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VIDEOGRAPHY

CAMERA
Video camera captures light from the object through the lens and focused it on a pictures tube or semiconductor chips. Through the picture tube or chips, light is converted into electronic signals. An electron beam scans these signals and a video signal is produced. This signal can be sent to VCR.

IMAGE SENSOR
The image sensor is a Silicon Semiconductor Design to capture photon that is light and convert them in to electron. Electron once converted then must be transferred and converted again to voltage which can be measured and turned into digital data. There are two types of Image Sensor used in Digital Camera

- Charge Coupled Device (CCD) - Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) High end Camera uses CCD Sensor for high quality and low noise images. It is better than the CMOS.

Charge Coupled Device (CCD)


It contains many light sensitive diodes that convert light into electrical charges. These diodes are called Photosites. Each photosites records the intensity or brightness of the light falls on it. Therefore brighter the light, higher the charge. This electrical charges are then converted into digital values by an Analog to Digital converter (ADC)

CCD Vs CMOS
CCD Sensors have been used in cameras for more than 20 years and present many advantageous qualities among them, better light sensitivity than CMOS Sensors. This higher light sensitivity translates into better images in low light conditions. CCD Sensors are, however, more expensive as they are made in a non-standard process and more complex to incorporate into a camera. In addition, when there is a very bright object in the scene (Such as a lamp or direct sunlight), the image may burn.

Recent advances in CMOS Sensors bring them closer to CCD in terms of image quality, but CMOS Sensors remain unsuitable for cameras where the highest possible image quality is required. CMOS Sensors provide a lower total cost for the cameras since they contain all the logics needed to build cameras around them. They make it possible to produce small sized cameras. A current limitation with CMOS Sensor is their lower light sensitivity while this drawback is not an issue in bright environment, in low light conditions it becomes visible. The result is either a very dark or a very noisy image.

CMOS SENSOR

Analog-to-digital converter
An analog-to-digital converter (abbreviated ADC, A/D or A to D) is an electronic circuit that converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers. The reverse operation is performed by a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). Typically, an ADC is an electronic device that converts an input analog voltage to a digital number. The digital output may be using different coding schemes, such as binary and two's complement binary.

TYPES OF VIDEO CAMERA

Studio Cameras
Studio Cameras are mounted on a dolly pedestal so the camera operator may wheel it to different locations with relative ease during shot changes. These cameras are usually too large and have a large viewfinder, high quality lenses and camera pick-up chips. The highest level cameras are reproducing high quality images under a full range of lighting situations. Its focus and zoom controls are usually fixed to the panning handles.

ENG CAMERA Electronic News Gathering Camera

The Electronic News Gathering Cameras are automated and fully operational within a few seconds after they are switched on. You can make adjustments quickly and easily. These are generally shoulder mounted with a small camera light and microphone attached and powered by batteries.

EFP CAMERA Electronic Field Production Camera

The EFP system uses the same type of compact, portable video equipment as the ENG system. However, the purpose of EFP is to generate an entertainment program at different locations away from the studio. Two examples would be a documentary program or an interview at someones home.

CONVERTIBLE CAMERA

Convertible Camera can be converted to an ENG Camera from a Studio Camera and vice versa. Therefore it can be used both in the studio and in the field. You can fit light weight attachments like instead of large viewfinder, small eyepiece viewfinder.

CAMCORDER

Camcorder combines a camera and video cassette in one unit. The camcorder weight less than an ENG Camera. It may have its own inbuilt video cassette recorder or a separate compact video cassette recorder. It allows increased mobility in tight situations. The earliest camcorders, developed by companies such as JVC, Sony, and Kodak, used analog videotape, but since the mid-1990s (and even before that in professional markets), camcorders recording digital video have become the norm.

CONSUMER OR SMALL FORMAT CAMERAS

As the mainstream consumer market favors ease of use, portability, and price, consumer camcorders emphasize these features more than raw technical performance. For example, good low-light capabilities require large capturing chips, which affects price and size. Thus, consumer camcorders are unable to shoot useful footage in dim light. Manual controls need space, either in menus or as buttons and make the use more complicated, which goes against the requirement of ease of use. For the beginner, entry-level camcorders offer basic recording and playback capability. Hi8, S-VHS, miniDV, Digital8 and Hard drive Cameras are small format cameras. These are now increasingly used for personal use, local programs etc.