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Tirupur - A study on Environment Degradation

Submitted To Prof: Priti Salvi Prof: Sandip Prajapati

Submitted By Kishor Gohel Maulini Patel Anushree Karani Jaydev Chauhan Bhavesh Jadav Krishna Shah

Flow of presentation
Environmental Policy In India Legislative Framework Penalty for contravention Glimpses Question- Answer Reference Cases Linkages with theories

Environmental Policy In India

The Policy Statement for Abatement of Pollution and the National

Conservation Strategy and Policy Statement on Environment and Development were brought out by the MoEF in 1992.

The EAP (Environmental Action Programme) was formulated in 1993 with the objective of improving environmental services and integrating environmental considerations into development programmes.

National Environment Policy, 2006 It is the first initiative in strategy-formulation for environmental protection in a comprehensive manner.

It undertakes a diagnosis of the causative factors of land degradation with a view to flagging the remedial measures required in this direction.

It recognizes that the relevant fiscal, tariffs and sectoral policies need to take explicit account of their unintentional impacts on land degradation.


The solutions offered to tackle the problem comprise adoption of both, science-based and traditional land-use practices, pilot-scale demonstrations, of large scale dissemination, adoption Multi-stakeholder

partnerships, promotion of agro-forestry, organic farming, environmentally sustainable cropping patterns

and adoption of efficient irrigation techniques.

Legislative Framework
Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977

Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981

Atomic Energy Act of 1982 Motor Vehicles Act ,1988 The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (EPA) The National Environment Appellate Authority Act, 1997 Public Liability Insurance Act (PLIA), 1991 National Environment Tribunal Act, 1995


Whoever fails to comply with or contravenes any of the provisions of this Act, or the rules made or orders or directions issued there under, shall, in respect of each such failure or contravention, be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to five years with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees, or with both, and in case the failure or contravention continues, with additional fine which may extend to five thousand rupees for every day during which such failure or contravention continues after the conviction for the first such failure or contravention.

If the failure or contravention referred to in sub-section (1) continues beyond a period of one year after the date of conviction, the offender shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years.


Tamil Nadu is bounded by Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh in the north and Kerala in the west. The waters of the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean wash the coastal eastern and southern boundaries respectively. Point Calimere and Camorin or Kanniyakumari.

The state has an area of 1,30,058 sq. km and a population of over 62 million. Traditionally, the land has been divided into 5 major physiographic divisions - the Kurinji or mountainous region, the Mullai or forest region, the Palai or arid region, the Marudham or the fertile plains and the Neidhal or coastal region.


Tamil Nadu has a tropical climate with little difference in temperatures in summer and winter. April and May are the hottest months with the mercury often soaring above the 40C mark. Coastal regions get uncomfortably

warm and humid during these months but the nights are usually cool,
thanks to the sea breeze that sets in during the afternoon.


Tamil Nadu is one of the most industrialized state, at present it is the

fifth largest economy in India. Given the high current economic growth rate, Tamil Nadu is poised to emerge as the third largest economy

before 2005 A.D. The State Domestic Product is about Rs.856 billion
and current exports are around Rs 153 billion.

Important commercial crops that are grown in Tamil Nadu include

sugarcane, cotton, tea, rubber, cashew and coconut. Major forest products
are timber, sandalwood, pulpwood and fuel wood while the minor products include bamboo, eucalyptus, rubber, tea, cashew, honey and ivory.

Tamil Nadu is rich in handicrafts; It's little wonder that Tamil Nadu is fast emerging as the 'Blue Chip' state for various investments. Tamil Nadu has done exceedingly well in attracting FDI inflows - ranking fourth among the states in terms of value of FDI investments and second in terms of the number of projects in the

pipelines. Notably, Tamil Nadu has emerged as a leading state in South India in the area of attracting FDIs


Que.1.Explain in your own words the Tirupur Story.



Northern part of the Coimbatore district Tamilnadu small, dusty and water starved Textile (knitwear) Sweden, Switzerland, Netherland, Italy, US and Germany Banian City.

State Characteristics Main Industry Export T-shirts to

Popular as


It is considers as the knitwear capital of India, catering to the global market.

Infrastructural problems
More than 700 dyeing and bleaching units discharge 100 million litres of untreated effluents a day , contaminating the Noyyal. Around 20,000 acres of land has been affected and made them unfit for the cultivation.


Surrounding and all the stakeholders badly affected.

Governments decision to adopt RO system. Tirupur textile issue is like dilemma for the government as on the one hand it is one of the best source of revenue in terms of export and on the other hand it severely affects the surrounding environment.

Que.2. What is the environmental impact that the dyeing units have caused on the environmental surrounding of Tirupur?

Dying units has been substantially contributing to textile revenue of the country and is one of the driving forces of export of textile industry. However it has wreak havoc on the surrounding environment of Tirupur.

Due to the gradual industrialization of Tirupur into the textile town, environmental pollution started to increase with the degradation of the soil, water and air.

The river is now totally contaminated and the fishes and other water borne creatures are dying due to the discharge of effluents.
The effluents have depleted the agricultural land and contaminated the ground water.

Affected groups Surrounded people Farmers Waterborne creatures & Animals Problems Due to well water Due to reduction in fertility of land By consuming the contaminated water. Pungent smell and problems, unemployment health

Q.3 If you were elected the Mayor of Tirupur township, what measures would you initiate and execute to ensure that all the environmental problems solved there?

Preparation of the citys annual budget Making sure basic civic services are being delivered to its citizens smoothly

Waste water join with the sea Make committe

Reference Cases

Linkage with Utilitarian Theory

The utilitarian theory is broadly based on the view that any action or policy should be evaluated on the basis of benefits and costs it will impose on the society. According to this theory the dying industry in Tirupur was ethically wrong because
Well water was affected Land was contaminated Water creatures were affected badly Animals and residents around the dam were affected Dam itself was getting eroded Cause unemployment Demand-supply disequilibrium

Linkage with Theory of Rights and Duties

The theory of rights and duties holds that all people have some basic rights, concerned with the power of an individual to choose, pursue and protect his or her interests, and all such rights are associated with correlated duties.

According to this theory also it was ethically wrong.

All the stakeholders are affected badly in terms of unemployment & health problems. Duty of government to protect the industry Owners of the dying units were also having right to protect their interest but they are also responsible for the all the stakeholders and most important for the environment

Linkage with Theory of Justice

The theory of justice revolves around the fundamental principles to guarantee a just and morally acceptable decision. It implies that the actions are guided by fairness, equity and impartiality. Government is impartial with the industry as well as the stakeholders but the procedure should be fast to section subsidies It should also not encourage import of dyed cloth from industries in neighboring countries

Linkage with ethics of care

The ethics of care refers to necessity of showing extra care and consideration to protect someone else from the adverse effect of ones choice that can make someone vulnerable in a particular situation.

Government show extra care for all the stakeholders of the industry so it ethically right but it should not forget the economy as a whole.

Truth alone can truly be said to be Real M.K. Gandhi