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Chapter 6

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Figure 6.1

Dividing a link into channels


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Figure 6.2

Categories of multiplexing


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6.1 FDM

Multiplexing Process Demultiplexing Process The Analog Hierarchy Other Applications of FDM Implementation


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3 FDM McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.. Inc.Figure 6. 2004 .

. Inc.Note: FDM is an analog multiplexing technique that combines signals. 2004 . McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Inc.4 FDM process McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.Figure 6.. 2004 .

Figure 6. 2004 .5 FDM demultiplexing example McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.. Inc.

McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. We need to combine three voice channels into a link with a bandwidth of 12 KHz. as shown in Figure 6. Solution Shift (modulate) each of the three voice channels to a different bandwidth. Show the configuration using the frequency domain without the use of guard bands. Inc.6. 2004 .. from 20 to 32 KHz.Example 1 Assume that a voice channel occupies a bandwidth of 4 KHz.

Inc.Figure 6..6 Example 1 McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2004 .

2004 .Example 2 Five channels. we need at least four guard bands. What is the minimum bandwidth of the link if there is a need for a guard band of 10 KHz between the channels to prevent interference? Solution For five channels. McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.7. are to be multiplexed together. Inc. This means that the required bandwidth is at least 5 x 100 + 4 x 10 = 540 KHz. as shown in Figure 6. each with a 100-KHz bandwidth..

2004 .Figure 6. Inc..7 Example 2 McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

One solution is 16QAM modulation.Example 3 Four data channels (digital). Design an appropriate configuration using FDM Solution The satellite channel is analog. Each digital channel of 1 Mbps is modulated such that each 4 bits are modulated to 1 Hz. 2004 . each channel having a 250-KHz bandwidth. use a satellite channel of 1 MHz. each transmitting at 1 Mbps.. Inc. McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. We divide it into four channels. Figure 6.8 shows one possible configuration.

Inc.8 Example 3 McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.Figure 6. 2004 ..

2004 . Inc..9 Analog hierarchy McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.Figure 6.

If we divide 25 MHz into 30 KHz. we get 833. creating 30 KHz of modulated signal. How many people can use their cellular phones simultaneously? Solution Each band is 25 MHz.. McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.33. Inc. is used for sending. Each user has a bandwidth of 30 KHz in each direction. 824 to 849 MHz.Example 4 The Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) uses two bands. In reality. and 869 to 894 MHz is used for receiving. The first band. 2004 . the band is divided into 832 channels. The 3KHz voice is modulated using FM.

Inc.2 WDM Wave Division Multiplexing McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.6. 2004 ..

Figure 6. Inc. 2004 ..10 WDM McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2004 ..Note: WDM is an analog multiplexing technique to combine optical signals. Inc.

Inc.11 Prisms in WDM multiplexing and demultiplexing McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.. 2004 .Figure 6.

3 TDM Time Slots and Frames Interleaving Synchronizing Bit Padding Digital Signal (DS) Service T Lines Inverse TDM More TDM Applications McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.6.. 2004 . Inc.

Inc.. 2004 .Figure 6.12 TDM McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

2004 . McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.Note: TDM is a digital multiplexing technique to combine data. Inc..

Figure 6..13 TDM frames McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. 2004 .

Example 5 Four 1-Kbps connections are multiplexed together. (2) the transmission rate of the link. 4. 2. The rate of the link is 4 Kbps. 3. and (4) the duration of a frame? Solution We can answer the questions as follows: 1.. 2004 . The duration of 1 bit is 1/1 Kbps. McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.001 s (1 ms). The duration of a frame 1 ms. (3) the duration of a time slot. or 0. The duration of each time slot 1/4 ms or 250 ms. Inc. A unit is 1 bit. Find (1) the duration of 1 bit before multiplexing.

the data rate of the link is n times faster. Inc.. 2004 . McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.Note: In a TDM. and the unit duration is n times shorter.

Figure 6.14 Interleaving McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.. 2004 .

Example 6 Four channels are multiplexed using TDM. the size of the frame. Solution The multiplexer is shown in Figure 6. and the bit rate for the link. the frame rate. If each channel sends 100 bytes/s and we multiplex 1 byte per channel. 2004 .15. show the frame traveling on the link. McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. the duration of a frame. Inc..

15 Example 6 McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.Figure 6.. 2004 .

McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. What is the frame rate? What is the frame duration? What is the bit rate? What is the bit duration? Solution Figure 6.Example 7 A multiplexer combines four 100-Kbps channels using a time slot of 2 bits.16 shows the output for four arbitrary inputs. Inc. 2004 . Show the output with four arbitrary inputs..

. Inc. 2004 .Figure 6.16 Example 7 McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

17 Framing bits McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.Figure 6.. 2004 .

2004 . (2) the duration of each character in each source. and (6) the data rate of the link. find (1) the data rate of each source. If the interleaved unit is a character and 1 synchronizing bit is added to each frame. (4) the duration of each frame. (5) the number of bits in each frame.. each creating 250 characters per second.Example 8 We have four sources. Solution See next slide. Inc. (3) the frame rate. McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Solution (continued) We can answer the questions as follows: 1.. or 4 ms. 3. The data rate of the link is 250 x 33. The duration of each frame is 1/250 s. The link needs to send 250 frames per second. 4. or 8250 bps. The data rate of each source is 2000 bps = 2 Kbps. 2004 . 6. Inc. McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. or 4 ms. 5. 2. The duration of a character is 1/250 s. Each frame is 4 x 8 + 1 = 33 bits.

The frame rate is 100. McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. or 10 ms. How this can be achieved? What is the frame rate? What is the frame duration? What is the bit rate of the link? Solution We can allocate one slot to the first channel and two slots to the second channel.000 s. or 300 Kbps. The bit rate is 100.Example 9 Two channels. 2004 . are to be multiplexed. Inc. one with a bit rate of 100 Kbps and another with a bit rate of 200 Kbps.. The frame duration is 1/100. Each frame carries 3 bits.000 frames/s x 3 bits/frame.000 frames per second because it carries 1 bit from the first channel.

18 DS hierarchy McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies..Figure 6. Inc. 2004 .

.176 Voice Channels 24 96 672 4032 McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.Table 6. 2004 .736 274. Inc.312 44.544 6.1 DS and T lines rates Service DS-1 DS-2 DS-3 DS-4 Line T-1 T-2 T-3 T-4 Rate (Mbps) 1.

2004 .Figure 6.. Inc.19 T-1 line for multiplexing telephone lines McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Inc..Figure 6. 2004 .20 T-1 frame structure McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

. 2004 . Inc.368 139.448 34.264 Voice Channels 30 120 480 1920 McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.Table 6.048 8.2 E line rates E Line E-1 E-2 E-3 E-4 Rate (Mbps) 2.

Inc. 2004 ..Figure 6.21 Multiplexing and inverse multiplexing McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

. 2004 . Inc.Multiplexing Multiplexing in 4 dimensions space (si) time (t) frequency (f) code (c) channels ki k1 c t c t s1 f s2 c t k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 Goal: multiple use of a shared medium Important: guard spaces needed! f s3 f McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

2004 . Inc..Frequency multiplex Separation of the whole spectrum into smaller frequency bands A channel gets a certain band of the spectrum for the whole time Advantages:  no dynamic coordination necessary k1 k2 k3 k4 k5  works also for analog signals c k6 Disadvantages:  waste of bandwidth if the traffic is distributed unevenly  inflexible  guard spaces t f McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

. Inc. 2004 .Time multiplex A channel gets the whole spectrum for a certain amount of time Advantages:  only one carrier in the medium at any time  throughput high even for many users Disadvantages:  precise synchronization necessary t c f k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Time and frequency multiplex Combination of both methods A channel gets a certain frequency band for a certain amount of time Example: GSM Advantages: better protection against tapping protection against frequency selective interference higher data rates compared to code multiplex but: precise coordination required t k1 c k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 f McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.. 2004 .

Code multiplex Each channel has a unique code All channels use the same spectrum at the same time Advantages:  bandwidth efficient  no coordination and synchronization necessary  good protection against interference and tapping Disadvantages:  lower user data rates  more complex signal regeneration Implemented using spread spectrum technology McGraw-Hill k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 c f t ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2004 .. Inc.

McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. 2004 ..