is tiny (.5 mm). It is located below the eye Of the butterfly.
NATURE|VOL433|17 FEBRUARY 2005| page 704

HONG KONG (AFP) - A Hong Kong woman hiker who washed her face in a freshwater stream unwittingly returned home with a leech embedded in her left nostril.
“Doctors finally managed to remove it using a nasal spray to anaesthetise the five-centimetre-long (two-inch) bloodsucker a month after it had invaded her nostril.” 4/15/05

Bloodsucking leech spends month up Hong Kong hiker's nose

Question 13
 13.

Name three types of parasites.

Answer 13

13. Name three types of parasites. Microparasites Macroparasites Social parasites Parasitoids

   

Question 14
 14.

Compare and contrast parasitoids and social parasites.

Answer 14

14. Compare and contrast parasitoids and social parasites.

Parasitoids lay their eggs in the body of the host where they develop, mature and eventually kill their hosts.  Social parasites lay their eggs in their host’s nest, where the host cares for the young.

Succession
Change in the composition of species  over time

Types of Succession
 Primary

succession - new

environments
 Secondary

succession -

communities were destroyed or displaced

Species Introductions
 Introduction

of a nonindigenous

species can decimate a community
 No

natural enemies or controls outcompete native species

 Can

Pioneer Species
 Species  Lichens,

that colonize barren habitats small plants with brief life

cycles
 Improve

conditions for other species

who then replace them

Climax Community
 Stable

array of species that persists does not always move

relatively unchanged over time
 Succession

predictably toward a specific climax community; other stable communities may persist

Cyclic Changes
 Cyclic,

nondirectional changes also

shape community structure
 Tree

falls cause local patchiness in periodically destroy underbrush

tropical forests
 Fires

in sequoia forests

Restoration Ecology
 Natural

restoration of a damaged

community can take a very long time
 Active

restoration is an attempt to are actively working to

reestablish biodiversity in an area
 Ecologists

restore reefs, grasslands, and wetlands

Community Instability
 Disturbances can cause a community 

to change in ways that persist even if  the change is reversed

Species Introductions
 Introduction

of a nonindigenous

species can decimate a community
 No

natural enemies or controls outcompete native species

 Can

Exotic Species
 Species that has left its home range 

and become established elsewhere
 Becomes part of its new community  Can have beneficial, neutral, or harmful 

effects on a community

Accidental Release….

“The native distribution of the red lionfish is restricted to appropriate reef habitats of the Indo-Pacific. Recently, a number of specimens of red lionfish have been observed and/or captured off the eastern coast of the United States in various locales from Florida to New York. Its presence in these waters may stem from the release of captive specimens along the southeast coast of the United States.”

www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/Gallery/Descript/RedLionfish/RLionfish.html

Predators in Paradise
EVERGLADES NATIONAL PARK, Florida (CNN) (10/22/04) -- A dangerous intruder has invaded Everglades National Park, and it's putting the native wildlife at risk.

Shirt of missing camper!

Python Invasion Spawns Cottage Industry
Python-Tracking Puppy Trains to Patrol Everglades  Stefan Lovgren for National Geographic News

February 3, 2005  In their growing battle against giant pythons that have invaded the Florida Everglades, national park officials there have recruited an unlikely ally: a beagle puppy nicknamed "Python Pete."

Nile Monitors
 “Recently

(Sept. 2005) a small population of around 1000 Nile Monitors have begun to rise in the area around Cape Coral Florida. They are most likely the offspring of a few Monitors let free by local pet owners.”
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nile_monitor

Wis. Residents Seek Legalized Cat Hunting
Feral cats, which volunteers have been feeding for the past 10 years, feed in Anoka, Minn., Feb. 21, 2005. A new Wisconsin plan would declare free-roaming wild cats an unprotected species, just like skunks or gophers. Anyone with a smallgame license could shoot the cats at will, legally.
The proposal gets tested April 11 at the Wisconsin Conservation Congress spring hearings, where outdoor enthusiasts gather in every county to vote on hunting and fishing issues. (AP Photo/St. Paul
Pioneer Press, Joe Rossi)

Africanized Killer Flea Invasion
 ATLANTA—Panic is spreading among American dog
owners, following the Center for Veterinary Medicine's Monday announcement that the arrival of a deadly mutant strain of Africanized killer fleas is imminent.

Crossed Texas Border in 2004
Bred in Brazil at the Sao Paulo Animal Research Facility in the late '60s, Ctenocephalides canis africanus is a crossbreed of the common North American flea and an African variant that infests the tough hides of bull elephants. The Sao Paulo entomologists never meant to release the mutant fleas into the wild, but a 1974 fire at the lab led to the dangerous subspecies' escape. In the past 30 years, Africanized fleas spread from Brazil to South and Central America and on to Mexico.

Accidental Release….

“The native distribution of the red lionfish is restricted to appropriate reef habitats of the Indo-Pacific. Recently, a number of specimens of red lionfish have been observed and/or captured off the eastern coast of the United States in various locales from Florida to New York. Its presence in these waters may stem from the release of captive specimens along the southeast coast of the United States.”

www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/Gallery/Descript/RedLionfish/RLionfish.html

Endangered Species
A

species that is extremely

vulnerable to extinction
 Close

to 70 percent of endangered

species have been negatively affected by exotic competitors

Nile Perch in East Africa
 Nile

perch were introduced into Lake predator ate native cichlids; Nile perch species is close to

Victoria as a food source
 This

drove many species to extinction
 Now

crashing

Rabbits in Australia
 Rabbits

were introduced for food and predators, their numbers

hunting
 Without

soared
 Attempts

at control using fences or viruses have thus far been unsuccessful

Kudzu in Georgia
 Imported  No

for erosion control

natural herbivores, pathogens, or competitors over landscapes and cannot be dug up or burned out turn out to have some commercial use

 Grows  May

Poem About Kudzu by James Dickey
  

 

ALL: Kudzu Japan invades. Far Eastern vines Run from the clay banks they are Supposed to keep from eroding. Up telephone poles, Which rear, half out of leafage As though they would shriek, Like things smothered by their own Green, mindless, unkillable ghosts. In Georgia, the legend says That you must close your windows At night to keep it out of the house. The glass is tinged with green, even so, As the tendrils crawl over the fields. … and so on …

http://www.breakoutofthebox.com/kudzu.htm

Diversity by Latitude
 Diversity of most groups is greatest in 

tropics; declines toward poles

Ant  diversity

Why Are Tropical Species Rich?
 Resources are plentiful and reliable    Species diversity is self­reinforcing  Rates of speciation are highest in the 

tropics

Distance Effect
 The

farther an island is from a islands receive more that reach islands far from

mainland, the fewer species
 Closer

immigrants
 Species

mainland are adapted for longdistance dispersal and can move on