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ONS 15454 MSTP

DWDM Networking Primer


October 2003

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Agenda

• Introduction
• Optical Fundamentals
• Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Optical Fundamentals

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Some terminology
• Decibels (dB): unit of level (relative measure)
X dB is 10-X/10 in linear dimension e.g. 3 dB Attenuation = 10-.3 = 0.501
Standard logarithmic unit for the ratio of two quantities. In optical fibers, the ratio is
power and represents loss or gain.

• Decibels-milliwatt (dBm) : Decibel referenced to a


milliwatt
X mW is 10×log10(X) in dBm, Y dBm is 10Y/10 in mW. 0dBm=1mW, 17dBm = 50mW

• Wavelength (λ): length of a wave in a particular medium.


Common unit: nanometers, 10-9m (nm)
300nm (blue) to 700nm (red) is visible. In fiber optics primarily use 850, 1310, &
1550nm

• Frequency (ν ): the number of times that a wave is


produced within a particular time period. Common unit:
TeraHertz, 1012 cycles per second (Thz)
Wavelength x frequency = Speed of light ⇒
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
λ xν =C
Some more terminology
• Attenuation = Loss of power in dB/km
The extent to which lighting intensity from the source is diminished as it passes
through a given length of fiber-optic (FO) cable, tubing or light pipe. This
specification determines how well a product transmits light and how much cable
can be properly illuminated by a given light source.
• Chromatic Dispersion = Spread of light pulse in ps/nm-km

The separation of light into its different coloured rays.

• ITU Grid = Standard set of wavelengths to be used in Fibre Optic


communications. Unit Ghz, e.g. 400Ghz, 200Ghz, 100Ghz
• Optical Signal to Noise Ration (OSNR) = Ratio of optical
signal power to noise power for the receiver
• Lambda = Name of Greek Letter used as Wavelength
symbol (λ)
• Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC) = Management
channel
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
dB versus dBm

• dBm used for output power and receive


sensitivity (Absolute Value)
• dB used for power gain or loss (Relative Value)

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Bit Error Rate ( BER)

• BER is a key objective of the Optical


System Design
• Goal is to get from Tx to Rx with a BER <
BER threshold of the Rx
• BER thresholds are on Data sheets
• Typical minimum acceptable rate is 10 -12

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Optical Budget

Basic Optical Budget = Output Power – Input Sensitivity


Pout = +6 dBm R = -30 dBm

Budget = 36 dB

Optical Budget is affected by:


Fiber attenuation
Splices
Patch Panels/Connectors
Optical components (filters, amplifiers, etc)
Bends in fiber
Contamination (dirt/oil on connectors)
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Glass Purity

Fiber Optics Requires


Very High Purity Glass

Window Glass 1 inch (~3 cm)


Optical Quality Glass 10 feet (~3 m)
Fiber Optics 9 miles (~14 km)

Propagation Distance Need to Reduce the


Transmitted Light Power by 50% (3 dB)

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Fiber Fundamentals
Attenuation
Dispersion

Nonlinearity
Distortion

It May Be a Digital Signal, but It’s Analog Transmission

Transmitted Data Waveform Waveform After 1000 Km

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Analog Transmission Effects
Attenuation:
Reduces power level with distance

Dispersion and Nonlinearities:


Erodes clarity with distance and speed

Signal detection and recovery is an analog problem

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Fiber Geometry

Core Cladding
• An optical fiber is made of
three sections:
The core carries the
light signals
The cladding keeps the light
in the core
The coating protects the glass Coating

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Propagation in Fiber

n2 Cladding

θ0 θ1
n1 Core

Intensity Profile

• Light propagates by total internal reflections


at the core-cladding interface
• Total internal reflections are lossless
• Each allowed ray is a mode

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Different Types of Fiber

n2 Cladding
• Multimode fiber
Core diameter varies n1 Core
50 mm for step index
62.5 mm for graded index
Bit rate-distance product
>500 MHz-km
• Single-mode fiber n2 Cladding
Core diameter is about 9 mm
Bit rate-distance product n1
>100 THz-km Core

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Optical Spectrum

UV IR 125 GHz/nm
λ
Visible

• Light 850 nm
Ultraviolet (UV) 980 nm
1310 nm
Visible
1480 nm
Infrared (IR)
1550 nm
• Communication wavelengths 1625 nm
850, 1310, 1550 nm
Low-loss wavelengths C =ƒ x λ
• Specialty wavelengths Wavelength:λ (nanometers)
980, 1480, 1625 nm Frequency: ƒ (terahertz)

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Optical Attenuation

• Specified in loss per kilometer


(dB/km)
0.40 dB/km at 1310 nm
0.25 dB/km at 1550 nm 1550
Window
1310
• Loss due to absorption Window
by impurities
1400 nm peak due to OH ions
• EDFA optical amplifiers
available in 1550 window

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Optical Attenuation

• Pulse amplitude reduction limits “how far” Examples


• Attenuation in dB 10dBm 10 mW
0 dBM 1 mW
• Power is measured in dBm: -3 dBm 500 uW
-10 dBm 100 uW
-30 dBm 1 uW

Pi
P0

T T

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Types of Dispersion

• Chromatic Dispersion
Different wavelengths travel at different speeds
Causes spreading of the light pulse

• Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)


Single-mode fiber supports two polarization states
Fast and slow axes have different group velocities
Causes spreading of the light pulse
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
A Snapshot on Chromatic Dispersion

Interference

• Affects single channel and DWDM systems


• A pulse spreads as it travels down the fiber
• Inter-symbol Interference (ISI) leads to
performance impairments
• Degradation depends on:
laser used (spectral width)
bit-rate (temporal pulse separation)
Different SM types
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Limitations From Chromatic Dispersion
• Dispersion causes pulse distortion,
pulse "smearing" effects
• Higher bit-rates and shorter pulses are less
robust to Chromatic Dispersion
• Limits "how fast“ and “how far”

10 Gbps
t
60 Km SMF-28

40 Gbps

4 Km SMF-28 t
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Combating Chromatic Dispersion

• Use DSF and NZDSF fibers


(G.653 & G.655)
• Dispersion Compensating Fiber
• Transmitters with narrow spectral width

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Dispersion Compensating Fiber

• Dispersion
Compensating Fiber:
By joining fibers with CD of
opposite signs (polarity) and
suitable lengths an average
dispersion close to zero can
be obtained; the
compensating fiber can be
several kilometers and the
reel can be inserted at any
point in the link, at the
receiver or at the transmitter

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Dispersion Compensation

Total Dispersion Controlled


Cumulative Dispersion (ps/nm)

+100
0
-100
-200
-300
No Compensation
-400 With Compensation
-500 Distance from
Transmitter (km)
Dispersion Shifted Fiber Cable
Transmitter

Dispersion
Compensators
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
How Far Can I Go Without Dispersion?

Specification of Transponder (ps/nm)


Distance (Km) =
Coefficient of Dispersion of Fiber (ps/nm*km)

A laser signal with dispersion tolerance of 3400 ps/nm


is sent across a standard SMF fiber which has a Coefficient of
Dispersion of 17 ps/nm*km.
It will reach 200 Km at maximum bandwidth.
Note that lower speeds will travel farther.

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Polarization Mode Dispersion

• Caused by ovality of
core due to:
Manufacturing process
Internal stress (cabling)
External stress (trucks)
• Only discovered in
the 90s
• Most older fiber not
characterized for PMD

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)
Ey

nx

Ex ny
Pulse As It Enters the Fiber Spreaded Pulse As It Leaves the Fiber

• The optical pulse tends to broaden as it travels


down the fiber; this is a much weaker phenomenon
than chromatic dispersion and it is of little
relevance at bit rates of 10Gb/s or less

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Combating Polarization Mode Dispersion

• Factors contributing to PMD


Bit Rate
Fiber core symmetry
Environmental factors
Bends/stress in fiber
Imperfections in fiber
• Solutions for PMD
Improved fibers
Regeneration
Follow manufacturer’s recommended installation techniques
for the fiber cable

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Types of Single-Mode Fiber
• SMF-28(e) (standard, 1310 nm optimized, G.652)
Most widely deployed so far, introduced in 1986, cheapest
• DSF (Dispersion Shifted, G.653)
Intended for single channel operation at 1550 nm
• NZDSF (Non-Zero Dispersion Shifted, G.655)
For WDM operation, optimized for 1550 nm region
– TrueWave, FreeLight, LEAF, TeraLight…
Latest generation fibers developed in mid 90’s
For better performance with high capacity DWDM systems
– MetroCor, WideLight…
– Low PMD ULH fibers

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Different Solutions for
Different Fiber Types
SMF •Good for TDM at 1310 nm
(G.652) •OK for TDM at 1550
•OK for DWDM (With Dispersion Mgmt)
DSF •OK for TDM at 1310 nm
(G.653) •Good for TDM at 1550 nm
•Bad for DWDM (C-Band)
NZDSF •OK for TDM at 1310 nm
(G.655) •Good for TDM at 1550 nm
•Good for DWDM (C + L Bands)
Extended Band •Good for TDM at 1310 nm
(G.652.C) •OK for TDM at 1550 nm
(suppressed attenuation in •OK for DWDM (With Dispersion Mgmt
the traditional water peak
•Good for CWDM (>8 wavelengths)
region)

The primary Difference is in the Chromatic Dispersion Characteristics


© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
The 3 “R”s of Optical Networking
A Light Pulse Propagating in a Fiber Experiences 3 Type of Degradations:
Pulse as It Enters the Fiber Pulse as It Exits the Fiber

Loss of Energy

Shape Distortion

Phase Variation

Loss of Timing (Jitter)


(From Various Sources) t t
ts Optimum ts Optimum
Sampling Time Sampling Time

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


The 3 “R”s of Optical Networking (Cont.)
The Options to Recover the Signal from Attenuation/Dispersion/Jitter
Degradation Are:
Pulse as It Enters the Fiber Pulse as It Exits the Fiber

Amplify to Boost the Power

Re-Shape DCU

Phase Variation Phase Re-Alignment

O-E-O
Re-Generate
t t t
ts Optimum ts Optimum Re-gen, Re-shape and ts Optimum
Sampling Time Sampling Time Remove Optical Noise Sampling Time

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


DWDM

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Agenda

• Introduction
• Components
• Forward Error Correction
• DWDM Design
• Summary

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Increasing Network Capacity Options
Same bit rate, more fibers
More Fibers Slow Time to Market
(SDM) Expensive Engineering
Limited Rights of Way
Duct Exhaust

Same fiber & bit rate, more λs


Fiber Compatibility
W Fiber Capacity Release
D Fast Time to Market
M Lower Cost of Ownership
Utilizes existing TDM Equipment

Faster Electronics Higher bit rate, same fiber


(TDM) Electronics more expensive

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Fiber Networks

• Time division multiplexing


Single wavelength per fiber Channel 1 Single
Fiber (One
Multiple channels per fiber Wavelength)
Channel n
4 OC-3 channels in OC-12
4 OC-12 channels in OC-48
16 OC-3 channels in OC-48

• Wave division multiplexing


l1
Multiple wavelengths per fiber
l2 Single Fiber
4, 16, 32, 64 channels (Multiple
per system Wavelengths)

Multiple channels per fiber ln

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


TDM and DWDM Comparison

• TDM (SONET/SDH)
DS-1
Takes sync and async signals DS-3
and multiplexes them to a OC-1
SONET Fiber
single higher optical bit rate OC-3
OC-12 ADM
E/O or O/E/O conversion OC-48

• (D)WDM
Takes multiple optical
signals and multiplexes OC-12c
DWDM
onto a single fiber OC-48c Fiber
OADM
OC-192c
No signal format conversion

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


DWDM History

• Early WDM (late 80s)


Two widely separated wavelengths (1310, 1550nm)
• “Second generation” WDM (early 90s)
Two to eight channels in 1550 nm window
400+ GHz spacing
• DWDM systems (mid 90s)
16 to 40 channels in 1550 nm window
100 to 200 GHz spacing
• Next generation DWDM systems
64 to 160 channels in 1550 nm window
50 and 25 GHz spacing
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Why DWDM—The Business Case

Conventional TDM Transmission—10 Gbps


40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km
TERM 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 TERM
TERM RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 TERM
TERM RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 TERM
TERM RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 TERM
RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR

OC-48
DWDM Transmission—10 Gbps OC-48
OC-48 OC-48
OC-48
OC-48
OC-48 120 km 120 km 120 km OC-48
OA OA OA OA

4 Fibers Pairs 1 Fiber Pair


32 Regenerators 4 Optical Amplifiers

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Drivers of WDM Economics
• Fiber underground/undersea
Existing fiber
• Conduit rights-of-way
Lease or purchase
• Digging
Time-consuming, labor intensive, license
$15,000 to $90,000 per Km
• 3R regenerators
Space, power, OPS in POP
Re-shape, re-time and re-amplify
• Simpler network management
Delayering, less complexity, less elements
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Characteristics of a WDM Network
Wavelength Characteristics

• Transparency
Can carry multiple protocols on same fiber
Monitoring can be aware of multiple protocols

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400


• Wavelength spacing
50GHz, 100GHz, 200GHz
Defines how many and which wavelengths can be used
• Wavelength capacity
Example: 1.25Gb/s, 2.5Gb/s, 10Gb/s

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Optical Transmission Bands

Band Wavelength (nm)


820 - 900
1260 – 1360
“New Band” 1360 – 1460
S-Band 1460 – 1530
C-Band 1530 – 1565
L-Band 1565 – 1625
U-Band 1625 – 1675

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


ITU Wavelength Grid

1530.33 nm 1553.86 nm
λ
0.80 nm
195.9 THz 193.0 THz ν
100 GHz

• ITU-T λ grid is based on 191.7 THz + 100 GHz


• It is a standard for laser in DWDM systems
Freq (THz) ITU Ch Wave (nm) 15201/252 15216 15800 15540 15454
192.90 29 1554.13 x x x x x
192.85 1554.54
192.80 28 1554.94 x x x x x
192.75 1555.34
192.70 27 1555.75 x x x x x
192.65 1556.15
192.60 26 1556.55 x x x x x
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Fiber Attenuation Characteristics

Attenuation vs. Wavelength S-Band:1460–1530nm

L-Band:1565–1625nm

2.0 dB/Km Fibre Attenuation Curve

0.5 dB/Km

0.2 dB/Km

800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600

Wavelength in Nanometers (nm) C-Band:1530–1565nm

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Characteristics of a WDM Network
Sub-wavelength Multiplexing or MuxPonding

Ability to put multiple services onto a single


wavelength

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Why DWDM?
The Technical Argument

• DWDM provides enormous amounts of


scaleable transmission capacity
Unconstrained by speed of
available electronics
Subject to relaxed dispersion and nonlinearity
tolerances
Capable of graceful capacity growth

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Agenda

• Introduction
• Components
• Forward Error Correction
• DWDM Design

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


DWDM Components
λ1
850/1310 15xx λ1...n
λ2

λ3
Transponder
Optical Multiplexer

λ1
λ1
λ2 λ1...n
λ2
λ3
λ3

Optical De-multiplexer

Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer


(OADM)

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


More DWDM Components

Optical Amplifier Optical Attenuator


(EDFA) Variable Optical Attenuator

Dispersion Compensator (DCM / DCU)

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Typical DWDM Network Architecture

DWDM SYSTEM DWDM SYSTEM

VOA EDFA DCM

DCM EDFA VOA

Service Mux Service Mux


(Muxponder) (Muxponder)

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Transponders

• Converts broadband optical signals to a specific wavelength via


optical to electrical to optical conversion (O-E-O)
• Used when Optical LTE (Line Termination Equipment) does not
have tight tolerance ITU optics
• Performs 2R or 3R regeneration function
• Receive Transponders perform reverse function

λ1
OEO
λ2
From Optical  To DWDM Mux
OLTE OEO

λn

OEO

Low Cost  Wavelengths 
IR/SR Optics Converted
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Performance Monitoring

• Performance monitoring performed on a


per wavelength basis through transponder
• No modification of overhead
Data transparency is preserved

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Laser Characteristics
Non DWDM Laser DWDM Laser
Fabry Perot Distributed Feedback (DFB)
Power λc
Power λc

λ λ

• Spectrally broad • Dominant single laser line


• Unstable center/peak wavelength • Tighter wavelength control

Partially transmitting
Mirror Mirror

Active medium Amplified light

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


DWDM Receiver Requirements

• Receivers Common to all Transponders


• Not Specific to wavelength (Broadband)

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Optical Amplifier

Pin Pout = GPin


G

• EDFA amplifiers
• Separate amplifiers for C-band and L-band
• Source of optical noise
• Simple

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OA Gain and Fiber Loss

Typical
Fiber Loss
25 THz

4 THz

OA Gain

• OA gain is centered in 1550 window


• OA bandwidth is less than fiber bandwidth

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier

Isolator Coupler Coupler Isolator

Erbium-Doped
Fiber (10–50m)

Pump Pump
Laser Laser

“Simple” device consisting of four parts:


• Erbium-doped fiber
• An optical pump (to invert the population).
• A coupler
• An isolator to cut off backpropagating noise
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Optical Signal-to Noise Ratio (OSNR)

Signal Level

X dB

Noise Level

• Depends on : EDFA Schematic


Optical Amplifier Noise Figure: (OSNR)in (OSNR)out

(OSNR)in = (OSNR)outNF Pin


NF

• Target : Large Value for X


© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Loss Management: Limitations
Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier
Each EDFA at the Output Cuts at Least in a
Half (3dB) the OSNR Received at the Input

Noise Figure > 3 dB


Typically between 4 and 6

• Each amplifier adds noise, thus the optical


SNR decreases gradually along the chain;
we can have only have a finite number of
amplifiers and spans and eventually
electrical regeneration will be necessary
• Gain flatness is another key parameter
mainly for long amplifier chains

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Optical Filter Technology

Dielectric Filter
λ 1 ,λ 2 ,λ 3 ,...λ n

λ2 λ 1 , ,λ 3 ,...
λn

• Well established technology, up to 200 layers

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Multiplexer / Demultiplexer

DWDM
DWDM
Mux
Demux

Wavelength  Wavelength 
Multiplexed  Multiplexed 
Signals  Signals 

Wavelengths 
Converted via  Wavelengths 
Transponders  separated into 
individual ITU 
Specific 
lambdas 
Loss of power for each Lambda
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Optical Add/Drop Filters (OADMs)

OADMs allow flexible add/drop of channels

Drop 
Channel

Drop & 
Insert

Add 
Channel

Pass Through loss and Add/Drop loss


© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Agenda

• Introduction
• Components
• Forward Error Correction
• DWDM Design
• Summary

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Transmission Errors
• Errors happen!
• A old problem of our era (PCs, wireless…)
• Bursty appearance rather than distributed
• Noisy medium (ASE, distortion, PMD…)
• TX/RX instability (spikes, current surges…)
• Detect is good, correct is better
Information Noise
Information

Transmission
Transmitter Receiver
Channel
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Error Correction

• Error correcting codes both detect errors


and correct them
• Forward Error Correction (FEC) is a system
adds additional information to the data stream
corrects eventual errors that are caused by the
transmission system.
• Low BER achievable on noisy medium

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


FEC Performance, Theoretical

FEC gain ∼ 6.3 dB @ 10-15 BER

Bit Error Rate

BER without FEC

10 -10

Coding Gain

BER floor
10 -20

BER with FEC

10 -30
Received Optical
power (dBm)
-46 -44 -42 -40 -38 -36 -34 -32

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


FEC in DWDM Systems

9.58 G 10.66 G 10.66 G 9.58 G

IP FEC FEC IP

SDH FEC FEC SDH

. .
. .

ATM FEC FEC ATM

2.48 G 2.66 G 2.66 G 2.48 G

• FEC implemented on transponders (TX, RX, 3R)


• No change on the rest of the system
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Agenda

• Introduction
• Components
• Forward Error Correction
• DWDM Design
• Summary

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


DWDM Design Topics

• DWDM Challenges
• Unidirectional vs. Bidirectional
• Protection
• Capacity
• Distance

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Transmission Effects
• Attenuation:
Reduces power level with distance

• Dispersion and nonlinear effects:


Erodes clarity with distance and speed

• Noise and Jitter:


Leading to a blurred image
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Solution for Attenuation

Optical
Loss Amplification

OA

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Solution For Chromatic Dispersion

Saw Tooth
Dispersion
Compensation
Dispersion

DCU DCU
Fiber spool Fiber spool

Total dispersion averages to ~ zero


+D -D

Length
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Uni Versus Bi-directional DWDM
DWDM systems can be implemented in two different ways

• Uni-directional:
λ1 λ2
λ3

wavelengths for one direction


λ4
λ5 λ6 Fiber
λ7 λ8

travel within one fiber λ2


λ1
λ3
λ4
λ6
λ5 Fiber
λ7

two fibers needed for


λ8

full-duplex system Uni -directional

• Bi-directional:
a group of wavelengths for each Fiber

direction
λ5
λ6 λ1
λ7 λ2
λ8 λ3
λ4

single fiber operation for full-


duplex system Bi -directional

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Uni Versus Bi-directional DWDM (cont.)
• Uni-directional 32 channels system
Full band
32 λ
32 ch
full 32 λ
Channel
Spacing
duplex 100 GHz

Full band

• Bi-directional 32 channels system


Blue-band

16 ch 16 λ 16 λ

full Channel
Spacing
duplex 16 λ 16 λ 100 GHz

Red-band

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


DWDM Protection Review

Unprotected Client Protected

Splitter Protected
Y-Cable and Line Card
Protected

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Unprotected

1 1 Client
Transponder Interface

• 1 client & 1 trunk laser (one transponder)


needed, only 1 path available
• No protection in case of fiber cut,
transponder failure, client failure, etc..
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Client Protected Mode

2 2 Client
Transponders interfaces

• 2 client & 2 trunk lasers (two transponders)


needed, two optically unprotected paths
• Protection via higher layer protocol
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Optical Splitter Protection
Working
lambda
Optical
Splitter Switch

protected
lambda

• Only 1 client & 1 trunk laser (single


transponder) needed
• Protects against Fiber Breaks
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Line Card / Y- Cable Protection
working Only one
lambda TX active
2
Transponders

“Y” cable protected


lambda

• 2 client & 2 trunk lasers (two transponders)


needed
• Increased cost & availability
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Designing for Capacity

Distance

Bit Rate
Solution
Space

Wavelengths

• Goal is to maximize transmission capacity and system


reach
Figure of merit is Gbps • Km
Long-haul systems push the envelope
Metro systems are considerably simpler

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Designing for Distance
L = Fiber Loss in a Span
Pin Pout

S Pnoise
G = Gain of Amplifier
Amplifier Spacing
D = Link Distance

• Link distance (D) is limited by the minimum acceptable


electrical SNR at the receiver
Dispersion, Jitter, or optical SNR can be limit
• Amplifier spacing (S) is set by span loss (L)
Closer spacing maximizes link distance (D)
Economics dictates maximum hut spacing

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Link Distance vs. OA Spacing

Wavelength Capacity (Gb/s)


20
Amp Spacing
60 km

10
80 km

100 km
5
120 km

140 km
2.5
0 2000 4000 6000 8000
Total System Length (km)

• System cost and and link distance both depend strongly


on OA spacing
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
OEO Regeneration in DWDM Networks

aul
Long H

• OA noise and fiber dispersion limit total


distance before regeneration
Optical-Electrical-Optical conversion
Full 3R functionality: Reamplify, Reshape, Retime
• Longer spans can be supported using back
to back systems
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
3R with Optical Multiplexor and OADM
Back-to-back DWDM 1 1
• Express channels must be 2 2
regenerated 3 3
4 4
• Two complete DWDM
terminals needed
N
7 N
7

Optical add/drop multiplexer


• Provides drop-and- continue
1 1
functionality
2 OADM 2
• Express channels only 3 3
amplified, not regenerated 4 4
• Reduces size, power
N
7 N
7
and cost

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Agenda

• Introduction
• Components
• Forward Error Correction
• DWDM Design
• Summary

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


DWDM Benefits

• DWDM provides hundreds of Gbps of


scalable transmission capacity today
Provides capacity beyond
TDM’s capability
Supports incremental, modular growth
Transport foundation for next
generation networks

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.


Metro DWDM

• Metro DWDM is an emerging market for next


generation DWDM equipment
• The value proposition is very different from the
long haul
Rapid-service provisioning
Protocol/bitrate transparency
Carrier Class Optical Protection
• Metro DWDM is not yet as widely deployed

© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.