01. WCDMA Fundamentals | High Speed Packet Access | 3 G

WCDMA Fundamentals

3GRPESS – MODULE 1

I insert classification level 1 © Nokia Siemens Networks

3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development

Module 1 – WCDMA Fundamentals
Objectives

• After this module the participant shall be able to:• Understand the main cellular standards and allocated frequency bands • Understand the main properties of WCDMA air interface including HSPA technology • Recognize the main Nokia RRM functions and their main tasks

2

© Nokia Siemens Networks

3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development

Module Contents
• Standardisation and frequency bands • Main properties of UMTS Air Interface • Overview of Nokia Radio Resource Management (RRM)

• HSPA technology

3

© Nokia Siemens Networks

3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development

Module Contents
• Standardisation and frequency bands
• Standardisation of 3G cellular networks • IMT-2000 frequency allocations • UMTS – FDD Frequency band evolution

• Main properties of UMTS Air Interface • Overview of Nokia Radio Resource Management (RRM) • HSPA technology

4

© Nokia Siemens Networks

3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development

Standardisation of 3G cellular networks
• ITU (Global guidelines and recommendations)
• IMT-2000: Global standard for third generation (3G) wireless communications

• 3GPP is a co-operation between standardisation bodies
ETSI (Europe), ARIB/TTC (Japan), CCSA (China), ATIS (North America) and TTA (South Korea)

• GSM
• EDGE

• UMTS
• WCDMA - FDD • WCDMA - TDD

• TD-SCDMA

• 3GPP2 is a co-operation between standardisation bodies
ARIB/TTC (Japan), CCSA (China), TIA (North America) and TTA (South Korea)

• CDMA2000
• CDMA2000 1x • CDMA2000 1xEV-DO

5

© Nokia Siemens Networks

3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development

IMT-2000 frequency allocations 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 MHz Mobile Satellite IMT-2000 ITU UMTS (TDD) IMT-2000 UMTS (TDD) GSM 1800 UMTS (FDD) Mobile Satellite Europe UMTS (FDD) IMT-2000 (TDD) UMTS (TDD) Mobile Satellite IMT-2000 Japan IMT-2000 PCS unlicensed Mobile Satellite PCS PCS USA 6 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development Mobile Satellite Mobile Satellite PHS Mobile Satellite DECT Mobile Satellite .

GSM850 Japan • New in Release 5 • New in Release 6 • New in Release 7 GSM900 Japan Not supported by RU10 RAN 7 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .1 GHz band US cellular.9 MHz 2110 –2170 MHz 1930 –1990 MHz 1805-1880 MHz 2110-2155 MHz 869-894MHz 875-885 MHz 2620-2690 MHz 925-960 MHz 1844.9 MHz UMTS only in Europe.UMTS – FDD Frequency band evolution • Release 99 • I • II • III • IV • V • VI • VII • VIII • IX 1920 – 1980 MHz 1850 –1910 MHz 1710-1785 MHz 1710-1755 MHz 824-849MHz 830-840 MHz 2500-2570 MHz 880-915 MHz 1749. Japan US PCS.9-1879.9-1784. GSM1900 GSM1800 US 2.

GSM • CDMA principle • Processing gain • WCDMA codes and bit rates • Overview of Nokia Radio Resource Management (RRM) • HSPA technology 8 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .Module Contents • Standardisation and frequency bands • Main properties of UMTS Air Interface • UMTS Air interface technologies • WCDMA – FDD • WCDMA vs.

UMTS Air Interface technologies • UMTS Air interface is built based on two technological solutions • WCDMA – FDD • WCDMA – TDD • WCDMA – FDD is the more widely used solution • FDD: Separate UL and DL frequency band • WCDMA – TDD technology is currently used in limited number of networks • TDD: UL and DL separated by time. basic planning principles apply to both technologies 9 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development . utilizing same frequency • Both technologies have own dedicated frequency bands • This course concentrates on design principles of WCDMA – FDD solution.

WCDMA – FDD technology • Multiple access technology is wideband CDMA (WCDMA) • All cells at same carrier frequency • Spreading codes used to separate cells and users • Signal bandwidth 3.84 MHz • Multiple carriers can be used to increase capacity • Inter-Frequency functionality to support mobility between frequencies • Compatibility with GSM technology • Inter-System functionality to support mobility between GSM and UMTS 10 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .

84 MHz Users share same time and frequency 5+5 MHz in FDD mode 5 MHz in TDD mode Direct Sequence (DS) CDMA Time WCDMA 5 MHz. 1 carrier TDMA (GSM) 5 MHz.WCDMA Technology Frequency f 5 MHz WCDMA Carrier 3. 25 carriers 11 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .

UMTS & GSM Network Planning GSM900/1800: 3G (WCDMA): 12 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .

but can be applied Efficient packet data 13 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .Differences between WCDMA & GSM High bit rates WCDMA Carrier spacing Frequency reuse factor Power control frequency Quality control Frequency diversity 5 MHz 1 1500 Hz Radio resource management algorithms 5 MHz bandwidth gives multipath diversity with Rake receiver Load-based packet scheduling Supported for improving downlink capacity GSM 200 kHz 1–18 2 Hz or lower Network planning (frequency planning) Frequency hopping Services with Different quality requirements Packet data Downlink transmit diversity Timeslot based scheduling with GPRS Not supported by the standard.

100 m F1 Macro BTS Micro BTS F3 Pico BTSs 14 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .10 km F3 F2 F2 F3 200 .Multiple WCDMA carriers – Layered network 1 .500 m 50 .

Chips & Bits & Symbols Bits (In this drawing. 1 bit = 8 Chips  SF=8) +1 Baseband Data -1 Chip Spreading Code Chip +1 -1 Spread Signal +1 -1 Air Interface +1 -1 +1 Data -1 15 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .CDMA principle .

Energy Box Energy per bit = Eb = const Originating Bit Received Bit Duration (t = 1/Rb) Higher spreading factor  Wider frequency band  Lower power spectral density BUT Same Energy per Bit 16 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .

Spreading & Processing Gain Power density (Watts/Hz) User bit rate R Unspread narrowband signal Spread wideband signal Frequency Bandwidth W (3.84 Mchip Processing gain: sec W G p dB  R 17 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .84 Mchip/sec) W  const  3.

2 kbit/s) R Power density (W/Hz) Gp=W/R=24.98 dB • Spreading sequences have a different length • Processing gain depends on the user data rate Frequency (Hz) Packet data user (R=384 kbit/s) R Power density (W/Hz) Gp=W/R=10 dB Frequency (Hz) 18 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .Processing Gain Examples Voice user (R=12.

Transmission Power Power density High bit rate user Frequency 5MHz Low bit rate user Time 19 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .

defines physical channel bit rate • UL: separates physical channels of one user.WCDMA Codes • In WCDMA two separate codes are used in the spreading operation • Channelisation code • Scrambling code • Channelisation code • DL: separates physical channels of different users and common channels. defines physical channel bit rate • Scrambling code • DL: separates cells in same carrier frequency • UL: separates users 20 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .

DL Spreading and Multiplexing in WCDMA CHANNELISATION codes: CODE 1 Pilot Radio frame = 15 time slots P-CPICH Pilot X CODE 2 BCCH User 1 User 2 BCCH P-CCPCH X CODE 3 User 3 SUM User 1 X CODE 4 DPCH1 + SCRAMBLING CODE X Time User 2 X CODE 5 DPCH2 3.84 MHz RF carrier User 3 X DPCH3 RF 3.84 MHz bandwidth 21 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .

DL & UL Channelisation Codes • Walsh-Hadamard codes: orthogonal variable spreading factor codes (OVSF codes) • SF for the DL transmission in FDD mode = {4. 8. 256. 16. 32. 16. 512} • SF for the UL transmission in FDD mode = {4. 64. 128. 8. where synchronisation between different channels can be guaranteed • Downlink channels under one cell • Uplink channels from a single user • Orthogonal codes have bad auto correlation properties and thus not suited in an asynchronous environment • Scrambling code required to separate signals between cells in DL and users in UL 22 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development . 64. 256} • Good orthogonality properties: cross correlation value for each code pair in the code set equals 0 • In theoretical environment users of one cell do not interfere each other in DL • In practical multipath environment orthogonality is partly lost  Interference between users of same cell • Orthogonal codes are suited for channel separation. 128. 32.

.......] C16(3)=[. .] C16(9)=[. ........] C16(14)=[............... SF=25 SF=51 6 2 C4(1)=[11-1-1] C8(3)=[11-1-1-1-111] C0(0)=[1 ] C8(0)=[1-11-11-11-1] C4(2)=[1-11-1] C8(5)=[1-11-1-11-11] C2(1)=[1-1] C8(6)=[1-1-111-1-11] C4(3)=[1-1-11] C8(7)=[1-1-11-111-1] .... ..] 23 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development ..... . .......... . ...] C16(15)=[. ............] C16(7)=[.] C16(5)=[..] C16(10)=[....] C16(2)=[.......] C16(6)=[..... ......] C16(1)=[.. .........Channelisation Code Tree SF= 1 SF= 2 SF= 4 C4(0)=[1111] C8(1)=[1111-1-1-1-1] C2(0)=[11] C8(2)=[11-1-111-1-1] SF= 8 C8(0)=[11111111] SF=1 6 C16(0)=[........ ...] C16(13=[..... ...] C16(11)=[.] C16(4)=[............... ..... .............. ..] C16(8)=[................... ] C16(12)=[.......

) 1–3 kbps Half rate speech 6–12 kbps Full rate speech 20–24 kbps 45 kbps 105 kbps 128 kbps 215 kbps 384 kbps 456 kbps 936 kbps 2.3 Mbps 2 Mbps 512 256 128 64 32 16 8 4 4.Physical Layer Bit Rates (DL) S preading factor C hannel symbol rate (ksps) 7. with 3 parallel codes W RSymbol  SF 24 © Nokia Siemens Networks Rb _ phy  2  RSymbol (QPSK modulation) 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .5 15 30 60 120 240 480 960 2880 C hannel bit rate (kbps) 15 30 60 120 240 480 960 1920 5760 DP H DC channel bit rate range (kbps) 3–6 12–24 42–51 90 210 432 912 1872 5616 Maximum user data rate with ½rate coding (approx.

4 Mbps 3.2 Mbps 1.4 Mbps 3.8 Mbps 9.2 Mbps 10.2 Mbps 15 codes 1.8 Mbps 2.HSDPA • 3GPP Release 5 standards introduced enhanced DL bit rates with High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) technology • Shared high bit rate channel between users – High peak bit rates • Simultaneous usage of up to 15 DL channelisation codes (In HSDPA SF=16) • Higher order modulation scheme (16-QAM)  Higher bit rate in same band • 16-QAM provides 4 bits per symbol  960 kbit/s / code physical channel peak rate HSDPA Coding rate Coding rate 1/4 QPSK 2/4 3/4 2/4 16QAM 3/4 5 codes 600 kbps 1.6 Mbps 4.4 Mbps 7.6 Mbps 10 codes 1.2 Mbps 2.4 Mbps 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .8 Mbps 3.7 Mbps 4/4 25 © Nokia Siemens Networks 4.6 Mbps 5.6 Mbps 14.Physical Layer Bit Rates (DL) .8 Mbps 7.

32 Mbps 5.46 Mbps 1.88 Mbps 4.92 Mbps 2 x SF2 1.Physical Layer Bit Rates (UL) .88 Mbps 3.76 Mbps 26 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .84 Mbps 2 x SF2 + 2 x SF4 2.92 Mbps 2.HSUPA • 3GPP Release 6 standards introduced enhanced UL bit rates with High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSUPA) technology • Fast allocation of available UL capacity for users – High peak bit rates • Simultaneous usage of up to 2+2 UL channelisation codes (In HSUPA SF=2 – 4) Coding rate 1/2 3/4 4/4 1 x SF4 480 kbps 720 kbps 960 kbps 2 x SF4 960 kbps 1.

DL & UL Scrambling Codes DL Scrambling Codes • Pseudo noise codes used for cell separation • 512 Primary Scrambling Codes UL Scrambling Codes • Two different types of UL scrambling codes are generated • Long scrambling codes of length of 38 400 chips = 10 ms radio frame • Short scrambling codes of length of 256 chips are periodically repeated to get the scrambling code of the frame length • Short codes enable advanced receiver structures in future 27 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .

Scrambling Codes & Multipath Propagation Scrambling code C1 C1+2 Scrambling code C2 UE has simultaneous connection to two cells (soft handover) 28 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .

RAKE Receiver Cell-1 Rx Cell-1 Rx Cell-1 Rx Cell-2 Rx t Delay 1 Delay 2 Code used for the connection Delay 3 Finger Finger Finger Output Finger • Combination or multipath components and signal from different cells 29 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .

does not affect transmission bandwidth Scrambling code Uplink: Separation of mobile Downlink: Separation of sectors (cells) Code family 30 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .0–66.Channelisation and Scrambling Codes Channelisation code Usage Uplink: Separation of physical data (DPDCH) and control channels (DPCCH) from same terminal Downlink: Separation of downlink connections to different users within one cell Length 4–256 chips (1.7 s) Downlink also 512 chips Different bit rates by changing the length of the code Number of codes Number of codes under one scrambling code = spreading factor Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor Uplink: (1) 10 ms = 38400 chips or (2) 66.7 s = 256 chips Option (2) can be used with advanced base station receivers Downlink: 10 ms = 38400 chips Uplink: 16.8 million Downlink: 512 Long 10 ms code: Gold code Short code: Extended S(2) code family Spreading Yes. increases transmission bandwidth No.

Module Contents • Standardisation and frequency bands • Main properties of UMTS Air Interface • Overview of Nokia Radio Resource Management (RRM) • Load control • Admission Control • Packet Scheduler • Resource Manager • Power Control • Handover Control • HSPA technology 31 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .

Radio Resource Management • RRM is responsible for optimal utilisation of the radio resources: • Transmission power and interference • Logical codes • The trade-off between capacity. coverage and quality is done all the time • Minimum required quality for each user (nothing less and nothing more)  Maximum number of users • The radio resources are continuously monitored and optimised by several RRM functionalities service quality Optimization and Tailoring cell coverage 32 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development cell capacity .

RRM Functionalities • LC Load Control LC RM PS AC For each cell • AC Admission Control • PS Packet Scheduler • RM Resource Manager • PC Power Control • HC HO Control PC HC For each connection/user 33 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .

Load Control (LC) • LC performs the function of load control in association with AC & PS • LC updates load status using measurements & estimations provided by AC and PS • Continuously feeds cell load information to PS and AC. • Interference levels (UL) • BTS power level (DL) Load change info AC LC Load status NRT load PS 34 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .

Load Control – Load Status • Load thresholds set by radio network planning parameters Overload threshold x Load Target threshold y Overload Load Margin Normal load Power Time Free capacity Measured load 35 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .

maximum and minimum power) 36 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development . • Connection specific power allocation (Initial.Admission Control (AC) • Checks that admitting a new user will not sacrifice planned coverage or quality of existing connections • Admission control handles three main tasks • Admission decision of new connections • Take into account current load conditions (from LC) and load increase by the new connection • Real-time higher priority than non-real time • In overload conditions no new connections admitted • Connection QoS definition • Bit rate. BER target etc.

Packet Scheduler (PS) • PS allocates available capacity after real-time (RT) connections to non-real time (NRT) connections • Each cell separately • Based on QoS priority level of the connection • In overload conditions bit rates of NRT connections decreased • PS selects allocated channel type (common. dedicated or HSPA) • PS relies on up-to-date information from AC and LC • Capacity allocated on a needs basis using „best effort‟ approach • RT higher priority 37 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .

Resource Manager (RM) • Responsible for managing the logical radio resources of the RNC in co-operation with AC and PS • On request for resources. from either AC(RT) or PS(NRT). RM allocates: • DL spreading code • UL scrambling code Code Type Scrambling codes Uplink User separation Downlink Cell separation Users within one cell Spreading codes Data & control channels from same UE 38 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .

Power control (PC) in WCDMA • Fast. accurate power control is of utmost importance – particularly in UL. • UEs transmit continuously on same frequency  Always interference between users • Poor PC leads to increased interference  reduced capacity • Every UE accessing network increase interference • PC target to minimise the interference  Minimize transmit power of each link while still maintaining the link quality (BER) • Mitigates 'near far effect„ in UL by providing minimum required power for each connection • Power control has to be fast enough to follow changes in propagation conditions (fading) • Step up/down 1500 times/second 39 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .

Uplink power control target • Minimise required UL received power  minimised UL transmit power and interference Target: min(Prx1) & min(Prx2) About equal when Rb1 = Rb2 Ptx1 Ptx1 UE1 UE2 40 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .

Power Control types • Power control functionality can be divided to three main types • Open loop power control • Initial power calculation based on DL pilot level/pathloss measurement by UE • Outer (closed) loop power control • Connection quality measurement (BER. BLER) and comparison to QoS target • RF quality target (SIR target) setting for fast closed loop PC based on connection quality • Fast closed loop power control • Radio link RF quality (SIR) measurement and comparison to RF quality target (SIR target) • Power control command transmission based on RF quality evaluation • Change of transmit power according to received power control command 41 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .

Power Control types Open Loop Power Control (Initial Access) MS Closed Loop Power Control BS DL Outer Loop Power Control UL Outer Loop Power Control RN C BLER target 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development 42 © Nokia Siemens Networks .

Power control in HSPA • In HSDPA (DL) the transmit power from base station is kept constant and the signal modulation and coding is adapted according to the channel conditions • 2 ms interval  500 Hz • In HSUPA (UL) • The power control of HSUPA channels in UL utilise both • Fast closed loop power control • Outer loop power control • Both work according to similar principles as the dedicated channel power control 43 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .

Handover Control (HC) • HC is responsible for: • Managing the mobility aspects of an RRC connection as UE moves around the network coverage area • Maintaining high capacity by ensuring UE is always served by strongest cell • Soft handover • MS handover between different base stations • Softer handover • MS handover within one base station but between different sectors • Hard handover • MS handover between different frequencies or between WCDMA and GSM 44 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .

Soft/softer handover • UE is simultaneously connected to 2 to 3 cells during soft handover • Soft handover is performed based on UE cell pilot power measurements and handover thresholds set by radio network planning parameters • Radio link performance is improved during soft handover • Soft handover consumes base station and transmission resources BS1 Received signal strength Soft handover Threshold BS1 BS2 BS3 BS2 BS3 Distance from BS1 45 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .

Hard handover • Hard handovers are typically performed between WCDMA frequencies and between WCDMA and GSM cells GSM/GPRS GSM/GPRS Inter-System handovers (ISHO) f1 f1 Inter-Frequency handovers (IFHO) f2 f2 f2 f2 46 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .

Module Contents • Standardisation and frequency bands • Main properties of UMTS Air Interface • Overview of Nokia Radio Resource Management (RRM) • HSPA technology 47 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .

redundancy Fast Link Adaptation Advanced Scheduling Benefit Higher Downlink Peak rates: 14 Mbps Higher Capacity: +100-200% Reduced Latency: ~75 ms 48 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .HSDPA Overview 15 Code Shared transmission 16QAM Modulation TTI = 2 ms Hybrid ARQ with incr.

HSUPA Overview 1-4 Code Multi-Code transmission TTI = 10 ms Hybrid ARQ with incr.0 Mbps Higher Capacity: +50-100% Reduced Latency: ~50-75 ms 49 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development . redundancy Fast Power Control NodeB ControlledS cheduling Benefit Higher Uplink Peak rates: 2.

and 2 Mbps (11.HSxPA Motivation and General Principle • Improved performance and spectral efficiency in DL and UL by introducing a shared channel principle: • Significant enchancement with peak rates up to 14. high response time Rel. no site pre-planning necessary • Improved end user experience: reduced delay/latency.4 Mbps (28 Mbps in Rel7) in DL. 99 Dedicated pipe for every UE HSUPA (3GPP Rel6) Dedicated pipe for every UE in UL Pipe (codes and grants) changing with time E-DCH scheduling HSDPA (3GPP Rel5) Fast pipe is shared among UEs 50 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .5 Mbps with 16QAM) in UL • Huge capacity increase per site.

UL DCH vs HSDPA vs HSUPA Concepts HSUPA is like “reversed HSDPA”. except HSDPA Modulation Soft handover Fast power control Scheduling Non-scheduled transmission QPSK and 16-QAM No No Point to multipoint No HSUPA BPSK and Dual-BPSK Yes Yes Multipoint to point Yes. for minimum/ guaranteed bit rate Efficient UE power amplifier Required for near-far avoidance Scheduling cannot be as fast as in HSDPA Similar to R99 DCH but with HARQ HSUPA could be better described as Enhanced DCH in the uplink than “reversed HSDPA” HSUPA (E-DCH) is an uplink DCH with BTS-based HARQ and scheduling and true multicode support Feature Variable spreading factor Multicode transmission Fast power control Soft handover Adaptive modulation BTS based scheduling Fast L1 HARQ 51 © Nokia Siemens Networks DCH Yes Yes (No in practice) HSUPA Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes HSDPA No Yes No No (associated DCH only) Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .

Power control in HSPA • In HSDPA (DL) the transmit power from base station is kept constant and the signal modulation and coding is adapted according to the channel conditions • 2 ms interval  500 Hz • In HSUPA (UL) • The power control of HSUPA channels in UL utilise both • Fast closed loop power control • Outer loop power control • Both work according to similar principles as the dedicated channel power control 52 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .

HSPA mobility • HSDPA • Soft handover on associated DCH channels (signalling. UL data) • Serving cell change for HSDPA data channel • Connected only to one cell at a time Notice that soft/softer handover is not supported for HS-SCCH/HS-PDSCH HS-SCCH Serving HS-DSCH cell HS-PDSCH DPCH DPCH • HSUPA • Soft handover utilised for uplink channels as required due to near-far problem • Only Serving Cell can allocate more UL capacity/power 53 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .

US-based and Asian/Japanese frequency bands • WCDMA air interface utilises combination of two spreading codes • Radio Resource Management is responsible of efficient utilisation of radio resources while offering required quality of service to users • HSPA technology can provide higher air interface efficiency 54 © Nokia Siemens Networks 3G Radio Planning Essentials / NPO Capability Development .Module 1 – WCDMA Fundamentals Summary • Radio interface technology of UMTS is WCDMA with FDD and TDD versions • WCDMA networks can be built on European.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful