Instructor: Dr. M. Nasir Amin
(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 1
Introduction to Engineering Mechanics
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Chapter Outline
Engineering & Mechanics
Learning Mechanics
Fundamental Concepts
Newtonian Gravitation
Units
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Introduction
“Mechanics is the physical science which
deals with the effects of forces on objects”
Main branches of mechanics are as following
Mechanics of rigid bodies
Mechanics of deformable bodies
Mechanics of rigid bodies
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Introduction
Designing & constructing devices:
Understand the physics underlying the
designs.
Use mathematical models to predict their
behaviour.
Learn how to analyze & predict the behaviors
of physical systems by studying mechanics.
(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 5
1.1 Engineering & Mechanics
Knowledge of previous designs,
experiments, ingenuity & creativity to
develop new designs.
Develop mathematical equations based on
the physical characteristics of the device
designs:
Predict the behavior
Modify the design
Test the design prior to actual construction
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1.1 Engineering & Mechanics
Elementary Mechanics – the study of
forces & their effects
Statics – the study of objects in equilibrium
Dynamics – the study of objects in motion
Retrace historical development of ideas.
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1.1 Engineering & Mechanics
Applications in many fields of engineering:
Statics: equilibrium equations
Designing structures (mechanical & civil)
Dynamics: motion equations
Analyze responses of buildings to
earthquakes (civil)
Determine trajectories of satellites
(aerospace)
(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 8
1.2 Learning Mechanics
Problem solving procedures:
Identify information given & information to be
determined. Restate the problem in your own
words. Understand the physical system/model
involved.
Develop a strategy, i.e. identify the principles
& equations that apply & decide how to use
them. Draw diagrams to help visualization.
(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 9
1.2 Learning Mechanics
Problem solving procedures:
Try to predict the answer to develop intuition
help to recognize an incorrect answer.
Solve the equations, interpret the results &
compare with your prediction reality check
Is your answer reasonable?
(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 10
1.2 Learning Mechanics
Calculators & Computers:
To solve algebraic expression in terms of
given quantities.
A calculator with trigonometric & logarithmic
functions is sufficient.
Programmable calculator/computer with
problemsolving software such as Mathcad or
MATHLAB is convenient.
(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 11
1.2 Learning Mechanics
Engineering Applications:
Describes how mechanics is applied in
various fields of engineering.
Emphasis on 2 essential aspects of
engineering:
Design – to choose parameters values to
satisfy stated design criteria
Safety – to evaluate the safety of devices
and choose parameter values to satisfy
stated safety requirements
(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 12
1.3 Fundamental Concepts
Numbers:
Engineering measurements, calculations &
results
Significant Digits – the number of meaningful
(i.e. accurate) digits in a number, counting to
the right starting with the first nonzero digit:
E.g. 7.630 & 0.007630 (4 significant digits)
7630, 000 = 7.630 x 10
6
digits) t significan (6 3.14159 π
digits) t significan (3 3.14 π
~
~
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1.3 Fundamental Concepts
Numbers:
Rounding off:
E.g.
digits) t significan (6 3.14159 π
digits) t significan (3 3.14 π
~
~
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1.3 Fundamental Concepts
Space & Time:
Space:
3dimensional space & locations/positions
of points in space.
Distance between 2 points in space =
length of the straight line joining them
SI unit of length: meter (m)
U.S. Customary unit: foot (ft)
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1.3 Fundamental Concepts
Space & Time:
Time:
Measured by the intervals between
repeatable events.
SI unit & U.S. Customary unit of time:
second (s)
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1.3 Fundamental Concepts
Position of a point in space relative to
some reference point changes with time:
Rate of change of position = velocity
SI unit: meters per second (m/s)
U.S. Customary unit: feet per second (ft/s)
Rate of change of velocity = acceleration
SI unit: meters per second squared (m/s
2
)
U.S. Customary unit: feet per second
squared (ft/s
2
)
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1.3 Fundamental Concepts
Six elementary fundamental principles
Parallelogram Law
Principle of Transmissibility
Newton’s 1st Law of Motion
Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion
Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion
Newton’s Law of Gravitation
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1.3 Fundamental Concepts
Parallelogram Law
Two forces acting on a particle can be replaced
by a single force, called their resultant
F
1
F
2
F
+
F
1
F
2
=
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1.3 Fundamental Concepts
Principle of Transmissibility
Motion of a rigid body will remain unchanged if
a force acting at a given point of the rigid body
is replaced by a force of the same magnitude
and same direction, but acting at a different
point, provided that the two forces have the
same line of action
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1.3 Fundamental Concepts
Newton’s 1st Law of Motion
When the sum of the forces acting on a
particle = 0, its velocity is constant.
In particular, if the particle is initially
stationary, it will remain stationary.
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1.3 Fundamental Concepts
Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion
When the sum of the forces acting on a
particle is ≠ 0, the sum of forces is equal to
the rate of change of the linear momentum of
the particle.
If the mass is constant, the sum of forces is
equal to the product of the mass of the
particle & its acceleration.
F = m . a
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1.3 Fundamental Concepts
Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion
The mutual forces exerted by 2 particles on
each other are equal in magnitude & opposite
in direction. The particles remains in state of
equilibrium only if exerted forces on them are
collinear
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1.3 Fundamental Concepts
Force & mass are defined by the 2
nd
law
Choose an arbitrary object to have a unit mass
& define a unit force to be the force that gives
the unit mass an acceleration of unit magnitude
Apply a unit force to the mass, measure the
resulting acceleration mass
SI unit: kilogram (kg)
U.S. Customary unit: slug
(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 24
1.3 Fundamental Concepts
Force & mass are defined by the 2
nd
law:
Apply a force to the unit mass, measure the
resulting acceleration force
SI unit: newton (N)
U.S. Customary unit: pound (lb)
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1.3 Fundamental Concepts
Limitations to the validity of Newton’s Laws:
Problems involving velocities that are not small
compared to the velocity of light (3 x 10
8
m/s)
Einstein’s special theory of relativity
Phenomena on the atomic scale Quantum
mechanics
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1.4 Newtonian Gravitation
Gravitational force between
2 particles of mass m
1
& m
2
that are separated by a
distance r (Fig. 1.4) is:
( ) 1 . 1
2
2 1
r
m Gm
F =
where G = universal gravitational constant
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1.4 Newtonian Gravitation
Gravitational force between a particle of mass
m
1
& a homogenous sphere of mass m
2
is also
given by Eq. (1.1)
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1.4 Newtonian Gravitation
Weight of an object of mass m due to the
gravitational attraction of the earth is approximated
by:
where m
E
= mass of earth,
r = distance from the center of earth to
the object
( ) 2 . 1
2
r
Gmm
W
E
=
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1.4 Newtonian Gravitation
Weight of object at sea level (r = R
E
):
The value of g varies from location to location on
the surface of the earth.
g = 9.81 m/s
2
(SI units)
( ) 6 . 1 mg W =
(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 30
1.5 Units
International System of Units:
Base units:
Length: meters (m)
Mass: kilograms (kg)
Time: second (s)
Derived Unit:
Expressed in terms of base units
E.g. Force is measured in newtons (N)
( ) ( )
2 2
m/s kg 1 m/s 1 kg 1 N 1 · = =
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1.5 Units
Prefixes:
E.g. 1 kg = 1000 g, 1 Mg = 10
6
g = 1000 kg
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1.5 Units
U.S. Customary Units:
Base units:
Length: feet (ft)
Force: pounds (lb)
Time: second (s)
Derived Unit:
Mass: slug (the mass of material
accelerated at 1 ft/s
2
by a force of 1 lb)
Newton’s 2
nd
law:
( ) ( )
/ft s lb 1 slug 1
ft/s 1 slug 1 lb 1
2
2
· =
=
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1.5 Units
Angular Units:
Angles are normally
expressed in radians (rad)
Defined to be the ratio of the
part of the circumference
subtended by θ to the radius
of the circle
Angles are also expressed in
degrees:
rad 2π 360 = °
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1.5 Units
Conversion of Units:
Values must be expressed in terms of one
system of units before they are substituted
into the equation
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1.5 Units
E.g. to express 1 mi/h in terms of ft/s:
( ) ft/s 1.47
s 3600
h 1
mi 1
ft 5280
mi/h 1 mi/h 1 =

.

\


.

\

=
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1.5 Units
Convert
(a) 60 miles/h to ft/sec
(b) 100 lb.ft/s
2
to kg.m/s
2
(c) 20 slug/ft
3
to kg/m
3
Chapter Outline
Engineering & Mechanics Learning Mechanics Fundamental Concepts Newtonian Gravitation Units
(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
2
Introduction
“Mechanics is the physical science which deals with the effects of forces on objects”
Main branches of mechanics are as following
Mechanics of rigid bodies Mechanics of deformable bodies Mechanics of rigid bodies
3
(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Learn how to analyze & predict the behaviors of physical systems by studying mechanics. Use mathematical models to predict their behaviour. (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 4 .Introduction Designing & constructing devices: Understand the physics underlying the designs.
1.1 Engineering & Mechanics Knowledge of previous designs. Develop mathematical equations based on the physical characteristics of the device designs: Predict the behavior Modify the design Test the design prior to actual construction (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 5 . experiments. ingenuity & creativity to develop new designs.
1. (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 6 .1 Engineering & Mechanics Elementary Mechanics – the study of forces & their effects Statics – the study of objects in equilibrium Dynamics – the study of objects in motion Retrace historical development of ideas.
1 Engineering & Mechanics Applications in many fields of engineering: Statics: equilibrium equations Designing structures (mechanical & civil) motion equations Analyze responses of buildings to earthquakes (civil) Determine trajectories of satellites (aerospace) Dynamics: (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 7 .1.
Draw diagrams to help visualization.1. Develop a strategy. i. identify the principles & equations that apply & decide how to use them. Restate the problem in your own words.e. Understand the physical system/model involved. (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 8 .2 Learning Mechanics Problem solving procedures: Identify information given & information to be determined.
Solve the equations.1. interpret the results & compare with your prediction reality check Is your answer reasonable? (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 9 .2 Learning Mechanics Problem solving procedures: Try to predict the answer to develop intuition help to recognize an incorrect answer.
A calculator with trigonometric & logarithmic functions is sufficient. Programmable calculator/computer with problemsolving software such as Mathcad or MATHLAB is convenient. (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 10 .1.2 Learning Mechanics Calculators & Computers: To solve algebraic expression in terms of given quantities.
1.2 Learning Mechanics Engineering Applications: Describes how mechanics is applied in various fields of engineering. Emphasis on 2 essential aspects of engineering: Design – to choose parameters values to satisfy stated design criteria Safety – to evaluate the safety of devices and choose parameter values to satisfy stated safety requirements (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 11 .
counting to the right starting with the first nonzero digit: E. calculations & results Significant Digits – the number of meaningful (i.3 Fundamental Concepts Numbers: Engineering measurements. 7.1. accurate) digits in a number.14 (3 significan t digits) π 3.14159 (6 significan t digits) (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 12 .e.007630 (4 significant digits) 7630.g.630 x 106 π 3.630 & 0. 000 = 7.
3 Fundamental Concepts Numbers: Rounding E.1.g.14159 (6 significan t digits) (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 13 .14 (3 significan t digits) π 3. off: π 3.
Distance between 2 points in space = length of the straight line joining them SI unit of length: meter (m) U. Customary unit: foot (ft) (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 14 .1.3 Fundamental Concepts Space & Time: Space: 3dimensional space & locations/positions of points in space.S.
S. SI unit & U. Customary unit of time: second (s) (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 15 .3 Fundamental Concepts Space & Time: Time: Measured by the intervals between repeatable events.1.
S.1. Customary unit: feet per second squared (ft/s2) (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 16 . Customary unit: feet per second (ft/s) Rate of change of velocity = acceleration SI unit: meters per second squared (m/s2) U.S.3 Fundamental Concepts Position of a point in space relative to some reference point changes with time: Rate of change of position = velocity SI unit: meters per second (m/s) U.
3 Fundamental Concepts Six elementary fundamental principles Parallelogram Law Principle of Transmissibility Newton’s 1st Law of Motion Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion Newton’s Law of Gravitation 17 (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .1.
3 Fundamental Concepts Parallelogram Law Two forces acting on a particle can be replaced by a single force.1. called their resultant F = F1 + F2 F1 (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd F2 18 .
provided that the two forces have the same line of action (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 19 .3 Fundamental Concepts Principle of Transmissibility Motion of a rigid body will remain unchanged if a force acting at a given point of the rigid body is replaced by a force of the same magnitude and same direction.1. but acting at a different point.
if the particle is initially stationary. (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 20 . its velocity is constant. it will remain stationary.1.3 Fundamental Concepts Newton’s 1st Law of Motion When the sum of the forces acting on a particle = 0. In particular.
F=m. If the mass is constant. the sum of forces is equal to the rate of change of the linear momentum of the particle.3 Fundamental Concepts Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion When the sum of the forces acting on a particle is ≠ 0.1. the sum of forces is equal to the product of the mass of the particle & its acceleration.a (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 21 .
3 Fundamental Concepts Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion The mutual forces exerted by 2 particles on each other are equal in magnitude & opposite in direction. The particles remains in state of equilibrium only if exerted forces on them are collinear (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 22 .1.
1.3 Fundamental Concepts Force & mass are defined by the 2nd law Choose an arbitrary object to have a unit mass & define a unit force to be the force that gives the unit mass an acceleration of unit magnitude Apply a unit force to the mass. measure the resulting acceleration mass SI unit: kilogram (kg) U. Customary unit: slug (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 23 .S.
1.3 Fundamental Concepts Force & mass are defined by the 2nd law: Apply a force to the unit mass.S. Customary unit: pound (lb) (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 24 . measure the resulting acceleration force SI unit: newton (N) U.
3 Fundamental Concepts Limitations to the validity of Newton’s Laws: Problems involving velocities that are not small compared to the velocity of light (3 x 108 m/s) Einstein’s special theory of relativity Phenomena on the atomic scale Quantum mechanics (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 25 .1.
1.4 Newtonian Gravitation Gravitational force between 2 particles of mass m1 & m2 that are separated by a distance r (Fig. 1.4) is: F Gm1m2 r 2 1.1 where G = universal gravitational constant (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 26 .
(1.1.4 Newtonian Gravitation Gravitational force between a particle of mass m1 & a homogenous sphere of mass m2 is also given by Eq.1) (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 27 .
4 Newtonian Gravitation Weight of an object of mass m due to the gravitational attraction of the earth is approximated by: GmmE 1.2 W r2 where mE = mass of earth. r = distance from the center of earth to the object (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 28 .1.
1.6 The value of g varies from location to location on the surface of the earth. g = 9.81 m/s2 (SI units) (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 29 .4 Newtonian Gravitation Weight of object at sea level (r = RE): W mg 1.
1. Force is measured in newtons (N) 1 N 1 kg 1 m/s 2 1 kg m/s 2 (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 30 .g.5 Units International System of Units: Base units: Length: meters (m) Mass: kilograms (kg) Time: second (s) Derived Unit: Expressed in terms of base units E.
1 kg = 1000 g.1. 1 Mg = 106 g = 1000 kg (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 31 .5 Units Prefixes: E.g.
5 Units U.1. Customary Units: Base units: Length: feet (ft) Force: pounds (lb) Time: second (s) Derived Unit: Mass: slug (the mass of material accelerated at 1 ft/s2 by a force of 1 lb) Newton’s 2nd law: 1 lb 1 slug 1 ft/s 2 1 slug 1 lb s 2 /ft (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 32 .S.
5 Units Angular Units: Angles are normally expressed in radians (rad) Defined to be the ratio of the part of the circumference subtended by θ to the radius of the circle Angles are also expressed in degrees: 360 2π rad (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 33 .1.
1.5 Units Conversion of Units: Values must be expressed in terms of one system of units before they are substituted into the equation (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 34 .
1.47 ft/s 1 mi/h 1 mi/h 1 mi 3600 s (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 35 .g.5 Units E. to express 1 mi/h in terms of ft/s: 5280 ft 1 h 1.
1.m/s2 3 3 (c) 20 slug/ft to kg/m (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 36 .5 Units Convert (a) 60 miles/h to ft/sec (b) 100 lb.ft/s2 to kg.