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# Volume Flow Measurements

Obstruction Meters
 Orifice Meters

 Venturi Meters

 Flow Nozzles

Flow through a Nozzle
2 2 1 1
2 1
2 2 2 1 1 1
2 1
v A v A
ible incompress
v A v A
Av m
m m
=
µ = µ
µ = µ
µ =
=

 
1
1
1
1
v
A
m
µ

2
2
2
2
v
A
m
µ

Basic Equations:
a.) Continuity:
mass in = mass out
b.) Bernoulli’s Eqn.
Total pressure is
constant throughout

pressure dynamic v
2
1
pressure total P
pressure static P
P P v
2
1
P v
2
1
P v
2
1
. const essure Pr Total P
Bernoulli
2
0
0 2
2
2 2 1
2
1 1
2
0
= µ
=
=
= + µ = + µ
+ µ =
= =
Flow through a Nozzle
µ
A
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
µ
A
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
= =
µ
A
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
P 2
A
A
1
1
YCA Q
Flow al Re For
Ideal
P 2
A
A
1
1
A v A Q
Rate Flow
P 2
A
A
1
1
v
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2 2 2
2
1
2
2
Flow through a Nozzle
AP 2 1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2 2
2
1 1
2
2 2 2 1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
µ µ
µ
µ µ
µ µ
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
÷ = ÷ = A
when
A
A
v
v
A
A
v
v v P P P
Flow through a Nozzle
Y = Compressibility Factor
=1 for incompressible flow
or when AP<< P
abs
C= Discharge Coefficient
=f(Re) and
nature of specific flow meter

AP
Flow through a Nozzle
P
Flow through a Venturi Meter
In a venturi, 0.95 < C < 0.98
Pressure recovery
Uses little power
Flow through a Venturi Meter
C
R
e
2 x 10
5
µ
µ
=
1 1
v d
e
R
0.98
Based upon the conditions in the pipe
approaching the meter
Back to the Nozzle
P
1
P
2
P
P
1
P
2
Shorter and cheaper than venturi
But larger pressure drop.
Thus, more power lost in operating.
The Nozzle Flowmeter
C
0.86
0.98
10
3
10
5
R
e
Flow Through an Orifice Meter
Flow Through an Orifice Meter
P
1
P
2
P
P1
d
D
Flow Through an Orifice Meter
-Cheapest and Simplest
-But biggest pressure drop and power lost (C~0.6 - 0.7)
-Side Note:
Pressure drop caused by friction and turbulence of shear
layer downstream of vena contracta
CM
A
A
C =
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
2
1
2
1
1
0.6
0.85
|=d/D
0.1 0.8
R
e
100k
5000
10k
Elbow Flowmeter
Laminar
Flowmeter
Pitot-Static Tubes
Rotameter, variable-area-flowmeter
 Force balance
Drag Force
Gravity
Buoyancy
 (usually negligible)
cal
use
cal use
m m
µ
µ
 
=
Derived on next
slide
D
MgA
D
Mg
A m
D
Mg
V
Mg
V
D F
V A m
2
2
2 2
2
2
µ
µ
µ
µ
µ
µ
= =
=
= =
=

For a fixed x-position, A is fixed. Then
cal
use
cal use
cal use
m m
m m
µ
µ
µ µ
 
 
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
Rotameter
Equations
Turbine Flow Meters
Vortex meters operate on the principle that when a non-streamlined
object is placed in the middle of a flow stream, vortices are shed
alternately downstream of the object. The frequency of the vortex
shedding is directly proportional to the velocity of the liquid
flowing in the pipeline.
Magnetic flowmeter
The fluid is the conductor, must be electrically conductive.
E=BDVx10
-8
E=voltage, volts
B=magnetic flux density, gauss
D= length of the conductor, cm
V=velocity of the conductor, cm/sec
Magnetic flowmeter
Magnetic Flow
Meter
Coriolis Mass Flow Meter
Coriolis Mass Flow Meter
Vibrating Flow Tube
Fluid Force is Reacting to Vibration
of Flow Tube
End View of Flow Tube
Showing Twist
Twist Angle
Twist Angle
Flow
Force
Flow Force
Flow
Flow
Coriolis Mass Flow Meter
Positive
Displacement
Meters

Obstruction Meters
 Orifice

Meters

 Venturi

Meters

 Flow

Nozzles

Flow through a Nozzle

  m1  m 2  m  Av 1A 1 v1   2 A 2 v 2 incompress ible 1   2 A 1 v1  A 2 v 2

Basic Equations: a.) Continuity: mass in = mass out b.) Bernoulli’s Eqn. Total pressure is constant throughout

 m1 1 A1 v1

 m2 2 A2 v2

Flow through a Nozzle Bernoulli P0  Total Pr essure  const. 1 2  v  P 2 1 1 2 2 1 v1  P1   2 v 2  P2  P0 2 2 P  static pressure P0  total pressure 1 2 v  dynamic pressure 2 .

Flow through a Nozzle  A2  1   A   1 Flow Rate Q  A2v2  A2 v2  1 2 2 P  1  A2  1   A   1 1 2 2 P  Ideal For Re al Flow Q  YCA 2  A2  1   A   1 2 2 P  .

Flow through a Nozzle P  P  P2  1 1 1 2  2 v2  1v12 2 2 2 1 1  A2  2 2   2 v2  1   v2 2 2  A1      A 2  1 2  v2 1   2     2   A1     when 1   2 P .

Flow through a Nozzle Y= Compressibility Factor =1 for incompressible flow or when P<< Pabs C= Discharge Coefficient =f(Re) and nature of specific flow meter P P .

98 Advantage: Pressure recovery Uses little power .Flow through a Venturi Meter In a venturi. 0.95 < C < 0.

Flow through a Venturi Meter 0.98 C 2 x 105 Re d 1 v 1 R  e  Based upon the conditions in the pipe approaching the meter .

Back to the Nozzle P1 P2 P1 P P2 .

86 103 Re 105 .98 C 0. 0. more power lost in operating. Thus.The Nozzle Flowmeter Shorter and cheaper than venturi But larger pressure drop.

Flow Through an Orifice Meter .

Flow Through an Orifice Meter P1 P2 d D P1 P .

6 .1 b=d/D 0.6 Re 10k 5000 100k 0.7) -Side Note: Pressure drop caused by friction and turbulence of shear layer downstream of vena contracta    1 C 2   A2   1   A    1  0.0.Flow Through an Orifice Meter -Cheapest and Simplest -But biggest pressure drop and power lost (C~0.8 .85      CM     0.

Elbow Flowmeter .

Laminar Flowmeter .

Pitot-Static Tubes .

Rotameter. variable-area-flowmeter  Force balance  Drag Force  Gravity  Buoyancy  (usually negligible)   muse  mcal Derived on next slide  use  cal .

Then  m   m             use   cal   muse  mcal  use  cal . A is fixed. m   AV Rotameter Equations V2 F  D  Mg 2 2 Mg V D 2 Mg 2 MgA2  m A   D D For a fixed x-position.

Turbine Flow Meters .

.Vortex meters operate on the principle that when a non-streamlined object is placed in the middle of a flow stream. vortices are shed alternately downstream of the object. The frequency of the vortex shedding is directly proportional to the velocity of the liquid flowing in the pipeline.

Magnetic flowmeter .

volts B=magnetic flux density. gauss D= length of the conductor.Magnetic flowmeter Based upon Faraday’s Law The fluid is the conductor. cm V=velocity of the conductor. must be electrically conductive. cm/sec . E=BDVx10-8 E=voltage.

Magnetic Flow Meter .

Coriolis Mass Flow Meter .

Coriolis Mass Flow Meter Flow Flow Force Flow Flow Force Vibrating Flow Tube Fluid Force is Reacting to Vibration of Flow Tube Twist Angle Twist Angle End View of Flow Tube Showing Twist .

Coriolis Mass Flow Meter .

Positive Displacement Meters .