Sh. S. C. Khosla Scientist – F & Head Food and Agriculture Bureau of Indian Standards


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1944 - Bretten Wood conference established World bank, International Monetary Fund and International Trade Organization. 1947 - General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs was established. 1947–1993–Contracting parties of GATT held 8 rounds of trade negotiations-reduction of tariff barriers 1986-1993 – Uruguay round held – resulted in conversion of GATT to WTO.


1991 – Dunkel Draft issued by DG of GATT included issues on SPS. 1994 – Marrakesh Agriculture (AoA). round on Agreement on

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1995 – Establishment of WTO. 2 specific WTO agreements – SPS and TBT- food safety and animal and plant health and safety .

predictably and freely as possible. GATT is now the principle rule book for trade in goods non-discriminatory trading system .WTO – Main Aims     Global rules of trade between nations Trade flows as smoothly.

allows countries to set their own standards regulations must be based on science. should not arbitrarily or unjustifiably discriminate between countries encouraged to use international standards. guidelines and recommendations Allow use of different standards/methods of Insp`n . animal and plant health.Agreement on SPS       Concerns with measures applied to protect human.

To protect human life or health from risks arising from diseases carried by animals.Agreement on SPS  To protect animal or plant life or health from risks arising from pest. disease-carrying organisms or disease-causing organisms.  . disease.  To protect human or animal life or health from risks arising from additives. plants or pests. contaminants. toxins or disease causing organisms. pesticide residues.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES  HARMONIZATION – encourages the adoption of measures that conform to international standards. EQUIVALENCE – mutual recognition of different but equivalent measures to achieve international standards. NON-DISCRIMINATION – treating differently than domestic produce. imports no   . guidelines. and / or recommendations of international agencies.

 REGIONALIZATION – allows continued exports from disease-free areas of affected countries. especially when the measures differ from international standards. .GENERAL PRINCIPLES  TRANSPARENCY – notifying trading partners of changes in their SPS measures.

Tries to ensure that regulations. standards.Agreement on TBT     TBT refers to technical regulations and conformity assessment procedures and applies to all commodities and not just food. BIS – National Enquiry Point in India . Discourages any methods that would give domestically produced goods an unfair advantage. testing and certification procedures do not create unnecessary obstacles.

ROLE OF STANDARDS      WTO member countries are encouraged to use international standards. guidelines and recommendations where they exist. Recognizes the following three international standard setting agencies Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) – Food Safety International Office of Epizootics (OIE) – Animal Health International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) – Plant Health .

Standards ?  Who sets the Standards ? Let us see what will happen to the world sans Standards.Standards ?  What .Standards ?  How . Standards  Why .STANDARDS 1. .

!!!! .A world without standards would soon grind to a halt …………………….

approved by recognized body. guidelines etc for achieving optimum order Standards are authoritative statements of criteria necessary to ensure that the material. product or procedure is fit for its intended purpose. .What are Standards ?   A standard is a document established by consensus. who issues rules.

Drawn through Consensus among all Stakeholders.  Standards can be de facto. . or de jure. which means they are followed for convenience. which means they are used because of (more or less) their being legally binding contracts and documents.Standards –Idiosyncrasy !  Standards are :   Dynamic in Nature.

issuing and implementing standards. technology. Generally activity consists of the process of formulating . . economics aiming at achieving optimum order.What is Standardization  Standardization is an activity giving solutions for repetitive application to problems in spheres of science.

Advantages of Standardization        Increased mechanization Longer runs of Production Easier training of operatives Simpler Inspection techniques Uniform conformity assessment procedures Improved Service Lesser trade disputes .


 End Users  Consumer Organizations  Experts .How Standards –are Formulated !!!  Through Technical Committees – Sectional Committees – Comprising all Stakeholders : Industries.  Research Organizations.  Government Bodies.

.WHO SETS THE STANDARDS? CODEX ALIMENTARIUS COMMISSION   Codex was created in 1963 by FAO and WHO to develop food standards. The main purposes of this program are protecting the health of consumers. ensuring fair trade practices in food trade and promoting coordination of all food standards work undertaken by international governmental and non-governmental organizations. guidelines and related texts such as codes of practice under the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Program.

WHO SETS THE STANDARDS? CODEX ALIMENTARIUS COMMISSION    CODEX established standards for food additives. veterinary drugs. . CODEX standards are considered scientifically justified and are accepted as bench marks against which national measures are evaluated. food hygiene. pesticide residues. Food standards contain provisions for protecting consumers health and ensuring fair practices in food trade. sampling etc. contaminants. methods of analysis.

GOI represents India in the treaty .OIE-World Organization for Animal Health      Created to fight animal diseases at global level formed in 1924 Inter governmental organization Reference organization of WTO 2003 – name changed from office international epizooties to World Org for Animal Health Department of Animal Husbandry.

. analyze and disseminate veterinary scientific information. To provide expertise and promote international consensus for the control of animal diseases.WHO SETS THE STANDARDS? INTERNATIONAL OFFICE OF EPIZOOTICS     To guarantee the transparency of animal disease status world wide. The Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and other Epizootics and Fish Diseases Commission. The Standards Commission. . International Animal Healthcare Commission. To collect. OIE has four committees to develop standards viz.

IPPC     International treaty to prevent the spread and entry of pests of plants and plant products To promote appropriate measures for their control Governed by Commission on Phytosanitary measures (CPM) PPA to GOI represents India in the treaty .

bacteria. nematodes and insects and weeds. The scope of IPPC is limited to pests viz. . viruses. which were agreed in 1993 and adopted in 1994.. fungi.WHO SETS THE STANDARDS? INTERNATIONAL PLANT PROTECTION CONVENTION     To prevent the spread and introduction of pests of plants and plant products and to promote appropriate measures for their control. Primary source of information on risk analysis Developed ISPM (International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures) guidelines in 1990s.

NEED FOR NATIONAL STANDARDS    Chilli products and grapes were rejected by European countries. Multinational companies like Nestlé (India) are planning to implement HACCP for coffee growing and processing. simply not due to that the residues are above set limits. European Union banned import of fish from companies in Gujarat which did not adopt HACCP System. but because of lack of limits for the pesticides on these products as per the PFA act. .

NEED FOR NATIONAL STANDARDS   Lead. though we have SPS standards for exports. we have no SPS standards for domestic fish processing industries as a result of which we are not able to demand conformity to any SPS standards in the imported fishery products entering our country. For fishery products. an important contaminant found in India is selectively chosen for stricter regulations internationally. . whereas contaminants like cadmium that are more common in western countries is conveniently ignored.

 It is governed by Bureau of Indian Standards Act. erstwhile ISI. works under the aegis of Ministry of Consumer Affairs. .  BIS has been entrusted the job of formulation of National Standards under an Act of Parliament.Who Sets the National Standards?  Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). 1986 and Rules and Regulations framed there under. Govt. of India. Food and Public Distribution.

marking and quality certification To provide new thrust to standardization and quality control To evolve a national strategy for according recognition to standards and integrating them with growth and development of industrial production and exports .Objectives    Harmonious development of activities of standardization.

the Bureau would strive: – – – To provide efficient timely service. Certification and Quality. leads to excellence and enhances the credibility and image of the organization. . To satisfy the customer’s need for quality and safety of goods and services.Vision The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). resolves to be the leader in all matters concerning Standardization. the National Standards Body of India. In order to attain this. in its corporate quality policy. and To work and act in such a way that each task performed as individuals or as corporate entity.

Vision (cont’d) BIS would achieve these objectives by working in close cooperation with all concerned BIS service users and by adopting appropriate management systems. . motivating and ensuring active participation of all its employees.

1986 and providing prompt and efficient services for BIS users. . In dealings with consumer and organizations. time and speed shall be the essence of the matter.MISSION   We dedicate ourselves to achieve excellence through effective implementation of Bureau of Indian Standards Act.

Main Activities   Standards Formulation Certification – – – – – – – Product Hallmarking of Gold Jewellery Quality Management System Environmental Management Systems Occupational Health and Safety Management System Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points Imported Products     Laboratory Management International Activities Training Services Others – – – Information Services Consumer Affairs & Standards Promotion Sale of Standards .

STANDARDIZATION IN FOOD & AGRICULTURE Food and Agriculture Department of Bureau of Indian Standards has formulated various standards since inception and has so far developed around 1800 standards in the following areas: • • • • • • • • • • • PESTICIDES SUGAR APIARY TOBACCO LIVESTOCK FEEDS. EQUIPMENT STIMULANT FOODS SOIL QUALITY AND FERTILIZERS FOOD ADDITIVES SPICES AND CONDIMENTS PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLE AGRICULTURAL TRACTORS .


TO CONCLUDE…      Standards are required for Preventing dumping of low quality goods in our country Increasing competence of our manufacturers to compete in the international market Protecting our nation from introduced pests and diseases Overall welfare of the nation’s economy and citizen. .


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