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(panniculus adiposus). When adipose tissue dominates. the hypodermis is called the subcutaneous fat Function :  The hypodermis binds the skin to the underlying tissues. pads the body. and provides thermal insulation.  Drugs are introduced into the hypodermis by injection because the subcutaneous tissue is highly vascular and absorbs them quickly.  Subcutaneous tissue or superficial fascia Hypodermis generally has more areolar and adipose tissue. serves as an energy reservoir. .

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flexible framework for the body.   is composed of bones.are structurally similar to ligaments but attach muscle to bone.hold bones together at the joints.the forerunner of most bones in embryonic and childhood development. Cartilage. cartilages. covers many joint surfaces in the mature skeleton. and ligaments joined tightly to form a strong. Tendons. Ligaments. .

3. 4.1. 6. 2. 5. Support Protection Movement Blood Formation Electrolyte Balance Acid-Base Balance Detoxification . 7.

nearly all bones provide support for muscles.   Bones of the legs. and vertebral column hold up the body. the mandible supports the teeth. many other soft organs are directly or indirectly supported by nearby bones. pelvis. .

Movement   Skeletal muscles would serve little purpose if not for the rigid attachment and leverage provided by bones. spinal cord. Bones enclose and protect the brain. heart. Leg and arm movements are the most obvious examples of skeletomuscular movement. lungs. pelvic viscera. a less obvious one is that ventilation of the lungs depends on movement of the ribs by skeletal muscles. . and bone marrow.

Electrolyte balance  The skeleton is the body’s main mineral reservoir. Red bone marrow is the major producer of blood cells. . including most cells of the immune system. It stores calcium and phosphate and releases them according to the body’s physiological needs.

 Bone buffers the blood against excessive pH changes by absorbing or releasing alkaline salts. . It can later release these more slowly for excretion. Detoxification  Bone tissue removes heavy metals and other foreign elements from the blood and thus reduces their effects on nervous and other tissues.

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. and fibrous connective tissue. The hardening process is called mineralization or calcification. Osseous tissue is only one of the tissues that make up a bone. cartilage. bone marrow. adipose tissue. nervous tissue. Also present are blood.    is a connective tissue in which the matrix is hardened by the deposition of calcium phosphate and other minerals.

They have limited motion and merely glide across one another. .are more nearly equal in length and width.are conspicuously longer than wide. Long Bones . Short Bones .Bones are classified into four groups according to their shapes and corresponding functions: 1. enabling the ankles and wrists to bend in multiple directions. they serve as rigid levers that are acted upon by the skeletal muscles to produce body movements. 2.

. Flat Bones .have elaborate shapes that do not fit into any of the preceding categories. and os coxae (hipbone). sternum (breastbone). They include most cranial bones and the ribs. They include the vertebrae and some of the skull bones. such as the sphenoid and ethmoid.enclose and protect soft organs and provide broad surfaces for muscle attachment. scapula (shoulder blade). Irregular Bones . 4.  3.

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They are stem cells that arise from embryonic fibroblasts. Osteogenic cells multiply continually and some of them differentiate into the osteoblasts described next.occur in the endosteum. Cells 1. the inner layer of the periosteum. so the only source of new osteoblasts is mitosis and differentiation of the osteogenic cells.A.  Osteogenic cells . Osteoblasts are nonmitotic. and in the central canals. .

2. Osteoblasts are bone-forming cells that synthesize the organic matter of the bone matrix and help to mineralize the bone.  Stress and fractures stimulate accelerated mitosis and differentiation of osteogenic cells, and therefore a rapid rise in the number of osteoblasts.

3. Osteocytes are former osteoblasts that have
become trapped in the matrix they deposited. They reside in tiny cavities called lacunae which are connected to each other by slender channels called canaliculi. The processes of neighboring osteocytes are joined by gap junctions, which allow osteocytes to pass nutrients and chemical signals to each other and to transfer wastes to the nearest blood vessels for disposal. Osteocytes are strain sensors; when they detect strain in a bone, they communicate this information to osteoblasts at the surface, then it deposit bone where needed.

4. Osteoclasts are bone-dissolving cells found on the bone surface. They develop from the same bone marrow cells that produce monocytes of the blood.

by dry weight, about one-third organic and twothirds inorganic matter. The organic matter includes collagen and various protein-carbohydrate complexes such as glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins. The inorganic matter is about 85% hydroxyapatite, a crystallized calcium phosphate salt [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2], 10% calcium carbonate (CaCO3), and lesser amounts of magnesium, sodium, potassium, fluoride, sulfate, carbonate, and hydroxide ions.