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SSIE 617: Fuzzy Sets, Fuzzy Logic, and Fuzzy Systems FUZZY MODELING CASE: FUZZY MODELING OF UNSTEADY

AERODYNAMICS Prof Hal Lewis

Hesham Al-momani

Table Of Contents
Abstract

Introduction
Fuzzy logic modeling Goodness of Model Fuzzy Modeling Steps/Procedures (Basic Concept)

Fuzzy Inference System (FIS)


Sugeno fuzzy system Mamdani Fuzzy Inference Tsukamoto Fuzzy models Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) Literature Survey on Unsteady Aerodynamics & Fuzzy Modeling Research Example

Abstract In this paper fuzzy modeling concepts has been surveyed and introduced concentration has been done on unsteady nonlinear aerodynamic molding using the Fuzzy logic. Presenting a case study FUZZY MODELING OF UNSTEADY AERODYNAMICS where they used experimental data taken from NASA wind tunnel . A conclusion has been reached that fuzzy modeling is a very handy tool which can be easily adapted to predict and simulate any linear as well as nonlinear system and in particular unsteady as well as steady aerodynamic coefficients.

INTRODUCTION
One of the particular application area of fuzzy sets, logic, and systems is the fuzzy modeling. Unsteady complex aerodynamics are essential in the design of airfoil section. The study of these types of movement is vital in the development of developing the wing aircraft and can not be ignored due to its important impact on todays aircraft specially tactical fighters that needs high manuvarlibilty and air supremacy The need for accurate aerodynamic model that can aid in control system design and be used for vehicle dynamic- nonlinear aerodynamic simulation is of great importance. Presence methods & conventional approach for modeling unsteady aerodynamics are of limited value and perform poorly in handling complex nonlinear systems Fuzzy Logic pitches in to solve this dilemma.. Since the aerodynamics represented by the fuzzy-logic models is realistic, they can be coupled with the numerical integration of flight dynamic equations to study possible improvement in controllability. This gap filling is achieved through gradual smooth transition represented mathematically by membership functions Therefore, a more robust model identification technique that satisfies these goals appeared , The Fuzzy Logic Modeling (FLM) technique is adopted to model the established aerodynamic models that are directly used in flight simulation in the present application.

Fuzzy Logic Modeling

The general idea of the FLM technique is to set up the relations between system input and output variables. FLM algorithm represents a multi-dimensional, nonlinear interpolation scheme without requiring explicit functional forms between the input and output variables. Static and dynamic systems which make use of fuzzy sets is called a Fuzzy system and they defined by if-then rules & called rule-based systems, or fuzzy models. An if-then rule generally takes the form of If antecedent proposition then consequent proposition. .The antecedent proposition is always a fuzzy proposition of the type x is A, where x is a linguistic variable and A is a linguistic constant. In a linguistic fuzzy model, both the antecedent and the consequent are fuzzy propositions In the fuzzy-logic model, the model structure is indicated by the number of membership functions for each variable. For a fuzzy-logic model with multiple variables, the structure is the combination of the numbers and forms of the membership functions assigned to all input variables.

FLM Technique Approaches &Tasks


There are two approaches in the FLM technique. 1. The fuzzy set approach, involving fuzzy sets, membership functions, weighting factors, and the if-then fuzzy rules (Zadeh 1973). The process involves three stages: a-Fuzzification b-Fuzzy rule inference c-Defuzzification. 2-The internal function approach, involving the internal functions, membership functions, and the output cells (Takagi & Sugeno 1985). There are Two main tasks are involved in the present FLM process. a-Identification of the coefficients of the internal functions. b- Structure identification to identify the optimal structure of fuzzy cells of the model, in other words, the optimal number of membership functions for each variable.

Model Construction with Fuzzy Reasoning


Below figure shows the model construction with fuzzy reasoning .

Goodness of Model

The goodness of model can be checked by 1- Graphical presentations. 2Various measures, measuring or by Root Mean Square Of Errors ((RMSE): (di-pi)2/n . 3- Or by Statistical analysis of errors methods!!.

Fuzzy Modeling Steps/Procedures (Basic Concept)


1-Identification and Carefully selection of the most significant parameters that affect the desired output. This requires a a-Detailed study of the target system b-If experimental or field data of the target system is not available, then a highly monitored experiment is to be performed& data obtained should cover all the necessary ranges of concerned parameters also the deviations from actual data due should be accounted for. c-Two data groups are to be prepared: one for checking the model and the other for testing model generality Both groups are to contain minimum and maximum as well as intermediate values for all concerned inputs d-It's vital to use standard definitions of parameters and mathematical relations otherwise they should be clearly defined. e-The final selection of the model inputs and outputs depends on the relative importance of every one and on the required degree of model accuracy. 2-Selection of the proper inference systems based on existing fuzzy model or human experience .If similar experiments exist then they should be fully studied and understood so that the positive aspects are stressed and the negative ones are avoided and ddetermine suitable universe of discourse and a term set for the variables.

Fuzzy Modeling Steps/Procedures )

3-Determination of the order of Sugeno consequent equation and Mamdani fuzzy inference system 4-Partitioning of input space. 5-Selection of the proper inference system based on existing fuzzy model 6-Determine model choices and parameters (including inference operators by selecting the best number type of MF and this done by a-By plotting the output versus the concerned input. b- The number of membership function is chosen equal or close to the number of distinct areas. MF that has a shape closest to the shape of the plot (output versus input) is selected. c-Selecting ranges for both and calculating the root mean square error (RMSE) for each case. lowest RMSE MF are chosen. d-Determine the values of linguistic terms and MFs are then defined by optimization and regression techniques. 7-Use of Defuzzification techniques to extract a crisp overall output value. 8-check model generality by prediction the output of an experimentally predetermined data 9-Check accuracy and simplicity of the model

Fuzzy Inference System (FIS)


Definition:A Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) is a way of mapping an input space to an output space using fuzzy logic. A FIS tries to formalize the reasoning process of human language by means of fuzzy logic (that is, by building fuzzy IF-THEN rules). If the service is good, even if the food is not excellent, the tip will be generous It also have Different names; fuzzy rule-based system, fuzzy model, fuzzy associative memory, fuzzy logic controller & fuzzy system Fuzzy inference system (FIS) has found many applications, such as data classification, pattern recognition, robotics, automatic control, and many others. A design of a fuzzy inference system is based on the past known behavior of a target system, a developed FIS should reproduce the behavior of the target system . FIS can be constructed for a specific application by : Incorporate human expertise about the target system: it is called the domain knowledge (linguistic data!) Use conventional system identification techniques for fuzzy modeling when inputoutput data of a target system are available (numerical data)

Why should we use Fuzzy Inference Systems


Why should we use Fuzzy Inference Systems? a-Fuzzy logic does not solve new problems. It uses new methods to solve everyday problems. b-Mathematical concepts within fuzzy reasoning are very simple. c-Fuzzy logic is flexible: it is easy to modify a FIS just by adding or deleting rules. There is no need to create a new FIS from scratch. d-Fuzzy logic allows imprecise data (it does NOT work with uncertainty): it handles elements in a fuzzy set, i.e. membership values. For instance, fuzzy logic works with 'He is tall to the degree 0.8' instead of 'He is 180cm tall'. e-Fuzzy logic is built on top of the knowledge of experts: it relies on the knowhow of the ones who understand the system. f-Fuzzy logic can be blended with other classic control techniques.

When shouldn't we use fuzzy logic? Fuzzy logic is based on natural language. It is the codification of common sense. Thus, we shall not use it when our common sense tells us not to do so.

Fuzzy Inference & Components & Architecture

Basically FIS has three major components as follows :

a-Fuzzy rule selection ,Rule base selects the set of fuzzy rules) b-Membership function identification (Database (or dictionary) defines the membership functions used in the fuzzy rules) c- Reasoning or interference procedure mechanism. The Architecture of Fuzzy Inference Systems consists of Fuzzy Models: Mamdani Fuzzy models Fuzzy Systems Sugeno Fuzzy Models Tsukamoto Fuzzy models
Below figure shows the structure of fuzzy systems
Input

Fuzzifier

Inference Engine

Defuzzifier

Output

Fuzzy Knowledge base

Fuzzy Inference System (FIS)


The Fuzzifier converts the crisp input to a linguistic variable using the membership functions stored in the fuzzy knowledge base. Inference Engine Use If-Then type fuzzy rules converts the fuzzy input to the fuzzy output, Fuzzification stage here many internal functions are defined to cover the ranges of the influencing variables (i.e. input variables). The ranges of the input variables are all transformed into the domain of [0,1]. The membership grading also ranges from 0 to 1.0, with "0" meaning no effect from the corresponding internal function, and "1" meaning a full effect while in Defuzzification: extraction of a crisp value that best represents a fuzzy set, i.e. In each fuzzy cell, the contribution to the outcome (i.e. the cell output) is based on the internal function, The final prediction of the outcome is the weighted average of all cell outputs after the process of reasoning algorithm. Because of this weighting among many factors over large ranges of possibilities it is necessary to have a crisp output in some situations where an inference system is used as a controller there are Five commonly used defuzzifying methods: Centroid of area (COA) Fuzzy Control Systems Bisector of area (BOA) Mean of maximum (MOM) Smallest of maximum (SOM) Largest of maximum (LOM)
Input
Fuzzifier Inference Engine Defuzzifier Plant Fuzzy Knowledge base

Output

Sugeno Fuzzy System (TSK Fuzzy Model)


The Sugeno fuzzy system process , Also known as TSK fuzzy model ,Takagi, Sugeno & Kang, 1985, was established to develop a system to generate a fuzzy rules from a given inputoutput data. ,Sugeno role TSK fuzzy rule is of the form: If x is A & y is B then z = f(x, y) :Where A & B are fuzzy sets in the antecedent, while z = f(x, y) is a crisp function

Sugeno fuzzy model rules state that (Each rule has a crisp output, Overall output is obtained via weighted average and No defuzzyfication required). The Case of two rules with a first-order Sugeno fuzzy model state that (Each rule has a crisp output, Overall output is obtained via weighted average and No defuzzyfication required).

Sugeno Fuzzy System (TSK Fuzzy Model)


Sugeno fuzzy system example are shown below R1: if X is small and Y is small then z = x +y +1 R2: if X is small and Y is large then z = y +3 R3: if X is large and Y is small then z = x +3 R4: if X is large and Y is large then z = x + y + 2

Mamdani Fuzzy Inference

Mamdani's method is the most commonly used in applications, due to its simple structure of 'min-max' operations. In Mamdani Fuzzy models the Original Goal was to control a steam engine & boiler combination by a set of linguistic control rules obtained from experienced human operators. Illustrations of how a two-rule Mamdani fuzzy inference system derives the overall output z when subjected to two crisp input x & y as shown in the fig It is worth mentioning that Mamdani's method is useful when there is a small number of variables.

Mamdani steps : Step 1: Evaluate the antecedent for each rule. Step 2: Obtain each rule's conclusion. Step 3: Aggregate conclusions. Step 4: Defuzzification

Mamdani Fuzzy Inference System Operations

operators function:
AND operator (usually T-norm) for the rule firing strength computation with ANDed antecedents OR operator (usually T-conorm) for calculating the firing strength of a rule with ORed antecedents Implication operator (usually T-norm) for calculating qualified consequent MFs based on given firing strength Aggregate operator (usually T-conorm) for aggregating qualified consequent MFs to generate an overall output MF composition of facts & rules to derive a consequent Defuzzification operator for transforming an output MF to a crisp single output value

Tsukamoto Fuzzy Models

It is characterized by the following, the consequent of each fuzzy if-thenrule is represented by a fuzzy set with a monotonical MF The inferred output of each rule is a crisp value induced by the rules firing strengths shown fig below
Tsukamoto Fuzzy models

Partition Styles for Fuzzy Models

There are 3 partitioning Styles for Fuzzy Models a. Grid partition b. Tree partition c. Scatter partition

Partition Styles for Input Space


Grid Partition Tree Partition Scatter Partition

Figure (12)

Literature Survey on Unsteady Aerodynamics & Fuzzy Modeling (Unsteady aerodynamics modeling for flight dynamics application) Qing, He & Wu The research results show that:
1) 2) It seems that the unsteady aerodynamic modeling is still more or less of academic signicance only, not yet applied to aircraft design. In the Unsteady aerodynamics the building-up of aerodynamics is regarded as a black box, and the dependence of aerodynamics on ight states is described by newly developed technologies, such as fuzzy logic and neural network with the complex ow mechanism not involved. Special cases the post-stall maneuvering .one of their conclusions that the unsteady aerodynamics aects observably the post-stall maneuver performance and unsteady aerodynamic models have been adopted.

3)

The application of FNN in unsteady aerodynamics modeling based on fuzzy clustering SHI Zhi-wei ChinaSHI Zhi-wei MING Xiao
In this paper a Fuzzy Neural Network(FNN)model based on fuzzy clustering is developed The fuzzy space and the number of fuzzy roles of this model are defined by the fuzzy clustering method and weight coefficients of the model are adjusted by the BP algorithm Using the model the unsteady aerodynamics of one aircraft in pitching-wiling motion is identified It is suggested that the fuzzy clustering method Can be used to design fuzzy neural network structures and the developed model earl be used to identify the nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics of many complicated maneuvers

In Fuzzy-Logic Analysis of the FDR Data of a Transport Aircraft in Atmospheric Paper objective was to illustrate the nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic models based on the FLM technique having the capability to evaluate the variations in stability of commercial aircraft with adverse weather effects.

Fuzzy logic modeling of nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics. Wang, Z.J., Lan, C.E., Brandon, J.M.:
Their study focused on: the wind shear for takeoff and landing process on a Boeing 737-800 passenger plane, fuzzy logic modeling techniques can handle the multi-variable parameters of the nonlinear behavior, and provide a reasonable dynamic and unsteady aerodynamic model from analog shock . The results showed that the crosswind will affect the flight stability and control capabilities.

Application of articial neural networks in nonlinear aerodynamics and aircraft design. Rokhsaz, K., Steck, J.E. They used neural networks in analysis of three aerodynamics problems and two in flight dynamics. The aerodynamics cases are those of a harmonically oscillating airfoil, a pitching delta wing, and airfoil design. The flight dynamic examples involve control of a super maneuver and a decoupled control case. It is demonstrated that highly nonlinear aerodynamic cases can be generalized with sufficient accuracy for design purposes. It is shown that although neural networks generalize well on the aerodynamic problems, they appear lacking comparable robustness in modeling dynamic systems & shown that generalization appears to become weak outside of the training domain

Successive identification of a fuzzy model and its application toprediction of a complex system. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 42, 315334(5) Sugeno, M. and K. Tanaka (1991). Successive identification of a fuzzy model. The process consisted of two levels. The first level (called supervisor level) & other level, named adjustment level, It was explained that the fuzzy model could be successively improved and more accurate modeling would be achieved.

A Fuzzy Logic Based Approach To Qualitative Modeling. IEEE Transactions On Fuzzy Systems, Vol.1 no.1 February 1993M.Sugeno and T Yasukawa,
Presented an approach to qualitative modeling based on fuzzy logic The model was derived from a fuzzy model using the linguistic approximation method. The structure of a fuzzy model was obtained through fuzzy c-means clustering method. The applicability of the method was justified by presenting a model of dynamical process and a model of a human operators control action.

Adaptive Based Fuzzy Inference System IEEE Transactions On Systems Man & Cybernetics Vol 23 No 3 PP665-685 May 1993J R Jang ANFIS: Discussed the architectural procedure of ANFIS which could construct an inputoutput mapping based mostly on human expertise and stipulated data pairs. The paper included comparisons with artificial neural networks and earlier work on fuzzy modeling. The ANFIS example used contained 16 rules and four membership functions assigned to each input variable. The example proved that ANFIS can effectively model a highly nonlinear surface.

Fuzzy Neural Networks For Nonlinear Systems Modeling. IEE Proceedings-Control Theory Applications, Vol. 142 no 6 PP 551-561 November 1995,J Zhang and A.J Morris, Presented a method for modeling of non-linear systems based on fuzzy neural network. In this process the input space of a nonlinear system was partitioned into several regions. Then in each region a reduced order linear model was used to represent the system. Defuzzificaton to produce the overall output was based on center of gravity method. The method was effective with systems having major non-linarites.

Rule-Base Structure Identification in an. Adaptive-Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System. Chuen-Tsai Sun Presented a paper deals with rule-base structure identification. The paper proposed a general modeling scheme for an adaptive-networkbased fuzzy inference system which would be used in data compression, pattern recognition, and other fields.

Linguistic model identification for fuzzy system. Y.H. Joo, H.S. Hwang, K.B. Kim and K.B. Woo (10) (Fuzzy-Logic Analysis of the FDR Data of a Transport Aircraft, in Atmospheric Turbulence). Proposed an approach for identifying a linguistic fuzzy model for a multiinput-singe output system. They utilized a c-means clustering and genetic algorithm scheme. The approach was tested through examples and the simulation results showed that the number of the rules identified by the method was small without loss of model accuracy. For a system with more than three input variables, it would be better to consider the linguistic terms of triangular form, in which the sum of all the membership values of each input to its linguistic terms become one.

Fuzzy Modeling Of Unsteady Aerodynamics done by Almahadin,Jordan university of science and technology ,Jordan
The present FLM technique was explained in detail and verified with simple examples and wind-tunnel data. It was shown that the FLM technique was capable of handling nonlinear and unsteady aerodynamic environment exhibited for a twin-jet transport in severe atmospheric turbulence with sudden plunging motion in transonic flight. The predicted results showed that the models could produce reasonable aerodynamic coefficients and several derivatives for the assessment of stability characteristics, Research on Unsteady Aerodynamic Models and Flight Simulation for the Aircraft Oscillation at High Angle of Attack The unsteady aerodynamics of the fighter at high angle of attack was tested at low speed wind tunnel. model was measured during in oscillating in pitching motion, yawing motion, rolling motion or yawing-rolling coupled-motion. the applicability of 4 kinds of unsteady aerodynamic models was analyzed in this paper. S ome of the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics were acquired by analyzing the wind tunnel test results and investigate the the modeling method of fuzzy logic. It is indicated that the value of the convergence coefficient is a basic factor determining the speed and precision of modeling. It is indicated that the aerodynamic characteristics of coupled-motion are reflected well to the test results by the unsteady aerodynamic model of fuzzy logic.

Fuzzy Modeling of Unsteady Aerodynamics Almahadin Master Thesis

Fuzzy Modeling of Unsteady Aerodynamics Almahadin Master Thesis

Table of contents Introduction Background on fighters super maneuvers Unsteady Aerodynamics Literature Review Experimental Programs Other Related Investigation Fuzzy logic approach Introduction To Fuzzy Logic Fuzzy Inference System Sugeno Fuzzy System Fuzzy Modeling Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inference System (Anfis) Fuzzy Logic Literature survey

Summary One of the many examples of the fuzzy modeling is a master thesis of Fuzzy Modeling Of Unsteady Aerodynamics done by Al-mahadin In this project he investigated and established fuzzy model and compared it with already known experimental data taken from NASA experiment about Semi Empirical Method used for PHD project. The objective of his investigation is motivated by the need to have an accurate aerodynamic model that can be used for vehicle preliminary design purposes. Also, to aid in control system design which is a challenging problem in the presence of highly nonlinear aerodynamic loading with large hysteresis loops. He wanted to produce a fuzzy model of the unsteady aerodynamic loads occurring during high angle of attack maneuvering. T The fuzzy model should be able to predict the aerodynamic loads for a given delta wing performing a prescribed maneuver.

Summary

The model has three inputs : angle of attack, non-dimensional pitch rate, and aspect ratio. Its output is the unsteady aerodynamic normal force coefficient (CN. A highly reliable model was found which predicts the CN with a RMSE (Root mean square Error) of less than 6 % (94%) for the 0 to 90 degrees angle of attack range and results were BETTER than the semi-empirical method results. Based on the experience gained throughout this research, a proposed fuzzy modeling procedure was suggested & recommended. Conclusion that fuzzy modeling is an excellent method to simulate nonlinear systems He started the introduction by viewing the historical background on tactical fighters super maneuvers He Defined the super maneuverability and superiority. Investigated Prediction tools and models. Introduced the principles of Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) , fuzzy modeling systems like Sugeno fuzzy system, Mamdani fuzzy & Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS)fuzzy logic. He also investigated and stated the Fuzzy modeling Steps

Chapter Two Literature Survey

The researcher presented a lot of Unsteady aerodynamic models and fuzzy logic models

Experimental Unsteady Aerodynamic Data Analysis


The experiment data taken from an experiment took place at NASA Ames research center by semi empirical method( Low speed 7ft x 10 ft wind tunnel) They include drag, lift, normal force, and pitching moment coefficients. Data analysis presented for the purpose of determining the most important aerodynamic parameters which will be used as inputs of the fuzzy model. A brief discussion of the data to be used to develop the fuzzy model along with data analysis are given.

Chapter Three Modeling Discussion


The research is launched by a thorough investigation of unsteady aerodynamic data in all aspects: theoretical , experimental, and modeling In existing flight simulation few methods, beside wind-tunnel experimentation, are commonly used to deal with high angle of attack unsteady aerodynamics, namely: tabulated quasi steady data , local linearized model that forms a
piecewise continues fit of the nonlinear response and some other methods also.

In this research he attempted to device a simple fuzzy model which simulate high angle of attack aerodynamics specifically normal force coefficient (CN) The other aerodynamic coefficients are expected to be similarly modeled. , (CL, CN, CD, CM, CRM) Versatility, generality, validity and accuracy of this model checked by other extra data obtained also by Jarrah and other data obtained by Bragg and Sultani

Model generality

One of the most important criteria of any model is the extent of model generality. This fuzzy model has no exception to achieve this Model generality also checked by predicting other experimental data not used for training were used and termed extra-Jarrah data. & Bragg & Sultani were tested The initial model has predicted this data with an RMSE of 8.35% for all overall extra-Jarrah data. The accuracy and value of the final model depended greatly on the accuracy of the experimental data themselves and on the degree of matching between the different data groups. Based on the analysis carried out the final fuzzy model which appears to be more reasonable is the initial model itself. Since it best fits the training and checking data as well as extra Jarrah data except the last two groups due to the difference in angle of attack ranges. This leaded to the conclusion max & min would have to be included in the model inputs if different angle of attack ranges are to be predicted and RMSE to be below 10%.

Model accuracy
He checked the accuracy analysis and mentioned that the modeling accuracy shows a varied dependency on the three concerned parameters : MF number, MF type , and epochs number. The model is more sensitive to the selection of the number of MF for the rate of change of angle-of attack itself & individual model inputs He also stated that Fuzzy logic modeling accuracy depends greatly on the accuracy of the experimental data used for training. However, errors (high RMSE) in this model are probably the cause of the following:
a-Errors in obtaining experimental data and those used to compare the initial/final model predictions. b-No standard experimental procedure. c- Differences in data reduction and experiments. d-Tare measurements differences e-Non standard variable definitions. f-Ignoring both min and max as model inputs. h- Lack of through understanding of some of the aerodynamic phenomenon such as bursting. I-Lack of detailed information regarding some of the fuzzy logic aspects. j- Errors in predicting Bragg and Sultani data are mostly the cause of differences between their experiment and Jarrah experiment with respect to the following : tare measurements, data filtering, data acquisition, variable definitions specially k, angle of attack ranges, experimental setting and others He improved the accuracy analysis modeling by number of means used accurate experimental data as possible. And found that he should included min and max as model inputs to improve the prediction of data with different range

Chapter Four Models Comparisons


Fuzzy modeling comparison with semi-empirical method The powerfulness of fuzzy modeling can proved by a comparison with a published method namely semi-empirical method Fuzzy modeling gives better prediction than semi-empirical method for the 0 to 90 degrees angle of attack range. Table comparison of semi-empirical and initial final fuzzy model outputs to semiempirical method experimental output ,comparison is greatly in favor of fuzzy modeling

Comparison Table
Model parameters Reynolds number = 4.56 X 105 Percent toot mean Square error ( % RMSE)

Aspect ratio

Non-dimensional pitch Angle of attack range Fuzzy final model rate (degrees)

Semi-empirical method

0.02

0 to 90

8.26

11.12

1
1 1.5 2 2 1&2 Range above

0.04
0.06 0.04 0.04 0.06 Range above Range above

0 to 90
0 to 90 0 to 60 0 to 90 0 to 90 0 to 90 Range above

8.53
4.57 14.63 6.94 5.47 6.75 8.17

9.18
9.92 8.1 11.76 17.28 11.85 12.37

chapter five Results Discussion


he find out that the Out of the five unsteady aerodynamic coefficient (CN, CL, CD, CM, CRM), the normal force coefficient (CN) was picked to be the model output to demonstrate the present modeling procedure Studying the effect of aerodynamic variables on these coefficients that resulted on setting three model inputs: angle of attack ( ), rate of change of angle of attack ( ), and aspect ratio (AR). They were found to be the most significant parameters affecting the aerodynamic loading. The fuzzy modeling parameters, which were manipulated to obtain the optimum model, (number &Type of membership functions for each input, and number of epochs. The measure of acceptable accuracy was the root mean square error (RMSE). It was believed that number of MF could be approximated by plotting the experimental data and dividing visually the figure into distinct segments.

Results Discussion
Seven types of MF were implemented. And it was found that MF type has negligible effect on modeling of this system. Therefore the simplest one (triangular) was set as initial model parameter. Moreover this MF type was found to equally satisfies the data and finally found that Sometimes the resulted initial and final membership functions are different. He got the Initial model which refers to the simplest model that best fits and tracks the training and checking data with the minimal root mean square error (RMSE). The choice of the number of membership functions and their types for each input done arbitrary since no general rule presents in this research a general guide lines is sought based on the idea that the required MF is the one which best fits the input data from the point of view of simplicity, convenience, speed and efficiency. It is suspected that the choice of MF type and number can be guessed by plotting experimental data and visually dividing the plot into distinct segments. The most commonly used membership functions, investigated and implemented in this research, The initial model was obtained with the following parameters: membership functions type is triangular, MF numbers are [4 3 3] for the three inputs , , AR respectively .

Conclusion The research has resulted in highly reliable fuzzy model able to predict normal force coefficient with an overall root mean square error of less than 6 % for angle of attack range of 0 to 90 degrees The model accuracy depends greatly on the selection of membership functions number while it shows much less sensitivity of MF type. the model accuracy is affected most by the rate of change of angle of attack then the aspect ration followed by the angle of attack. Initial/final fuzzy model was compared favorably with semi-empirical method for 0 to 90 degrees range.

Recommendation

For better prediction of unsteady aerodynamic loads it is wise to include the minimum and maximum Values!!( angle of attack) as model inputs. For the purpose of obtaining a complete unsteady aerodynamic model that predict all five coefficients, its recommended that the modeling procedure is repeated while using other coefficients as the model outputs. The fuzzy modeling in this research was based on Suggeno scheme. It would be of great importance that the research is repeated using Mamdani method.

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