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Integrating Armed UAV’s and Ground Forces in Kandahar

Deadly Persistence

Colonel Trey Turner and Major Jay Adair 16 Oct 2009
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Aim
• To provide an overview of the integration of UAVs and ground forces in Kandahar province during 2008

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Agenda
• The Operating Environment • The 2 PPCLI Battle Group • Integrating UAVs into the Joint Tactical Fight

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Bottom Line Up Front
• This brief deals with the employment of UAVs, not necessarily “striking” with PGMs from UAVs • We operated in a “UAV Laboratory” and the lessons learned are applicable across the spectrum • The key to the employment of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is the “man” • Optimal employment of UAVs demands a nuanced understanding of the environment gained only through interaction with the population on the ground • UAVs and the potential of UAVs influence the manner in which the enemy fights

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UNCLASSIFIED “It's not necessarily the strong enemy..” LTG Eikenberry – 10 May 2006 UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 5 . you have Taliban influence able to move in there. assert that influence. it's the very weak institutions of the state.. and through coercion of the people. in that weakness.

932 Top Contributors: US 25.717 A:13.900 France 2.600 Canada 3.700 C Coy 2 RC South NATO/ISA NATO/ISA FFand OEF and OEF Mandates Mandates As of: 13 Feb 09 L ZABOL RC East KAF NIMRUZ HELMAND KANDAHAR USFORUSFORA:13.300 UK 8.600 Germany 3.717 UNCLASSIFIED VP 6 6 .UNCLASSIFIED Tajikistan Uzbekistan China Turkmenistan JOWZJAN BALKH KONDUZ TAKHAR BADAKHSHA RC North SAMANGAN BAGHLAN P FARYAB Iran BADGHIS SAR-E POL PARWAN BAMIAN DAIKONDI ER H JS AN NURESTAN LAGHMAN KO N AR RC Capital LO W G HERAT RC West GHOWR WARDAK Kabul AR NANGARHAR KAIA PAKTIA KHOST GHAZNI ORUZGAN FARAH PAKTIKA Pakistan 41 Nations Total ≈ 58.400 Italy 2.

single largest cause of casualties • ISAF/OEF Deaths: up 35% 3 • Civilian Deaths: up 40% .46%* rea chi A Balu Major INSURGENT Lines of Operation UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 7 ..Security Summary 2008 Kinetic Event Density UNCLASSIFIED Increasing • 24% Afghans perceive improvement... 19% perceive worsening (Sep 08 poll) FP W N 1 • 70% of kinetic events continue to occur in 10% of the districts • 33% increase in Kinetic Events A AT F 2 • IED events up 27%.

Kandahar KAF KANDAHAR 20 km KAF UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 8 ...UNCLASSIFIED .

TYPICAL PANJAWYI AND ZHAREY TOPOGRAPHY UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 9 .

PANJAWYI AND ZHAREY – FROM THE GROUND UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 10 .

UNCLASSIFIED Operational Context OPERATIONAL THEMES FULL SPECTRUM OPERATIONS Offense 2008 Stability Offense Defense Stability Stability Offense Stability Stability Offense Stability Stability Defense Defense Defense UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 11 .

semi-permissive.The Kandahar Sociologically Battlespace Ideologically motivated mujahideen Tribal Militias POPULATION UNCLASSIFIED motivated Taliban Narcomilitia Population ANP.AHP GIRoA ANA ISAF From TFH Briefing Apr 08 12 BG operated in permissive. non-permissive urban and rural terrain! C Coy 2 VP UNCLASSIFIED . ABP.

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UNCLASSIFIED The 2 PPCLI Battle Group UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 14 .

Battle Group Organization ATTACHMENTS JDCC POMLT OMLT UNCLASSIFIED The BG Team • 848 Regular Force Soldiers • 174 Reserve Force Soldiers (+) E (-) UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 15 .

Enable other Organizations UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 16 .UNCLASSIFIED Battle Group Role • The Battle Group role is to SHAPE the battlespace through lethal and non-lethal action in order to set the security conditions that ENABLE successful ANSF action. development and governance initiatives within the AO – The BG “buys time” to allow Afghans to take control So What? – Protect the Population.

UNCLASSIFIED Battle Group Role – Layman’s Terms • Fight in a manner that will allow the war to be won – BG role extends far beyond neutralizing insurgents • Influence Afghans NO UNCLASSIFIED – Convince neutrals to support GIROA BETTER FRIEND » Protect/Isolate from the insurgency and its effects – Retain support of those who already support GIROA » Protect from the insurgency and its effects – Mentor and facilitate the mentorship of all elements of the GIROA NO – Convince insurgents supporters to support GIROA WORST ENEMY » Hunt and Kill those who need to be killed 2 VP C Coy 17 .

or progress in order to accomplish a favourable aim or outcome” Win – “to acquire. be victorious or triumph as a result of a fight” UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 18 .Battle Group Role – Succeeding versus Winning UNCLASSIFIED • We must focus on the word succeed instead of win in this campaign – Success is tied to the will of the Afghan people Succeed – “to make good. thrive prosper.

SECURITY AND STABILITY (ME) Effects Created by the BG Weeks Battle Group UNCLASSIFIED FACILITATE DEVELOPMENT Months/Years Provincial Reconstruction Team BUILD ANSF CAPACITY Years Operational Mentoring and Liaison Team UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 19 .

The Carrot and Stick Approach FRIENDLY HOSTILE Exploit fault lines and break Alliances UNCLASSIFIED Government Supporters Government Sympathizers Neutral Population Insurgent Sympathizers Insurgent Supporters Insurgent Fighters Part of the Solution Consolidate and Strengthen Protect Persuade Dissuade Deter Part of the Problem Marginalize and Defeat UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 20 .

UNCLASSIFIED COIN as an Argument A Fight – Talk Proposition TALK FIGHT TALK UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 21 .

Combined Deliberate Ops – Fix and Finish MITIGATE NEGATIVES UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 22 . combined force We see what goes on in the battlespace and will kill those who fight against the GIROA. Responsive.UNCLASSIFIED How the BG Operated PRIMARY ACTIVITIES PHYSICAL OUTPUT EFFECTS OUTPUT (messages to TA) FRAMEWORK OPS ACCENTUATE POSITIVES We are here to protect you (the population) with ANSF on behalf of the GIROA. INFORMATION OPERATIONS INFORMATION OPERATIONS TARGETING Precision collection – Understand the Environment – Find the enemy We (the ANSF and ISAF) are stronger than the DELIBERATE OPS insurgency and will ultimately prevail. visible.

1 CF focus resources and establish presence in certain area. UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 23 . CF increase force protection – increase distance from population. How do we break the cycle? Population moves from area to avoid the coercion from the insurgents and 4 conflict between CF and insurgents.UNCLASSIFIED The Kandahar Battlespace – A Vicious Cycle 2 CF presence attracts insurgents who carry out attacks against CF. 3 Population avoids contact with CF but remain susceptible to insurgent influence.

BUILD AREA expands into this area. Once criteria met. PRT main effort. UNCLASSIFIED 2 1 BUILD AREA Selected where there is support for CF and this support will have disproportionate influence in surrounding area. No kinetic ops in here without PRT UNCLASSIFIED authorization. Permanently presence. HOLD AREA OMLT main effort. Aim to disrupt insurgents and degrade their ability to influence in other areas of the Stab Box. KEY DISRUPT HOLD BUILD C Coy 2 VP 24 . Criteria for development needs to be established to be eligible for PRT benefits. Focus of BG and SOF activity. Mission is to protect Stab Box from direct insurgent influence.Focusing Effort – The Stability Box Concept 3 DISRUPTION AREA Remainder of AOR. Focused IO efforts on elders and leaders to gain consent. No development occurs in this area. Must protect population 24/7.

UNCLASSIFIED The key to success… UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 25 .

UNCLASSIFIED UAVs in COIN UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 26 .

1945 UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 27 . It certainly will be fought with planes so far superior to those we have now that there will be no basis for comparison. throw it out of the window. USAAF VJ Day.UNCLASSIFIED One Man’s Vision “We have just won a war with a lot of heroes flying around in planes. The next war may be fought by airplanes with no men in them at all.” Gen Hap Arnold. It will be different from anything the world has ever seen. and let’s go to work on tomorrow’s aviation. Take everything you’ve learned about aviation in war.

UNCLASSIFIED Airpower in COIN “Air power contains the seeds of our own destruction if we do not use it responsibly.” General Stan McChrystal COMISAF 16 June 2009 UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 28 . we can lose this fight.

UNCLASSIFIED Another Man’s Vision “We pray to Allah we have American soldiers to kill… but added these bombs from the sky we cannot fight” Taliban Fighter UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 29 .

UNCLASSIFIED Spectrum of UAV Employment ISR • IPB • Target acquisition • Reconnaissance Strike • CAS – FMV Support – Air Strike Coordination – Direct fire support – Dynamic targeting (hunter-killer) UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 30 .

UNCLASSIFIED If all you have is a hammer. UNCLASSIFIED everything looks like a nail2 VP C Coy 31 .

UNCLASSIFIED The Team UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 32 .

• Developing and Maintaining key relationships – Intelligence cells communicating – Pilots speaking to pilots – Debriefing is the norm Keys to Successful Integration UNCLASSIFIED • Understanding the capabilities of the UAV • Controlling the asset at the appropriate headquarters – Controlled at the HQ that can shorten the kill chain the most • Common operating picture • Unity of command • Ensuring JTACs and an S2 representative were C Coy 2 VP UNCLASSIFIED on duty in the BG TOC 33 .

The Power to Decide – The Certainty to Act UNCLASSIFIED TACP ISR O S2 Ops S3 UNCLASSIFIED Battle Capt C Coy 2 VP 34 Recommendation to Commander – Strike/No Strike .

• Synchronizing ground and air manoeuvre Keys to Successful Integration UNCLASSIFIED • Establishing procedural controls that shortened engagement times • Establishing common sight picture on the application of ROE • Accepting the Positive Identification (PID) of the enemy reflects the enemy’s adaptive nature and evolves UNCLASSIFIED – Battlefield organization – tactical “deep fight” – Ground manoeuvre creates a reaction from the insurgents – Armed UAVs unnerve the enemy and force them to make mistakes C Coy 2 VP 35 .

• Employing an effective targeting methodology – Determines the most important “things we do everyday” • Counterinsurgency Triage – Those who cannot be influenced – Those who support us – Those who can be influenced • Answers the question: “Where can we have the greatest impact”? – What are intended effects? Keys to Successful Integration UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED » How do we achieve those effects? C Coy 2 VP 36 .

• Employing an effective targeting methodology Keys to Successful Integration UNCLASSIFIED – Focus on MVTs (people) as the centre of mass – Method – complete a series of targeting cycles • F3EAD – Find – cross-cueing of all sensors – Fix – the “unblinking eye” – Finish – strike – Exploit – face to face cross-talk – Analyze – face to face cross-talk – shared analysis – Disseminate – info sharing and process refinement UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 37 .

UNCLASSIFIED Targeting Framework Targeting Cycle initiated by “FIND” Fix Find Physical/Moral Fix (Example) Finish Targeting Cycle Disseminate Analyze Exploit Lethal/Nonlethal AAR facilitates adaptation UNCLASSIFIED Intelligence Pursuit C Coy 2 VP 38 .

UNCLASSIFIED The Team UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 39 .

UNCLASSIFIED A long road… UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 40 .

Doing the Right Thing…Amidst Chaos UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 41 .

UNCLASSIFIED Questions UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 42 .

af.Turner@pentagon.Adair@forces.mil • Major Jay Adair – Jason.ca UNCLASSIFIED C Coy 2 VP 43 .UNCLASSIFIED Contact Information • Colonel Trey Turner – Trey.gc.

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