Université Saint Joseph Faculté de Gestion et de Management 1ère année

MAGLEV TRAINS

Presented by:  EL KHOURY Jean

English

25/02/07

summary
 Introduction  How does it work? - propulsion - suspension - advantages and disadvantages  Development of the concept  Present using  Future plans  Conclusion  References

introduction
 Out of science fiction books, a train running on magnetic and electrical force only, no wheels, no engine and the steel track replaced by a guideway, the maglev (Magnetic Levitation) trains are becoming a reality more then ever. With a record of 581 km/h, these trains open new visions about future transportation. Just like airplanes revolutionize 20th century’s transportation, maglev trains are expected to do the same thing with 21th century’s transportation.

How does it work? propulsion
 Electromagnetic Propulsion:
In real life the opposite poles of magnets attract each other and like ends repel, this is the simple principle behind electromagnetic propulsion. However electromagnets attract metal objects while charged with electricity, the pull is temporary and dependent on the charge. For a train to operate three major components must be present in the system: a powerful electrical power source, large guidance magnets attached to the underside of the train, a track lined with metal coils.

The magnetized coil running along the track, is called the guideway. This will repel the large magnets on the underside of the carriage, causing the train to hover above the track. The key advantage of the Maglev train is that it floats on a cushion of air, with virtually no friction. This allows the train to reach such high speeds!

Suspension
 There is 2 forms of suspension technology: 1-Electromagnetic suspension 2-Electrodynamic suspension 1-Electromagnetic suspension: In current EMS systems, the train levitates above a steel rail while electomagnets, attached to the train, are oriented toward the rail from below. The electromagnets use feedback control to maintain a train at a constant distance from a track.

2-Electrodynamic suspension:  In Electrodynamic suspension (EDS), both the rail and the train exert a magnetic field, and the train is levitated by the repulsive force between these magnetic fields. The magnetic field in the train is produced by either electromagnets or by an array of permanent magnets .  At slow speeds, the force is not large enough to support the weight of the train. For this reason the train must have wheels or some other form of landing gear to support the train until it reaches a speed that can sustain levitation.

+ and  Due to the lack of physical contact between the track and the vehicle, there is no rolling friction, leaving only air resistance.  Maglevs can handle high volumes of passengers per hour and do it without introducing air pollution along the right way.  Safest way of transportation, since its all automatically controlled, no chance of collision or brake down.  No burning of fossil fuel, so no pollution, and the electricity needed will be nuclear or solar.  The powerful magnets demand a large amount of electricity to function so the train levitates. What makes the maglev trains much more expensive to build and to operate.

 The weight of the large electromagnets in EMS and EDS designs are a major design issue. A very strong magnetic field is required to levitate a massive train.  Due to its high speed and shape, the noise generated by a maglev train is similar to a jet aircraft, and is considerably more disturbing than standard train noise. A study found the difference between disturbance levels of maglev and traditional trains to be 5dB (about 78% noisier)  Very costly to operate since it needs large magnets and a very advanced technology and huge amount of electrical power.

Development of the concept
 A U.S. patent, dated 1 October 1907, is for a linear motor propelled train in which the motor, below the steel track, carried some but not all of the weight of the train. The inventor was Alfred Zehden.  The world's first commercial automated system was a low-speed maglev shuttle that ran from the airport terminal of Birmingham International Airport (UK) to the nearby Birmingham International railway station from 1984 to1995.

Present using
 Shanghai Maglev Train:
Contracted from 2000-2004 with a cost of 1.2 billion $, it links the Pudong Airport and Shanghai Metro, it is based on the maglev technologies of Siemens. It caries about 7000 passengers per day

 Linimo: The world's first commercial automated “Urban Maglev" system commenced operation in March 2005 in Aichi, Japan. This is the nine-station 8.9 km long TobuKyuryo Line, otherwise known as the Linimo. The train has a top speed of 100 km/h.

Future plans
 EUROPE
 London - Glasgow
A maglev line has recently been proposed in the United Kingdom from London to Glasgow, and is reported to be under favorable consideration by the government. A further high speed link is also being planned between Glasgow to Edinburgh.

 Transrapid International are developing an electromagnetic suspension system (EMS). They have already demonstrated that it can reach 500Km/h with people on board. This speed can get a passenger from Paris to Rome in 2 hours. The Swiss are considering a new 700km system. The developers of these trains will most likely be connecting major cities up to 1600km away from each other, linking the most busy routes and exploiting their niche by being the fastest mode of accessible transport. The costs of producing the guideway at the moment still remains quite high at $10 million to $30million per mile.

 USA
 Los Angeles, Southern California – Las Vegas
High-speed maglev lines between major cities of southern California and Las Vegas are also being studied. Originally, this plan was supposed to be part of an I-5 or I-15 expansion plan.

 Baltimore – Washington, D.C.
A 64 km project has been proposed linking Camden Yards in Baltimore and Baltimore-Washington International Airport to Union Station in Washington, D.C. It is in demand for the area due to its current traffic congestion problems.

 In the far future Maglev trains are hoped to be used to transport vast volumes of water to far regions at a greater speed eliminating droughts. Far more, space is an open door to maglev trains to propel humans and cargo into space at a lower cost. But most important is the New YorkLondon tunnel, which runs under the Atlantic’s water, to form the last stage of the intercontinental highway. Scientists hope future technologies can get the train to operate at a 6000km/h, since theoretically the speed limit is limitless. But still it’s a long way to go.

conclusion
 It’s no longer science fiction, maglev trains are the new way of transportation in the near future, just some obstacles are in the way, but with some researches nothing is impossible. With no engine, no wheels, no pollution, new source of energy, floating on air, the concept has token tens of years to develop, just recently it’s true capacities has been realized. Competing planes with speed, boats with efficiency, traditional trains with safety, and cars with comfort, it seems like it isn't a fair fight...

References
    

http://www.21stcenturysciencetech.com/articles http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_levitation_ http://science.howstuffworks.com/maglev-train. http://future.wikia.com/wiki/Maglev_train http:// www.geocities.com/nastywik/trains.html

THANKS YOU

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