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Chapter:5

Masonry Design

Learning Outcome:
Student will be able: • To explain design concept for unreinforced masonry wall. • To design load bearing brick wall and wall panel.

Introduction- Masonry Design Standard use:
• • • • •
• •

BS 5628: Part 1. Eurocode 6 Bricks Blocks Mortars
Load Bearing wall Non-Loadbearing wall

Main Materials:

Primary Usage:

Other traditional usage:
• Road, Tunnels, • Bridges, • Retaining Walls • and Sewerage Systems Or almost the ‘whole’ village:

The 2000 Years Old Aqueduct of Segovia, Spain
• • • • • 30 meters high and 800 meters long 166 Arches and 120 Pillars Constructed entirely of Granite Blocks No cement or mortar Use to functions as an elevated water channel • From Rio Frio into the city.

• Replace by reinforced concrete due to superior strength and cost. • Recaptured market through aesthetic value • Structural, thermal and acoustic (sound proof) • properties.
Fire and weather resistance Faster and ‘cheaper’ Maintenance free and durable Can be Reinforced and Prestressed

• Resist lateral (wind) and vertical loading

BS 5628: Code of Practice for Use of Masonry
• Part 1: Structural Use of Unreinforced Masonry • Part 2: Structural Use of Reinforced and Pre-stressed Masonry • Part 3: Materials and Components, Design and Workmanship

Materials
• • • • Bricks or Blocks Mortar or Grout Wall ties (BS 1243 or DD140) Damp-proof

Masonry Design - Unreinforced
• Load bearing walls – resist vertical loading With or without stiffening piers • Panel walls – resist lateral loading

• Wall of 25 meters range in Tawau, Sabah

Symbols
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • t - actual thickness of wall h - height of panel between restraints L - length of wall between restraints A - cross-sectional area of loaded wall Z - sectional modulus tef - effective thickness of wall hef effective height of wall (Cl. 28.3.2) K - effective thickness coefficient (Table 5, BS) depend on spacing of piers and tp/t. ex - eccentricity of loading at top of wall λ - slenderness ratio (SR), hef /tef β - capacity reduction factor (Table 7, BS 5628) depend on λ =hef /tef and ex. Fk - Total characteristic loads Gk - characterictic dead load (BS 648: Schedule of Weights for Building Materials) Qk - characteristic imposed load (BS 6399: Design Loadings for Buildings, Part 1) Wk - Characteristic wind load (CP3: Chap. V: Wind Loads) γf - partial safety factor for load (Clause 22, BS 5628) γm - partial safety factor for materials: 2.5 – 3.5 (Table 4, BS 5628) fk - characteristic compressive strength of masonry (Table 2 & Clause 23.1, BS 5

Design of vertically loaded masonry walls
• Ultimate Design Load,N < Design Load Resistance, NR. • N = γf Fk: choose greater of:
– N = 1.4Gk + 1.6Qk. – N = 1.2 (Gk + Qk + Wk)

• Design strength of masonry = βfk/γm.
– See Table 1 & Table 2, BS 5628 – Table 5.5 & 5.8 (Note)

• Brickwork – Table 2 (a)
– If Horizontal A < 0.2m2, fk,mod = fk (0.7 + 1.5A): [clause 23.1.1, BS 5628] If thickness of wall,t = width of brick, fk,mod = fk (1.15): [clause – 23.1.2, BS 5628]

Table 1

Table 2

Figure 5.9

• Blockwork – Table 2 (b, c, d)
Shape factor = height/least horizontal lengthof block (h/tb) (Figure 5.9) Use interpolation between table for shape factor between 0.6 (Table 2b) and 2.0 (Table 2c). If Horizontal A < 0.2m2, fk,mod = fk (0.7 + 1.5A)

Slenderness ratio (SR), λ =hef /tef
• Effective height (hef)
– = L - if support provide simple resistance to lateral movement (bearing less than t/2 or 90mm) – = 0.75 L – if support provide enhanced resistance to lateral movement (Min bearing greater than t/2 and 90mm)

• Effective thickness (tef)
– – – – = t – for single leaf wall = tK – if stiffened with piers: (K from Table 5, BS 5628) = max of (2/3(t1 + t2), t1, t2) – for unstiffened cavity wall = max of (2/3(t1 + Kt2), t1, Kt2) – for stiffened cavity wall

Eccentricity of Vertical Loading, ex

Design Vertical Load Resistance of Walls, NR
• • • • NR = stress x area = (βfk/γm)(t x 1) NR = t (βfk/γm) N < NR γf Fk < t (βfk/γm)

Design procedure for vertically loaded walls.

Example 1: Design of a load bearing brick wall.

Solution

Solution…