DWDM Networking Primer

October 2003

ONS 15454 MSTP

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Agenda

• Introduction • Optical Fundamentals • Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Optical Fundamentals

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Some terminology
• Decibels (dB): unit of level (relative measure)
X dB is 10-X/10 in linear dimension e.g. 3 dB Attenuation = 10-.3 = 0.501 Standard logarithmic unit for the ratio of two quantities. In optical fibers, the ratio is power and represents loss or gain.

• Decibels-milliwatt (dBm) : Decibel referenced to a milliwatt
X mW is 10×log10(X) in dBm, Y dBm is 10Y/10 in mW. 0dBm=1mW, 17dBm = 50mW

• Wavelength (λ): length of a wave in a particular medium. Common unit: nanometers, 10-9m (nm)
300nm (blue) to 700nm (red) is visible. In fiber optics primarily use 850, 1310, & 1550nm

• Frequency (ν ): the number of times that a wave is produced within a particular time period. Common unit: TeraHertz, 1012 cycles per second (Thz)
Wavelength x frequency = Speed of light ⇒
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λ xν =C

Some more terminology
• Attenuation = Loss of power in dB/km
The extent to which lighting intensity from the source is diminished as it passes through a given length of fiber-optic (FO) cable, tubing or light pipe. This specification determines how well a product transmits light and how much cable can be properly illuminated by a given light source.

• Chromatic Dispersion = Spread of light pulse in
The separation of light into its different coloured rays.

ps/nm-km

• ITU Grid = Standard set of wavelengths to be used in Fibre Optic communications. Unit Ghz, e.g. 400Ghz, 200Ghz, 100Ghz • Optical Signal to Noise Ration (OSNR) = Ratio of optical signal power to noise power for the receiver • Lambda = Name of Greek Letter used as Wavelength symbol (λ) • Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC) = Management channel
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dB versus dBm

• dBm used for output power and receive sensitivity (Absolute Value) • dB used for power gain or loss (Relative Value)

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Bit Error Rate ( BER)

• BER is a key objective of the Optical System Design • Goal is to get from Tx to Rx with a BER < BER threshold of the Rx • BER thresholds are on Data sheets • Typical minimum acceptable rate is 10 -12

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Optical Budget
Basic Optical Budget = Output Power – Input Sensitivity
Pout = +6 dBm R = -30 dBm

Budget = 36 dB

Optical Budget is affected by:
Fiber attenuation Splices Patch Panels/Connectors Optical components (filters, amplifiers, etc) Bends in fiber Contamination (dirt/oil on connectors)
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Glass Purity

Fiber Optics Requires Very High Purity Glass
Window Glass Optical Quality Glass Fiber Optics 1 inch (~3 cm) 10 feet (~3 m) 9 miles (~14 km)

Propagation Distance Need to Reduce the Transmitted Light Power by 50% (3 dB)
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Fiber Fundamentals
Attenuation Dispersion Nonlinearity Distortion It May Be a Digital Signal, but It’s Analog Transmission

Transmitted Data Waveform
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Waveform After 1000 Km

Analog Transmission Effects
Attenuation:
Reduces power level with distance

Dispersion and Nonlinearities:
Erodes clarity with distance and speed

Signal detection and recovery is an analog problem

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Fiber Geometry
Core Cladding

• An optical fiber is made of three sections:
The core carries the light signals The cladding keeps the light in the core The coating protects the glass

Coating

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Propagation in Fiber
n2
θ0
n1 θ1 Intensity Profile

Cladding
Core

• Light propagates by total internal reflections at the core-cladding interface • Total internal reflections are lossless • Each allowed ray is a mode

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Different Types of Fiber
n2 • Multimode fiber
Core diameter varies 50 mm for step index 62.5 mm for graded index Bit rate-distance product >500 MHz-km
n1 Core

Cladding

• Single-mode fiber
Core diameter is about 9 mm Bit rate-distance product >100 THz-km

n2
n1

Cladding
Core

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Optical Spectrum
UV Visible IR 125 GHz/nm

λ

• Light
Ultraviolet (UV) Visible Infrared (IR)

850 nm 980 nm 1310 nm 1480 nm 1550 nm 1625 nm

• Communication wavelengths
850, 1310, 1550 nm Low-loss wavelengths

• Specialty wavelengths
980, 1480, 1625 nm
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Wavelength:

λ (nanometers) Frequency: ƒ (terahertz)

C =ƒ x λ

Optical Attenuation

• Specified in loss per kilometer (dB/km)
0.40 dB/km at 1310 nm 0.25 dB/km at 1550 nm
1550 Window

• Loss due to absorption by impurities
1400 nm peak due to OH ions

1310 Window

• EDFA optical amplifiers available in 1550 window

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Optical Attenuation
• Pulse amplitude reduction limits “how far” • Attenuation in dB • Power is measured in dBm:
Examples
10dBm 0 dBM -3 dBm -10 dBm -30 dBm 10 mW 1 mW 500 uW 100 uW 1 uW

)

Pi T
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P0 T

Types of Dispersion

• Chromatic Dispersion
Different wavelengths travel at different speeds Causes spreading of the light pulse

• Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)
Single-mode fiber supports two polarization states Fast and slow axes have different group velocities Causes spreading of the light pulse
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A Snapshot on Chromatic Dispersion

Interference

• Affects single channel and DWDM systems • A pulse spreads as it travels down the fiber • Inter-symbol Interference (ISI) leads to performance impairments • Degradation depends on:
laser used (spectral width) bit-rate (temporal pulse separation) Different SM types
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Limitations From Chromatic Dispersion
• Dispersion causes pulse distortion, pulse "smearing" effects • Higher bit-rates and shorter pulses are less robust to Chromatic Dispersion • Limits "how fast“ and “how far”
10 Gbps
60 Km SMF-28
t

40 Gbps
4 Km SMF-28
t
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Combating Chromatic Dispersion

• Use DSF and NZDSF fibers
(G.653 & G.655)

• Dispersion Compensating Fiber • Transmitters with narrow spectral width

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Dispersion Compensating Fiber

• Dispersion Compensating Fiber:
By joining fibers with CD of opposite signs (polarity) and suitable lengths an average dispersion close to zero can be obtained; the compensating fiber can be several kilometers and the reel can be inserted at any point in the link, at the receiver or at the transmitter

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Dispersion Compensation Total Dispersion Controlled
Cumulative Dispersion (ps/nm) +100 0 -100 -200 -300 -400 -500

No Compensation With Compensation

Distance from Transmitter (km) Dispersion Shifted Fiber Cable

Transmitter Dispersion Compensators
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How Far Can I Go Without Dispersion?

Distance (Km) =

Specification of Transponder (ps/nm) Coefficient of Dispersion of Fiber (ps/nm*km)

A laser signal with dispersion tolerance of 3400 ps/nm is sent across a standard SMF fiber which has a Coefficient of Dispersion of 17 ps/nm*km. It will reach 200 Km at maximum bandwidth.
Note that lower speeds will travel farther.

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Polarization Mode Dispersion
• Caused by ovality of core due to:
Manufacturing process Internal stress (cabling) External stress (trucks)

• Only discovered in the 90s • Most older fiber not characterized for PMD
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Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)
Ey nx Ex ny Spreaded Pulse As It Leaves the Fiber

Pulse As It Enters the Fiber

• The optical pulse tends to broaden as it travels down the fiber; this is a much weaker phenomenon than chromatic dispersion and it is of little relevance at bit rates of 10Gb/s or less

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Combating Polarization Mode Dispersion
• Factors contributing to PMD
Bit Rate Fiber core symmetry Environmental factors Bends/stress in fiber Imperfections in fiber

• Solutions for PMD
Improved fibers Regeneration Follow manufacturer’s recommended installation techniques for the fiber cable

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Types of Single-Mode Fiber
• SMF-28(e) (standard, 1310 nm optimized, G.652)
Most widely deployed so far, introduced in 1986, cheapest

• DSF (Dispersion Shifted, G.653)
Intended for single channel operation at 1550 nm

• NZDSF (Non-Zero Dispersion Shifted, G.655)
For WDM operation, optimized for 1550 nm region – TrueWave, FreeLight, LEAF, TeraLight… Latest generation fibers developed in mid 90’s For better performance with high capacity DWDM systems – MetroCor, WideLight… – Low PMD ULH fibers
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Different Solutions for Different Fiber Types
SMF (G.652) DSF (G.653) NZDSF (G.655) Extended Band (G.652.C) (suppressed attenuation in the traditional water peak region) •Good for TDM at 1310 nm •OK for TDM at 1550 •OK for DWDM (With Dispersion Mgmt) •OK for TDM at 1310 nm •Good for TDM at 1550 nm •Bad for DWDM (C-Band) •OK for TDM at 1310 nm •Good for TDM at 1550 nm •Good for DWDM (C + L Bands) •Good for TDM at 1310 nm •OK for TDM at 1550 nm •OK for DWDM (With Dispersion Mgmt •Good for CWDM (>8 wavelengths)

The primary Difference is in the Chromatic Dispersion Characteristics
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The 3 “R”s of Optical Networking
A Light Pulse Propagating in a Fiber Experiences 3 Type of Degradations:
Pulse as It Enters the Fiber Pulse as It Exits the Fiber

Loss of Energy

Shape Distortion
Phase Variation

Loss of Timing (Jitter)
(From Various Sources)

ts Optimum Sampling Time

t

ts Optimum Sampling Time

t

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The 3 “R”s of Optical Networking (Cont.)
The Options to Recover the Signal from Attenuation/Dispersion/Jitter Degradation Are:
Pulse as It Enters the Fiber Pulse as It Exits the Fiber

Amplify to Boost the Power

Re-Shape
Phase Variation

DCU

Phase Re-Alignment

Re-Generate

O-E-O
ts Optimum Sampling Time

t

ts Optimum Sampling Time

t

Re-gen, Re-shape and ts Optimum Remove Optical Noise Sampling Time

t

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DWDM

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Agenda

• Introduction • Components • Forward Error Correction • DWDM Design • Summary

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Increasing Network Capacity Options
More Fibers (SDM)
Same bit rate, more fibers Slow Time to Market Expensive Engineering Limited Rights of Way Duct Exhaust

W D M

Same fiber & bit rate, more λs Fiber Compatibility Fiber Capacity Release Fast Time to Market Lower Cost of Ownership Utilizes existing TDM Equipment

Faster Electronics (TDM)
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Higher bit rate, same fiber Electronics more expensive

Fiber Networks
• Time division multiplexing
Single wavelength per fiber Multiple channels per fiber 4 OC-3 channels in OC-12 4 OC-12 channels in OC-48 16 OC-3 channels in OC-48 Channel 1 Channel n
Single Fiber (One Wavelength)

• Wave division multiplexing
Multiple wavelengths per fiber 4, 16, 32, 64 channels per system Multiple channels per fiber
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l1 l2 Single Fiber (Multiple Wavelengths)

ln

TDM and DWDM Comparison
• TDM (SONET/SDH)
Takes sync and async signals and multiplexes them to a single higher optical bit rate E/O or O/E/O conversion

DS-1 DS-3 OC-1 OC-3 OC-12 OC-48

SONET ADM

Fiber

• (D)WDM
Takes multiple optical signals and multiplexes onto a single fiber No signal format conversion
OC-12c OC-48c OC-192c DWDM OADM Fiber

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DWDM History
• Early WDM (late 80s)
Two widely separated wavelengths (1310, 1550nm)

• “Second generation” WDM (early 90s)
Two to eight channels in 1550 nm window 400+ GHz spacing

• DWDM systems (mid 90s)
16 to 40 channels in 1550 nm window 100 to 200 GHz spacing

• Next generation DWDM systems
64 to 160 channels in 1550 nm window 50 and 25 GHz spacing
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Why DWDM—The Business Case
Conventional TDM Transmission—10 Gbps
40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km
1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 TERM TERM RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 TERM TERM RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 TERM TERM RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 TERM TERM RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR

OC-48 OC-48 OC-48 OC-48

DWDM Transmission—10 Gbps
OA 120 km 120 km OA OA 120 km OA

OC-48 OC-48 OC-48 OC-48

4 Fibers Pairs 32 Regenerators
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1 Fiber Pair 4 Optical Amplifiers

Drivers of WDM Economics
• Fiber underground/undersea
Existing fiber

• Conduit rights-of-way
Lease or purchase

• Digging
Time-consuming, labor intensive, license $15,000 to $90,000 per Km

• 3R regenerators
Space, power, OPS in POP Re-shape, re-time and re-amplify

• Simpler network management
Delayering, less complexity, less elements
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Characteristics of a WDM Network
Wavelength Characteristics

• Transparency
Can carry multiple protocols on same fiber Monitoring can be aware of multiple protocols

• Wavelength spacing
50GHz, 100GHz, 200GHz

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

Defines how many and which wavelengths can be used

• Wavelength capacity
Example: 1.25Gb/s, 2.5Gb/s, 10Gb/s

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Optical Transmission Bands
Band Wavelength (nm) 820 - 900 1260 – 1360 1360 – 1460 1460 – 1530 1530 – 1565 1565 – 1625 1625 – 1675

“New Band” S-Band C-Band L-Band U-Band

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ITU Wavelength Grid
λ ν

1530.33 nm 195.9 THz

0.80 nm 100 GHz

1553.86 nm 193.0 THz

• ITU-T λ grid is based on 191.7 THz + 100 GHz • It is a standard for laser in DWDM systems
Freq (THz) 192.90 192.85 192.80 192.75 192.70 192.65 192.60 ITU Ch 29 28 27 26 Wave (nm) 15201/252 1554.13 x 1554.54 1554.94 x 1555.34 1555.75 x 1556.15 1556.55 x 15216 x x x x 15800 x x x x 15540 x x x x 15454 x x x x

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Fiber Attenuation Characteristics
Attenuation vs. Wavelength
2.0 dB/Km Fibre Attenuation Curve S-Band:1460–1530nm L-Band:1565–1625nm

0.5 dB/Km

0.2 dB/Km 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 C-Band:1530–1565nm

Wavelength in Nanometers (nm)

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Characteristics of a WDM Network

Sub-wavelength Multiplexing or MuxPonding Ability to put multiple services onto a single wavelength

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Why DWDM? The Technical Argument
• DWDM provides enormous amounts of scaleable transmission capacity
Unconstrained by speed of available electronics Subject to relaxed dispersion and nonlinearity tolerances Capable of graceful capacity growth

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Agenda

• Introduction • Components • Forward Error Correction • DWDM Design

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DWDM Components
λ1 850/1310 15xx λ2 λ3 λ1...n

Transponder Optical Multiplexer

λ1 λ2 λ3 λ1...n

λ1 λ2 λ3

Optical De-multiplexer Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (OADM)
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More DWDM Components

Optical Amplifier (EDFA)

Optical Attenuator Variable Optical Attenuator

Dispersion Compensator (DCM / DCU)

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Typical DWDM Network Architecture
DWDM SYSTEM VOA EDFA DCM DWDM SYSTEM

DCM

EDFA

VOA

Service Mux (Muxponder)

Service Mux (Muxponder)

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Transponders
• Converts broadband optical signals to a specific wavelength via optical to electrical to optical conversion (O-E-O) • Used when Optical LTE (Line Termination Equipment) does not have tight tolerance ITU optics • Performs 2R or 3R regeneration function • Receive Transponders perform reverse function
OEO λ1 λ2 OEO λn OEO

From Optical  OLTE

To DWDM Mux

Low Cost  IR/SR Optics
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Wavelengths  Converted

Performance Monitoring

• Performance monitoring performed on a per wavelength basis through transponder • No modification of overhead
Data transparency is preserved

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Laser Characteristics
Non DWDM Laser Fabry Perot
Power λc

DWDM Laser Distributed Feedback (DFB)
Power λc

λ

λ

• Spectrally broad • Unstable center/peak wavelength
Mirror Partially transmitting Mirror

• Dominant single laser line • Tighter wavelength control

Active medium

Amplified light

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DWDM Receiver Requirements

I
• Receivers Common to all Transponders • Not Specific to wavelength (Broadband)

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Optical Amplifier
Pin Pout = GPin

G

• EDFA amplifiers • Separate amplifiers for C-band and L-band • Source of optical noise • Simple

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OA Gain and Fiber Loss
Typical Fiber Loss 25 THz 4 THz

OA Gain

• OA gain is centered in 1550 window • OA bandwidth is less than fiber bandwidth
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Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier
Isolator Coupler Coupler Erbium-Doped Fiber (10–50m) Pump Laser Pump Laser Isolator

“Simple” device consisting of four parts: • Erbium-doped fiber • An optical pump (to invert the population). • A coupler • An isolator to cut off backpropagating noise
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Optical Signal-to Noise Ratio (OSNR)
Signal Level

X dB
Noise Level

• Depends on : Optical Amplifier Noise Figure:
(OSNR)in = (OSNR)outNF

EDFA Schematic (OSNR)in Pin NF (OSNR)out

• Target : Large Value for X
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Loss Management: Limitations Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier
Each EDFA at the Output Cuts at Least in a Half (3dB) the OSNR Received at the Input

Noise Figure > 3 dB Typically between 4 and 6

• Each amplifier adds noise, thus the optical SNR decreases gradually along the chain; we can have only have a finite number of amplifiers and spans and eventually electrical regeneration will be necessary • Gain flatness is another key parameter mainly for long amplifier chains

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Optical Filter Technology

Dielectric Filter

λ 1 ,λ 2 ,λ 3 ,...λ n λ2 λ 1 , ,λ 3 ,... λn

• Well established technology, up to 200 layers

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Multiplexer / Demultiplexer

DWDM Mux

DWDM Demux

Wavelength  Multiplexed  Signals  Wavelengths  Converted via  Transponders 

Wavelength  Multiplexed  Signals  Wavelengths  separated into  individual ITU  Specific  lambdas 

Loss of power for each Lambda
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Optical Add/Drop Filters (OADMs)
OADMs allow flexible add/drop of channels
Drop  Channel

Drop &  Insert

Add  Channel

Pass Through loss and Add/Drop loss
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Agenda

• Introduction • Components • Forward Error Correction • DWDM Design • Summary

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Transmission Errors
• Errors happen! • A old problem of our era (PCs, wireless…) • Bursty appearance rather than distributed • Noisy medium (ASE, distortion, PMD…) • TX/RX instability (spikes, current surges…) • Detect is good, correct is better
Information Transmitter
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Noise Transmission Channel

Information Receiver

Error Correction
• Error correcting codes both detect errors and correct them • Forward Error Correction (FEC) is a system
adds additional information to the data stream corrects eventual errors that are caused by the transmission system.

• Low BER achievable on noisy medium

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FEC Performance, Theoretical
FEC gain ∼ 6.3 dB @ 10-15 BER
Bit Error Rate

1

BER without FEC
10 -10

Coding Gain
10 -20

BER floor

BER with FEC
10 -30 -46 -44 -42 -40 -38 -36 -34 -32

Received Optical power (dBm)

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FEC in DWDM Systems
9.58 G IP SDH FEC FEC . . ATM 2.48 G FEC 2.66 G 2.66 G 10.66 G 10.66 G FEC FEC . . FEC ATM 2.48 G 9.58 G IP SDH

• FEC implemented on transponders (TX, RX, 3R) • No change on the rest of the system
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Agenda

• Introduction • Components • Forward Error Correction • DWDM Design • Summary

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DWDM Design Topics

• DWDM Challenges • Unidirectional vs. Bidirectional • Protection • Capacity • Distance

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Transmission Effects
• Attenuation:
Reduces power level with distance

• Dispersion and nonlinear effects:
Erodes clarity with distance and speed

• Noise and Jitter:
Leading to a blurred image
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Solution for Attenuation

Loss

Optical Amplification

OA

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Solution For Chromatic Dispersion

Dispersion
Dispersion
DCU

Saw Tooth Compensation
Fiber spool

Fiber spool

DCU

Total dispersion averages to ~ zero
+D -D

Length
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Uni Versus Bi-directional DWDM
DWDM systems can be implemented in two different ways

• Uni-directional:
wavelengths for one direction travel within one fiber two fibers needed for full-duplex system
λ1 λ3 λ5 λ7 λ2 λ4 λ6 λ8

Fiber

λ2 λ4 λ6 λ8

λ1 λ3 λ5 λ7

Fiber

Uni -directional

• Bi-directional:
a group of wavelengths for each direction single fiber operation for fullduplex system
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Fiber
λ5 λ6 λ7 λ8 λ1 λ2 λ3 λ4

Bi -directional

Uni Versus Bi-directional DWDM (cont.)
• Uni-directional 32 channels system
Full band

32 ch full duplex

32 λ 32 λ Channel Spacing 100 GHz

Full band

• Bi-directional 32 channels system
Blue-band

16 ch full duplex

16 λ 16 λ 16 λ

16 λ Channel Spacing 100 GHz

Red-band
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DWDM Protection Review
Unprotected Client Protected

Splitter Protected

Y-Cable and Line Card Protected

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Unprotected
1 Transponder 1 Client Interface

• 1 client & 1 trunk laser (one transponder) needed, only 1 path available • No protection in case of fiber cut, transponder failure, client failure, etc..
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Client Protected Mode
2 Transponders 2 Client interfaces

• 2 client & 2 trunk lasers (two transponders) needed, two optically unprotected paths • Protection via higher layer protocol
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Optical Splitter Protection
Optical Splitter Working lambda Switch

protected lambda

• Only 1 client & 1 trunk laser (single transponder) needed • Protects against Fiber Breaks
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Line Card / Y- Cable Protection
2 Transponders working lambda Only one TX active

“Y” cable

protected lambda

• 2 client & 2 trunk lasers (two transponders) needed • Increased cost & availability
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Designing for Capacity
Bit Rate Distance

Solution Space
Wavelengths

• Goal is to maximize transmission capacity and system reach
Figure of merit is Gbps • Km Long-haul systems push the envelope Metro systems are considerably simpler
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Designing for Distance
Pin

L = Fiber Loss in a Span
Pout Pnoise

S

G = Gain of Amplifier
Amplifier Spacing

D = Link Distance

• Link distance (D) is limited by the minimum acceptable electrical SNR at the receiver
Dispersion, Jitter, or optical SNR can be limit

• Amplifier spacing (S) is set by span loss (L)
Closer spacing maximizes link distance (D) Economics dictates maximum hut spacing
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Link Distance vs. OA Spacing
Wavelength Capacity (Gb/s) 20 60 km

Amp Spacing

10 100 km 120 km 2.5 0 140 km 2000

80 km

5

4000

6000

8000

Total System Length (km)

• System cost and and link distance both depend strongly on OA spacing
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OEO Regeneration in DWDM Networks

aul Long H

• OA noise and fiber dispersion limit total distance before regeneration
Optical-Electrical-Optical conversion Full 3R functionality: Reamplify, Reshape, Retime

• Longer spans can be supported using back to back systems
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3R with Optical Multiplexor and OADM
Back-to-back DWDM
• Express channels must be regenerated • Two complete DWDM terminals needed
1 2 3 4 N 7 1 2 3 4 N 7

Optical add/drop multiplexer
• Provides drop-and- continue functionality • Express channels only amplified, not regenerated • Reduces size, power and cost
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1 2 3 4 N 7

OADM

1 2 3 4 N 7

Agenda

• Introduction • Components • Forward Error Correction • DWDM Design • Summary

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DWDM Benefits

• DWDM provides hundreds of Gbps of scalable transmission capacity today
Provides capacity beyond TDM’s capability Supports incremental, modular growth Transport foundation for next generation networks

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Metro DWDM

• Metro DWDM is an emerging market for next generation DWDM equipment • The value proposition is very different from the long haul
Rapid-service provisioning Protocol/bitrate transparency Carrier Class Optical Protection

• Metro DWDM is not yet as widely deployed

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