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“Market Survey of Minex Range of Treatment Alloys in Steel Sector in India, till 2017, Analyzing the value creating platform in this sector and strategy to be followed. ”
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Presence of Minex in Steel Industry
Processes = Hot Metal
SMS = Crude Steel
Continuous Casting and Finished Goods
Minex Treatment Alloys
Metallurgical Process Involved
Understanding of Metallurgical Processes Integrated Steel Plant • Blast Furnace Basic Oxygen Furnace Ladle Treatment Continuous Casting Rolling Flat or Long Products • Through BOF. • Secondary Steel Refining is done through Ladle Treatment and Various other furnaces like Degassers and Decarburizes. • Crude Steel obtained from EAF is used for producing special steels. broad steel specifications can be achieved. with no substantial refining required. . Mini Steel Plants • Electric Arc Furnace Ladle Treatment Continuous Casting Rolling Mostly Long Products • EAF is basically a metal melting furnace.
• P : Segregates during solidification. Mn increases strength without affecting ductility and reduces hot shortness. . impairs plastic properties.Effect of Impurity Elements • S : Segregates during solidification. Hot shortness due to formation of FeS during solidification. • Si and Mn : Si reduces drawing capacity of steel. Development of tears and cracks while reheating. Sulphide inclusions lower weldability and corrosion resistance.
. • Inclusions : Inclusions present at grain boundaries • Tramp Elements : (Cu. Zn.) Create problem Note: Whether Carbon or Alloyed ones.• Gases : N impairs plastic properties. fish-scale fracture. weakens intra-granular bonds. Increases embrittlement at lower temperatures. during reheating of steels as their melting points are much lower than that of steel reheat temperature. H causes defects such as flakes. all steels contain impurities and these impurities are to be controlled during Steelmaking. Sb etc. Stress Concentrators. Excess O2 causes formation of blowholes and oxide inclusions.
CAS-OB unit etc. VAD (Vacuum Arc Degasser). LF (ladle furnace).O. • O and S forms inclusion. .P. • Treatment of liquid steel is done in special units. . • Harmful Impurities in Steel: S.N & H.Secondary Steel Refining • Important for Continuous Casting which requires stringent Quality Control.
Dissolution is faster because of high turbulence and stirring • • • VD: Vacuum Degassing • VOD: Vacuum-Oxygen Decarburization • IGP: Inert Gas Purging • IM: Injection Metallurgy • AOD: Argon-Oxygen Decarburization • • • • • Degassing Decarburization Desulphurization Reheating Alloying Additions . it’s wires are used CAS-OB (Composition Adjustment by Sealed Ar Bubbling) Temperature can be raised by exothermic heat supplied by aluminum oxidation.LF (Ladle Furnace) Deoxidation and Composition Adjustments Temperature Adjustments by Arc Heating (graphite electrodes) Bath Stirring by Argon purging from bottom/top lancing For improved utilization of Aluminum.
Ca as ferromanganese. calcium silicide) in the ladle. Al. Ca > Al > Si > Mn (Decreasing strength of deoxidizers) Decarburization Carbon content below 20ppm Desulphurization Levels below 0. Si.• • • • • Inert Gas (Ar) Degassing Stirring = Homogenization of Temperature and Composition Faster Oxidation and Floatation of Inclusions Deoxidation Addition of strong oxide formers (Mn. ferrosilicon.01% required during secondary steelmaking It is done by addition of a synthetic slag. silico-manganese. Deep desulphurization can be done by the injection of powders like Calcium Silicide. Vacuum-oxygen Decarburization Developed for stainless steel refining Used for the production of ultra-low carbon steels (RH-OB also used) . aluminum.
degassing. inclusion removal RH Degasser (Melt Circulation) Vacuum Arc Degassing Heating done by the arc with graphite electrodes. • Argon-oxygen Decarburization Dilution of Oxygen with Argon lowers the partial pressure of CO. which helps in preferential removal of CO without oxidizing Chromium Bath. slag treatment and alloy adjustments are done without interrupting the vacuum. C content less than 0. Heating.03% required in all SS grades • • • .Vacuum Degassing Desulphurization Heating Alloying Melt Homogenization Ar Injection – good homogenization. fast processing.
Primary Steelmaking BOF/EAF + of Al wire feedings • Additions • Ar Purging • Arc Heating Argon Stirring • Additions • Arc/Chemical Heating • Ar Injection Ladle Treatment Ladle Furnace Vacuum Degassing Ladle Holding Ca Treatment Tundish Continuous Casting .
Raises creep strength and hot hardness.Alloying Elements and their Effect Elements Aluminum Boron Effects Deoxidizer. Oxidation resistance Increases machinability Counteracts bitterness of Sulphur. Also mild hardening agent. Acts as deoxidizer. Enhances corrosion resistance and increases wear resistance Increases strength and toughness . Grain refiner and occasionally alloying agent in steel Increases hardenability Carbon Chromium Lead Manganese Molybdenum Nickel Increases hardenability and strength Increases corrosion and wear resistance . combines with Sulphur – improves hot-working properties Deep hardening.
Helps electrical and magnetic properties. Controls the shape. size and distribution of oxide and sulphide inclusions . Reduces hardness in stainless steel Increases wear resistance and raises hot strength and hot hardness Vanadium Calcium Increases hardenability (CaSi) Potent deoxidizer and desulphurizer.Phosphorous Silicon Sulphur Titanium Tungsten Increases Strength and Machinability and atmospheric Corrosion Resistance Deoxidizer. improves hardness and oxidation resistance Increases machinability but damages hot-forming characteristics Forms carbides.
Steel Industry : Parameters. Growth and Prospects .
• Per capita consumption of steel in India is 49 kg against the world average of 182 kg. • The steel demand drivers in India are manufacturing. • India aspires to produce 276 million tonne of steel and become the second largest producer of steel by 2015-2016. . construction and auto sector.Steel Industry : Some facts • India stands fifth in the world with the production of 66.80 million tons of crude steel.
• Observed and Expected CAGR is around 8%. • % share of Alloy Steel Production has increased. • 1114 units of Induction furnaces with capacity of 24. • 38 EAFs with the installed capacity of 18.• % Production share of secondary steel producers has increased.04mtpa. .40mtpa.
General Strategies Business Tools • Acquisition of natural resources • Technology buying and process innovation • Production of new and improved grades of steel • Equipment Modification and Plant Expansion • Mergers and Acquisitions .
Technology Innovations • Low Ash Cokes • Futuristic Technology for alternate reductants like Hydrogen • Process Simulators .
06mtpa 18.wise Producers Main Producers Major Producers Other Producers Process-wise Process BOF EAF IF Capacity 38.Production & Capacity Plant Size.9mtpa 26.04mtpa 24.6mtpa 25mtpa .40mtpa Capacity 28.
Other Producers Installed Capacity 8.6mtpa 3mtpa 10mtpa 3mtpa 2mtpa 25mtpa . Bhushan Power & Steel Ltd.81mtpa 6.3mtpa Major producers Essar Steel Limited JSPL JSW Ispat Industries Ltd.8mtpa 6.Main Producers SAIL Tata Steel VIZAG Steel Installed Capacity 15. Bhushan Steel Ltd.
5mtpa installed capacity • Production units are widely distributed • Stainless and Special Steel Producers majorly come in this category • Their share of production and products are not mapped properly.Other Producers • Producers with less than 0. .
SiliconElectrical Steel and High Speed Steel End Use Structural Steel Construction Steel Deep Drawing Steel Forging Quality Rail Steel Finished : Long and Flat products . Medium(0.Categorization of Steel Products Steel Form/Shape/Size Semi-finished : Ingots/blooms/B illets/Slabs/Thin Slabs Composition Non-Alloyed Steel: Mild(<0.3%).6%) and High(>0.6%) C Steel Alloyed Steel : Stainless Steel.3-0.
New and Improved Grades of Steel Construction Fire resistant Steel Vibration Damping Sheets Manufacturing Auto Dual phase Steel TRIP Steel Weather resistant Steels Special type of wide flanged beams Seismic resistant AHSS Grade Nano Steel Ultra fine grain Steel New Grades of Steel : Examples Quenched Tempered Plate for Gun Carriage DMR 249 Grade “B” Q&T for Aircraft Carrier Roof / rock bolt Fe 600 TMT Rebars for Mines and Tunnel .
Thin Gauge High Strength HR Coil for high strength LPG Customized CR products for electrolytic precipitator Nitrovan Steel Plates for ATM Chest Cr – V 110 UTA Rails for high speed rails API X 80 / 100 Grade HR Coil and Pipes for Oil & Gas Sector CRGO Silicon Steel for Electric Transformers VARIOUS SHAPES Wide Flange & Parallel Flange Sections Cold Formed Structural Sections Hollow Structural Tubes High Tensile Wire Ropes .
Growth Parameters of Steel Industry • • • • • Production Product Range and Quality Raw Material Improvement and its’ Cost Business Tools and Market Demand Global Scenario and Industrial Policy .
Prospects of the Industry • Increase in Production Capacity • Business and Technology Innovation • Product Up gradation and Quality Improvement • Cost Reduction • Reducing Raw Material Requirement and Improving it’s Quality .
Process Feasibility Factors Cost of Installation and Operation Production Capacity and Quality Energy Requirements Environmental and labor Legislations Sustainability and Compatibility with other units • Raw Material Requirement • • • • • .
.Minex Metallurgical Co. Ltd.
Factors affecting Minex • • • • Processes Adopted Production Capacity Product Quality Product Specifications Modifications and Expansions Market Demand and Cost Improvement .
• Capacity expansion. • Process innovation in steel plants necessitates the product up gradation. • Product innovation is needed to cater to the new and improved grades of steel.Minex and Steel Industry • Proportionate rise in demand of Minex products as steel industry grows. . simultaneously with customer and market identification.
• Tata Steel is coming up with a new Thin Slab Caster which would increase their requirement of Calcium. • By modifying existing on-line purging system at RSP. . the consumption of deoxidizers (Al and Si-Mn) is observed to be decreased by 14% and 23%.
Categorization of Minex Products for Steel Industry • Broadly: Alloying Products and Refining Products Alloying Products: Micro Alloys and Alloying Elements Refining Products: Deoxidizers/Desulphurizers /Inclusion Modifiers • Minex Cored Wire. a type of product in the above categories .
produced from an ore with lower chrome content HC Ferro-Chrome Produced from higher grade ore Used in Engineering Steel with high Cr to Fe ratio and minimum levels of other elements such as S. Stainless Steel (10-20% Cr) Chrome below 56% = Charge Chrome.Product Analysis • Ferro Chrome Cr – 50-70 % Steel Industry : Largest Consumer. P and Ti LC Ferro Chrome Used during steel production to correct chrome % without causing undesirable variations in C and trace element percentages Low cost alternative to metallic chrome for uses in super alloys and other special melting applications .
Stainless and Heat resisting steel(13%) Effects Impacts doubling strength and toughness Weight reduction due to grain refining in carbon and HSLA steel First use in carbon pipelines. Component of the alloy All steels contain Mn : 0. End Uses: Carbon Steel(30%). construction and automobiles Added to stainless steel to stop embrittlement after welding . HSLA(22%). Alloy Steel(14%).• Ferro Manganese Desulphurizing agent and a Deoxidizer Make the slag more fluid.05-2%. reaching to 12% in some cases • Ferro Niobium World’s largest deposit of Niobium is in Brazil Mineral : Pyrochlore. Processed: Output is Ferro-Niobium with 65% niobium oxide.
high purity and low C) Used in production special steels Keep both the content of inclusions and C content into the final steels at very low level .• Ferro Silico Manganese Deoxidizer and alloying element Standard grade : 14-16% Si. used in manufacture of stainless steel Deoxidation with SiMn results in cleaner steel Liquid Manganese Silicate formed coagulates and separates easier from the melt Adds less P. 65-68% Mn and 2% C Special grade : Si up to 30%. C and N to steel • Ferro Silicon Remove oxygen from steel and alloying element Basis for manufacture of pre-alloys like Magnesium Ferro Silicon Special grades (low Al.
high resistance to corrosion and oxidation. forming insoluble compounds and sequestering them in slag Grain Refiner Promotes grain structure with steel matrix Improves malleability of carbon steel thereby increasing its’ versatility • Nickel High melting point. C. excellent heat resistant properties and a good alloying ability with many other metals Applications : Aerospace.• Ferro Titanium Titanium content 70% Low residual. military construction and consumer products Stainless steel production consumes around 65% of the Nickel produced. low melting point titanium alloy Cleansing Agent Highly reactive with S. O and N. .
2mtpa 30% = 82.5mtpa 124mtpa 276mtpa 30% = 37.Forecast for Minex Products Product CaSi/CaFe (0.5/0.8 100% 100% 100% .15mtpa Consumption per year 3622.15kg/t) Steel Production 80.5 tons (20112012) 5580 tons (20152016) 12420 tons (20152016) 32200 tons (20112012) 49600 tons (20152016) 110400 tons (2015-2016) 124mtpa 276mtpa Aluminum wires (0.4kg/t) 80.5mtpa %Steel Treated 30% = 24.35 kg/t) = Ca(0.
some strategy is required to cover the small-scale and low-end producers. This necessitates the technology improvement in production.Strategy Ahead • Almost all major players are customers of Minex but with increasing share of secondary producers in production. • Even major producers are not completely relying on Minex products because of the availability of product in domestic market and low-cost imports. Minex should come up with some solution for such producers. • There is a growth in share of alloy steel production due to development of new and improved grades of steel. .
• Market Intelligence should certainly be increased with adopting better policies to reach the market. • Technological roadmapping and a mechanism for periodic surveying of new markets and technology should be done .
• Certain parameters like technology being used outside India. • Online and Physical marketing can be one of the factor in terms of reaching the markets. . market strategies and product range can be salient. Technology and Market Strategies • There seems no big competitor for Minex in it’s range of products but other sellers are existing and their mapping is essential.Peer Review: Products. cost determination.
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