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Virtual surgery

By – Swetha reddy Rgit Bangalore

    Virtual surgery is simulation of surgical procedures virtually. . Using this concept for a medical surgeries is called virtual surgery. What is virtual? It is an artificial environment created with computer hardware and software and presented a way that it appears and feels like a real environment.

Thus it helps the surgeon to have a clear picture of the outcome of the surgery.WHAT IS VIRTUAL SURGERY Virtual surgery/virtual reality technique is nothing but simulating surgery procedure. which helps surgeons improve surgery plans as well as practice surgery process on 3D models before actually being carried out on the patient. .

The image is digitally mapped on to the polygonal mesh representing the respective part of the body For the user to interact with the graphics there must be software algorithms that can calculate whereabouts of virtual instrument. The are used to construct a image is digitally mapped on to the polygonal mesh .VIRTUAL SURGERY SIMLATION Generate a 3D model of the part of the body that undergoes the surgery Image can be constructed using MRI and CT scanned images. Computer graphics reference model. .

punctured by surgical instruments. how they react/behave when they are cut. puncture the various tissues. . Virtual reality designers hope to gain a better understanding of he mechanical behavior of various tissue and organs in the body For simulating touch sensation.TOUCH SIMULATION simulation of the surgery by simulating haptic-touch sensation/touch simulation.  Touch signals need to be refreshed up to once a millisecond. we have to calculate the forces applied to cut.

000 patient deaths each year in US alone.00. Effective learning about new techniques of surgeries. with reduced need for cadavers. minimizing of the medical mistakes can be ensured.   Vr provides a good tool to experiment the various complications that arise during the surgery By the use of virtual surgery. Students can actively participate in real-life events. It involves no significant risk.   Better training in anatomy and surgical skill. Procedure can be repeated many times. Structure can be rotated in three dimensions and viewed in its relationship to any other structure.      .Importance of Virtual surgery A recent report by institute of medicine in Washington DC estimates that medical errors may cause 1.

Detailed study of surgeries.VIRTUAL REALITY APPLICATIONS  1. The experience is highly interactive .Training  and Education: Student can repeat the procedures number of times.   . allowing students to strip away the layers of tissue and muscles to examine each organ separately.

Ex: liver resection on a 3D deformable liver model with the aid of virtual laproscopic tool    . Whereas in virtual reality. it reduces errors and plan surgery in most reliable manner. In traditional surgery planning. the surgeon calculates various parameters and procedures for surgery from his earlier experience and imagination.  Pre-surgical mapping of operating site.Surgical planning • Image constructions.

This is usually done through a masterslave robot. Computer aided surgery-the application of computational algorithm and vr visualization to diagnostic imaging.    4. with imaging supplies through video cameras configured to provide a stereoscopic view  .  3. preoperational surgical planning and intra operative surgical navigation. Telesurgery: It allows surgeons to operate on people who are physically separated from themselves. Image Guidance: Using MRI.CT images 3D images of organ or tissue can be constructed for surgery.

conclusion  The main limitation of virtual reality is the shortcomings In the realism of simulations and human-computer interface Today the simulations are less realistic but the future holds the promise of virtual cadaver that is nearly indistinguishable from a real person.   . Hope that this concept of virtual turns into a reality .