Chapter 13: Descriptive and Exploratory Research




Describe Find Cause Populations Relationship and Effect Case study Developmental Research Normative Research Qualitative research Correlational, Predictive research

Descriptive/Exploratory Research

– To describe a phenomenon – To explore factors that influence and interact with it

Descriptive Research
– Document conditions, attitudes, or characteristics of individuals or groups of individuals

Descriptive Research  Exploratory Research: – Focuses on the relationships among these factors Descriptive and Exploratory Research: May be combined. depending on the research question Are considered nonexperimental or observational research (no data manipulation) .

Retrospective and Prospective Research  Retrospective Research – Data have been collected in the past Prospective Research Data are collected in the present (longitudinal studies) Prospective research is more reliable than retrospective .

Descriptive Research  Purpose of descriptive studies: – Document the nature of existing variables – How they change overtime – Structured around a set of guiding questions Descriptive data provide the basis for classifying data and for further questions .

institution. or other social unit  Case expansion of a case study (several similar cases are reported)  .Case Studies Purpose  In-depth description of an individual‟s condition or responses to treatment  Can also focus on a group.

Case Studies Most often:  Case studies emphasize unusual patient problems or diagnoses that present interesting clinical challenges  A case study is an intensive investigation designed to a analyze & understand factors important to the:  .

Case Studies –Etiology. and responses to intervention . present status. care. and outcome of subject‟s: –Background.

symptoms. delineation problems.Case Studies It begins with a: full history. and prior treatments. demographic and social factors that a relevant to the subject‟s care and prognosis .

subject‟s responses. or both  .Case Studies Literature should be cited to support treatment  Documentation of all interventions. and and10 followup should be complete  Data could be quantitative or qualitative.

Case Studies  Major Contributions: – Information generates hypothesis – A thorough analysis of a single situation may lead to discovery of non obvious relationships – “Case law” may lead to a conceptual form .

Case Studies Provides an opportunity for understanding the totality of an individual‟s experience  Limitations:  – Limited generalizability from one case to another due to lack of control .

Longitudinal study.Developmental Research Involves the description of developmental change and the sequencing of behavior in people over time (Erickson. Piaget)  Methods used to document change:  1.follows a cohort of subjects over time .

attrition.Developmental Research  Advantage of longitudinal method: – Ability to accumulate data through intensive documentation of growth and change in the same individuals Disadvantages: Money. long term commitment. and confounding variables .

Developmental Research 2. Cross-Sectional Method.studies a stratified group of subjects at one-point in time This method is used more often than longitudinal method because its efficiency as subjects are tested once at the same time .

Developmental Research  Disadvantages of Cross-Sectional method: • Selection of subjects (results reflect extraneous factors) • “Cohort Effects” (effects are not age-specific but rather generation or time of birth) .

Developmental Research Provides valuable information for generating correlational or experimental hypothesis/es  Generates developmental theories  .

culture. or disability .Normative Studies Purpose:  To describe typical or standard values for characteristics of a given population  Directed toward:  – A specific age group. occupation. gender.

6 m/s . with a normal range of 49.5 meters/sec.5 to 63.Normative Research  Norms are usually expressed in terms of: – Mean (within a range of acceptable values) – Normal nerve conduction velocity of the Ulnar nerve is expressed as 57.

Normative Research  The “norm” is used as a basis for: Prescribing corrective interventions Predicting future performance Researchers must be aware of sampling biases .

Qualitative Research  Quantitative Methods: – Based on „Logical positivism” – Concept/constructs can be measured and assigned numbers Qualitative Methods: Based on observing the “complex nature of humans” .

Qualitative Research  Purpose: To understand the patient‟s perspective To describe how individuals perceive their own experiences within a specific context  To seek an understanding why something occurs (Phantom pain) .

Qualitative Research  Methods of Data collection: – Interviews – Observations  Data Analysis and Interpretation – Data are recorded in the narrative – Content analysis – Themes .

Qualitative Research  “Measurement error” – In terms of judgments not numerical equivalency Sampling Size .

Exploratory Research  The systematic investigation of relationship among two or more variables  Purpose: – To describe relationships – To predict the effects of one variable on another – To test relationships that are supported by clinical theory .

Exploratory Research  Exploratory research is guided by a set of hypotheses – Operational definition – Statistical testing .

Correlation– Measures the degree of association among variables – A function of covariation of the data (the extent that one variable varies directly or indirectly with another variable) .Exploratory Research  The foundation of exploratory research is the process of: 1.

Exploratory Research The strength of this relationship is measured by a correlation statistic – Pearson Correlation r (how close the correlation coefficient is to +1or -1 2. RegressionPredicts the score on an outcome variable by knowing the values of other variables .

Chapter 13  Now you know all about Descriptive and Exploratory Research .

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