Robbins & Judge

Organizational Behavior
14th Edition

Motivation: From Concepts to Applications
Kelli J. Schutte
William Jewell College

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

8-1

– Discuss three alternative work arrangements. – Identify the motivational benefits of intrinsic rewards. – Discuss employee involvement measures. Inc. – Show how flexible benefits turn benefits into motivators. publishing as Prentice Hall 8-2 . – Discuss variable-pay programs and their effect on employee motivation. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. – Compare and contrast job redesign strategies.Chapter Learning Objectives  After studying this chapter. you should be able to: – Describe the job characteristics model and evaluate the way it motivates by changing the work environment.

The Job Characteristics Model  Five Core Job Dimensions – Skill Variety: degree to which the job incorporates a number of different skills and talents – Task Identity: degree to which the job requires the completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work – Task Significance: how the job impacts the lives of others – Autonomy: identifies how much freedom and independence the worker has over the job – Feedback: how much the job generates direct and clear information about the worker’s performance Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. publishing as Prentice Hall 8-3 . Inc.

Job Characteristics Theory 2-4 .

How Can Jobs be Redesigned? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. publishing as Prentice Hall 8-5 . Inc.

Inc.Alternative Work Arrangements  Flextime – Flextime allows employees to choose the hours they work within a defined period of time. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. publishing as Prentice Hall 8-6 .  Job Sharing – Job Sharing allows two or more individuals to split a traditional 40-hour-a-week job.  Telecommuting – Telecommuting allows workers to work from home at least 2 days a week on a computer linked to the employer’s office.

Social and Physical Context of Work  Social Context – Some social characteristics that improve job performance include: • Interdependence • Social support • Interactions with other people outside of work  Physical Context – The work context will also affect employee satisfaction • Work that is hot. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. relatively quiet. and safe will be more satisfying . Inc. and dangerous is less satisfying • Work that is controlled. loud. publishing as Prentice Hall 8-7 .

Employee Involvement  Definition: A participative process that uses employees’ input to increase their commitment to the organization’s success. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 8-8 .

Using Rewards to Motivate Employees  Although pay is not the primary factor driving job satisfaction. it is a motivator. – Establish a pay structure – Variable-pay programs Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. publishing as Prentice Hall 8-9 . Inc.

Establishing a Pay Structure Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. publishing as Prentice Hall 8-10 . Inc.

How to Pay Variable-Pay Programs – – – – – – – Piece-Rate Pay Merit-Based Pay Bonuses Skill-Based Pay Profit-Sharing Plans Gainsharing Employee Stock Ownership Plans Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. publishing as Prentice Hall 8-11 . Inc.

If appraisals are designed correctly. For example: Ballpark workers selling peanuts and soda get $1 for each bag of peanuts and soda sold.  Merit-Based Pay – Pays for individual performance based on performance appraisal results.Types of Variable-Pay Programs  Piece-Rate Pay – Pays a fixed sum of money for each unit of production completed.  Bonuses – Pay a lump sum at the end of a designated period of time based on individual and/or organizational performance. publishing as Prentice Hall 8-12 . Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. workers performing at a high level will get more pay.

publishing as Prentice Hall . It is an organization-wide program and is based on a predetermined formula. It is a group incentive plan. .  Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOP) – Provides each employee with the opportunity to acquire stock as part of their benefit package.  Profit-Sharing Plans – Pays out a portion of the organization’s profitability.  Gainsharing – Pays for improvements in group productivity from one period to another. Inc. – 8-13 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education.More Types of Variable-Pay Programs  Skill-Based Pay – Pays based on the number of skills employees have or the number of jobs they can do.

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. publishing as Prentice Hall . 8-14 .Flexible Benefits  Flexible benefits give individual rewards by allowing each employee to choose the compensation package that best satisfies his or her current needs and situations. Inc.

Employee recognition programs are a good method of intrinsic rewards. – Advantages of recognition programs are that they are inexpensive and effective. publishing as Prentice Hall . Inc. 8-15 . – The rewards can range from a simple thank-you to more widely publicized formal programs. – Some critics say they can be politically motivated and if they are perceived to be applied unfairly.Employee Recognition Programs  Employee rewards need to be intrinsic and extrinsic. they can cause more harm than good. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education.

publishing as Prentice Hall – Differ among countries 8-16 . – Fairness is an important factor  Flexible Benefits – Popular in all cultures  Employee Involvement Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc.Global Implications  Job Characteristics and Job Enrichment – Studies do not yield consistent results about applicability to other cultures  Telecommuting – Most common in the United States  Variable Pay – Most believe variable pay systems work best in individualistic cultures such as the United States.

Summary and Managerial Implications  Recognize individual differences  Use goals and feedback  Allow employees to participate in decisions that affect them  Link rewards to performance  Check the system for equity Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. publishing as Prentice Hall 8-17 . Inc.

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