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Sub-Structure Design Retaining Wall

Learning Outcome
Student will be able :  To sketch and describe clearly the function of retaining walls.  To perform stability check for retaining wall.  To describe design procedure for retaining wall

Main Function
 To

resist that force without excessive movement  The selection of the most appropriate type of retaining wall based on the height of soil to be retained

Active and Passive Earth Pressure

Active Earth Pressure

Passive Earth Pressure

Soil Stability Factors
1.

Soil Condition
• Compacted and loose – earth, sand, loam, clay etc. • Unit weight (kN/m3), repose (friction) angle & cohesion (kPa) Weather Soil Pressure
• Water, building weight and traffic

2. 3.

Instability in Retaining Wall
External
Sliding - horizontal displacement Settlement and/or Overturning Failure of wall base (allowable soil pressures exceeded) Curved surface behind and under the wall (soil shear failure) Internal  Deformability of the wall material (wall section failure)  Failure of an individual anchor of tiedback walls

Sliding failure
Due to sliding along the bottom of the wall. The frictional passive earth resistance is inadequate. By shear surface immediately adjacent to the bottom of the wall.

Shallow shear failure

Due to excessive shearing stresses – curved. May have same conditions as sliding failures.

Deep -seated shear or base failure

Due to excessive shearing stresses – curved – deep. May occur when there is a deposit soil, such as clay, underlying a firm deposit.

Settlement Failure
Excessive wall movement compression of the soil on which a wall is founded. When toe pressure is significantly greater than heel pressure, results in excessive forward/outward tilting. Underlying soft deposit – compression behind the wall due to the weight of an approach cause to tilt backward/ inward

Building Materials
 Bricks  Coarse Stones  Concrete Blocks  Reinforced Concrete

Types of Retaining Walls

Mass / gravity retaining wall
 These

can be constructed from mass concrete, brickwork or stonework.  Massive and heavy  Without reinforcement  Not to withstand tension

Mass and gravity retaining wall i) Concrete (gravity) wall  Up to 3 m

Mass and gravity retaining wall ii) Masonry (gravity) wall  From bricks, blocks or stones or rock

Brick walls - Simple - For low height ( 3 m)

Mass and gravity retaining wall ii) Masonry (gravity) wall  Rubble walls
- Medium height

( 6 m) -Normally use limestones

Mass and gravity retaining wall ii) Masonry (gravity) wall

Stone walls - Simple - For low height ( 3 m)

Mass and gravity retaining wall iii) Gabions
Free-draining walls - filling large baskets with broken stone. Baskets are made of galvanised steel mesh, woven strips, plastic mesh, bamboo slats, nylon or polypropylene. A typical basket is rectangular about 50 cm by 15 cm.

Mass and gravity retaining wall iii) Gabions

Mass and gravity retaining wall iv) Crib Walls
Wood, steel or pre-cast concrete constructed in the form of a series of interlocking units. Filled with loose earth and crushed rocks to allow water to flow. Good for static earth up to 6.3m.

Mass and gravity retaining wall iv) Crib Walls

Reinforced retaining wall i) Concrete Cantilever
Reinforced concrete is used to withstand tension and structural size. Wall footing was used as cantilever to counter soil pressure on wall. Up to 8 m high. Above 8 m uneconomical

Reinforced retaining wall i) Concrete Cantilever

Has intermittent supports either from the soil side (tensile) or from the outside (compression). Thin vertical concrete webs. Spacings = ¼ to ½ height. 8-14m high.

Reinforced retaining wall ii) Internal and External Counterfort Wall

Embedded Wall
 Contiguous or interlocking individual piles or diaphragm wall-panels to form a continuous structure. May be cantilever, anchored or propped.

Embedded Wall
Types: Sheet Pile - driving steel sheets into a slope Soldier / King Pile –constructed of wide flange steel H sections spaced about 2 3 m apart, driven prior to excavation Bored Pile -a soil replacement rather than a soil displacement method (to minimise vibration) Diaphragm - a water tight barrier

Embedded Wall

Sheet Pile

Embedded Wall

Soldier Pile

Embedded Wall

Bored Pile

Embedded Wall
Pre-stressed Economical for over 4 m high. Pre-compression technique in the masonry cross section - flexural tensile capacity and enhanced resistance to lateral loading. Diaphragm wall – 50 to 100 cm thick and up to 7m, extending to the excavation bottom.  Construction of shallow concrete or steel guide walls – excavate using thin-grab clamshell – pump in Bentonite slurry to provide temporary support – lower prefabricated reinforcing cage - replaced slurry by trémie concrete – proceed to the next panel.

Embedded Wall

Reinforced Soil Walls
• To provide a stable earth retaining system - Reinforced Soil - Soil Nailing

Reinforced Soil Walls
Reinforced soil walls are constructed of compact backfill. Strips or ties, made from galvanised steel, are embedded to absorb the tensile forces within the fill. The strips are attached to a thin outer skin to retain the face. The face is composed of precast concrete panels for durability and aesthetic reasons. Normal height 15m; length 0.8-1.2 height

Reinforced Soil Walls

This kind of reinforced soil walls, including the facing, reinforcements, reinforced fill and the back of wall.

Reinforced Soil Walls

Environmental wall: This method of reinforced wall is used to retain a great quantity of soil from

Reinforced Soil Walls

The general elements of a reinforced soil wall.

Reinforced Soil Walls

Discrete Panels: The facing of reinforced soils are constructed sequentially in order to build the walls consistently

Reinforced Soil Walls

This types of facing enables the building of walls that can be easily curved in plan, and well adapted to

Soil Nailing
Closely spaced steel bars, called "nails," driven into a slope and grouted. Significantly increase the apparent cohesion capability to carry tensile loads. Appears similar to reinforced fill but: nails are inserted directly into an existing earth not installed with the fill. - commences at the top level and proceeds downwards; for reinforced fill the lower reinforcements are loaded first (by layers).

Soil Nailing

Soil Nailing

Soil Nailing

Soil Nailed Retaining Wall

Hybrids Types Retaining Wall
Types of Hybrids retaining walls Anchored For stabilizing and controlling erosion of steeply sloped areas of the lot.

Hybrids Types Retaining Wall

Hybrids Types Retaining Wall
Tailed Gabion
Gabion elements fitted to geogrid 'tails‘ extending into supported soil. Wire mesh placed in the fill behind the wall can increase the ability of the wall to resist overturning and sliding force. A vertical skin of gabions was anchored to the backfill using metal strips.

Concrete block Gabion
Concrete block facing units fitted with geogrid 'tails' extending into supported soil.

Hybrids Types Retaining Wall

Drain holes
 Water (rain) can add weight to the soil and more pressure to the wall. The condition is aggravated when there is soil movement. Water must be allowed to flow freely through the wall by using installed drainage Parallel to the wall Through the wall Concrete apron

Backfill Material:
Should be granular and free draining. i.e. sand and stone  Avoid clay or clayey silt!

Selection of on:

Walls depends

Height of wall Surcharge load Soil condition Availability of Space for construction Ground water and rainfall density  Availability of raw materials  Aesthetic value  Design life  Consequences of failure

Design of Retaining Wall
First Fundamental Stages Stability Analysis
 Soil Pressures

- The active pressure (pa) is given by pa = kaz
where  = unit weight of soil (kN/m2)

Fill level

ka = coefficient of active pressure
z = height of retained fill
z
FA

FP

A Friction force, FF Wt

Design of Retaining Wall
First Fundamental Stages Stability Analysis
 Soil Pressures

- The passive pressure (pp) is given by pp = kpz
where  = unit weight of soil (kN/m2)

Fill level

kp = coefficient of passive pressure
z = height of retained fill
Ws Ww

z

A Friction force, (1.0Gk+1.0Vk)

Wb

Design of Retaining Wall
First Fundamental Stages Stability Analysis
 Sliding

FA = 0.5 pah

Fill level

FP= 0.5 pph
FF = µW1
h1

The factor of safety against this type of failure occurring is normally taken to be at least 1.5
FF + FP ≥ 1.5 FA
A

h2

Design of Retaining Wall
First Fundamental Stages Stability Analysis
 Overturning

∑ Mres ≥ 2
∑ Mover ∑ Mover = 1/3 FA z ∑ Mres = Ww x x1 + Wb x x + Ws x q
 If
x1

Fill level

FA Soil Vertical Load, Ws

failed use of heel beam can be considered or resize the structure.
y

Ww

q

A

x

Friction force, (1.0Gk+1.0Vk)

Structure self weight, Wb

Design of Retaining Wall
Second Fundamental Stages Bearing Pressure Analysis
 For serviceability, thus all  =1.0  Similar to foundation subjected to

Fill level

 Eccentric Vertical load &
 Overturning Moment  Vertical Load
 N = WT
Resultant Force, Hk

 Moment about center of the base  M = FA y + Ww(D/2 – x) -Ws(q – D/2)  If
y q

Soil Vertical Load, Vk

M/N  D/6, thus eccentricity lies within middle third of the base, hence:

A

 P1 = (N/D) +(M/I) X (D/2)
 Where I = D3/12, thus  P1 = (N/D) + (6M/D2)  P2 = (N/D) - (6M/D2)

x
Gk D/2

(1.0Gk+1.0Vk)

D/2

P1
Soil Bearing Pressure

P2

Design of Retaining Wall
Third Fundamental Stages Member Design and Detailing
 

Drainage must be provided to reduce hydrostatic pressure on wall. Fill level

Minimum surcharge surface load = 10 kN/m2


Prelim- sizing of wall : 80 mm per meter depth of backfill.
Thickness of base is usually equal to thickness of the beam or stem of the wall.
Resultant Force, Hk

Drainage pipe

 

Base of stem of the wall have to resist load fHk and the moment
The base have to resist upward pressure from the soil bearing, creating moment at both bottom corner of the wall. Soil & own weight will counter the bearing pressure Partial safety factors to be utilised to increased design critically Vertical movement joint must provided for shrinkage movement. be

y

Soil Vertical Load, Vk

q

A

x
Gk D/2

(1.0Gk+1.0Vk)

 

D/2

P1
Soil Bearing Pressure

P2

Retaining Wall - Example
The cantilever retaining wall shown supports a granular material of bulk density 1700 kg/m3, and the allowable bearing pressure is 110 kN/m2.
Fill level

Determine :
i) ii) iii)

The stability of the wall The actual bearing pressure Design the bending reinforcement using high-yield steel, fy = 460 N/mm2 and grade 35 concrete.
4.5 m

Given:
Unit Weight of Concrete = 24 kN/m3 Ka = 0.33  = 0.45 0.4 m

0.8 m
0.4 m

2.2 m

Solution
Ka  g h pa = 0.33 = 1700 kg/m3 = 10 = 4.9 m =kagh = 0.33 x 1700 x 10 x 4.9 = 27489N/m2 = 27.49 kN/m2 FA = 0.5 pah = 0.5 x 27.49 x 4.9 = 67.35 kN Ww(wall) = 0.4 x 4.5 x 24 = 43.2 kN Wb(base) = 0.4 x 3.4 x 24 = 32.64 kN

Solution …..Continue….
Ws WT = 2.2 x 4.5x 17 = 168.3 kN = Ww + Wb+ Ws = 43.2 + 32.64 + 168.3 = 244.14 kN FF = µ WT = 0.45 x 244.14 = 109.86 kN i) Sliding Check Assume passive pressure force (Fp) = 0. Hence factor of safety against sliding is FF/FA = 109.86 /67.35

= 1.63 > 1.5 Satisfactory

Solution …..Continue….
ii) Checking Overturning ∑M res = Ww x (0.8 + 0.4/2) + Wb x (3.4/2) +Ws x (0.8 +0.4 +2.2/2) = (43.2 x 1.0) + (32.64 x 1.7) + (168.3 x 2.3) = 485.78 kNm ∑M over = 1/3x FA x 4.9 = 1/3 x 67.35 x 4.9 = 110 kNm ∑M res ∑M over = 485.78/ 110 = 4.42 ≥ 2 OK

Solution …..Continue….
Bearing Pressure Analysis Moment about center of the base M = FA 4.9/3 + Ww(x – x1) -Ws(q – D/2) = N = WT M/N = D/6 = 3.4/6 = 0.58 M/N  D/6, therefore eccentricity lies within middle third of the base P1 = (N/D) + (6M/D2) < allowable bearing pressure = P2 = (N/D) - (6M/D2) =