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Learning Technology Systems Architecture -- Overview

LTSA 4.00
Frank Farance Farance/Edutool
1998-05-21 frank@farance.com, +1 212 486 4700 Slides and Document: http://www.edutool.com/ltsa

1998-05-21

LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance

Overview
Review of goals Abstraction-Implementation Layers Review of each layer Demonstration of perspectives What does conformance mean? Open issues

1998-05-21

LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance

Review of goals
Identify common components Identify critical interfaces Widespread applicability:
platform-neutral content-neutral pedagogically-neutral

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LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance

Architecture Definition And Purpose


LTSA 4.0 specification: http://www.edutool.com/ltsa [Excerpt:] In general, the purpose of developing systems architectures is to discover high-level frameworks for understanding certain kinds of systems, their subsystems, and their interactions with related systems. ...

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LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance

Architecture Definition And Purpose (contd)


[Excerpt contd:] An architecture isn't a blue print for designing a single system, but a framework for designing a range of systems over time, and for the analysis and comparison of these systems.

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Architecture Definition And Purpose (contd)


[Excerpt contd:] By revealing the shared components of different systems at the right level of generality, an architecture promotes the design and implementation of components and subsystems that are reusable, costeffective, and adaptable.

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Abstraction-Implementation Layers
The Groupings -- abstractions vs. implementations The Priorities -- ordering The Notations -- text, system, bus The LTSA Layers -- five layers

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LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance

Abstraction-Implementation Layers: The Groupings


Organize engineering details into several groupings from high-level (coarse granularity) to low-level (fine granularity) Groupings are called layers Layers above are called abstractions Layers below are called implementations

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Information Inclusion
Organize raw details as: good, borderline, and bad examples

Raw Details

Bad

Good

Borderline

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LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance

Information Exclusion
Essential vs. Non-Essential Details: Depends on Context
#1: Minimal Details, Only Data Flow
Web Content Browser Server Browser User Request (Pull)

#2: More Details, Control Flow


Web Content Server

Web Content Browser Server Initiated (Push) Server Browser

Web Content Server

CGI

HTML

#3: (Again) More Details, Control Flow


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#4: More Details, Related Subsystems


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LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance

Architecture Abstraction Hierarchy Reference Model (Belz, Suthers, Wheeler)


Application Model
Abstract System Model
LTSA Layer 1; IEEE 1484.1

No category: IEEE 1484.3, 1484.9

- Interaction Model
- Conceptual Model Abstract Implementation Model

LTSA Layer 2; IEEE 1484.1; AICC LTSA Layer 3; IEEE 1484.1; IMS LTSA Layer 4; IEEE 1484.1; IMS; AICC LTSA Layer 5; IEEE 1484.1, 1484.2, 1484.4, 1484.6, 1484.7, 1484.10, 1484.11, 1484.12, 1484.13; IMS; AICC, ARIADNE
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Resource Model
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LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance

Abstraction-Implementation Layers: The Priorities


High-level design issues have most pervasive effect on design: first priority Low-level design issues are localized: consider these issues later Example: building a house
High-level (higher design priority): layout and number of rooms Low-level (leave till later): choosing wallpaper

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Iterative Abstraction
Design Priorities: Colors (high), Shapes (medium), Raw Details
Abstraction of Shapes: Colored Polygons (Red, Green, Blue)

Abstraction of Raw Details: Shapes (Arrow, Box, Star)

Raw Details

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Iterative Implementation
Design Priorities: Colors (high), Shapes (medium), Raw Details
Implementation of Colored Polygons with Constraints: Eight or fewer sides

Implementation of Shapes with Constraints: Red, Green, Blue

Implementation of Colored Shapes: Constraints: Arrows Connected to Polygons

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Abstraction-Implementation Layers: The Notations


High-level: systems (Yourdon) diagrams
Process (oval), store (box), flow (arrow) Static connections (flows) identify functional decomposition

Low-level: bus diagrams


Bus (bar), connector (line), system (box) Dynamic, point-to-point connections for on-demand, arbitrary component communication

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Systems Notation:
Processes, Stores, Flows
Two-Way Data Flow

Data Process

One-Way Control Flow

Data Process

One-Way Data Flow

Control Process

Two-Way Control Flow

Data Store
1998-05-21 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance

Control Store
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Bus Notation
Common naming Common control flow (initiating transactions) Non-homogeneous data flow (different transactions) Dynamic, on-demand connections

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Bus Notation:
General Concepts
P

- Common naming - Common control flow

Each member of bus has unique name and shares namespace

- Non-homogeneous data flow - Dynamic, on-demand connections

S
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Bus Notation:
General Concepts
P

- Common naming - Common control flow

Each member uses same protocol to request or respond to transactions

- Non-homogeneous data flow - Dynamic, on-demand connections

S
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Bus Notation:
General Concepts
P

- Common naming
FTP over TCP/IP bus
Q

HTTP over TCP/IP bus Common control protocol, but different data protocols Example: PQ uses FTP, but PR uses HTTP
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- Common control flow - Non-homogeneous data flow - Dynamic, on-demand connections

S
LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance 20

Bus Notation:
General Concepts
P

- Common naming - Common control flow


Q

No permanent connections among members of bus; each transaction is a connection Examples: 1. Q sends to P 2. P broadcasts to all 3. R sends to Q
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- Non-homogeneous data flow - Dynamic, on-demand connections

S
LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance 21

Systems vs. Bus Notation


Systems notation useful for:
Small number of components Dedicated functions for each component Useful for LTSA layers 1, 3, and 4

Bus notation useful for:


Large number of components Dynamic, on-demand connections between components Useful for LTSA layer 5

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Abstraction-Implementation Layers: The LTSA Layers


LTSA from high-level to low-level:
Layer 1: Learner and environment interactions Layer 2: Human-centered features Layer 3: System components Layer 4: Stakeholder perspectives Layer 5: Operational components

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Layer 1: Learner And Environment Interactions


Learner interacts with environment as part of a learning experience
Internet/Web Mentor Books Television Lab Teacher Parent Coach Collaboration* School

Computers Other Students* Learner Multimedia Newspaper


* See later slide: collaboration is internal to Learner
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Employer Library Other Employees*


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LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance

Layer 1: Learner and Environment: How Environment Effects Learner


Primary Focus: the effect of environment on the learner, not the effect of learner on the environment Learner can have important effects on environment (research, teaching teachers, etc.), but is not primary technical focus of learning technology

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Layer 1: Learner and Environment: Collaboration: Internal to Learner


LTSA learner (abstraction) can represent one or more students (humans). Collaboration among students is internal to learner Thus, from an information technology perspective, all learner interaction is from the environment to the learner, i.e., inbound information

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Layer 1: Learner and Environment Learning Interactions: Input to Learner


Primary Focus: technology issues, i.e., the flow of information, not pedagogy
Learner
Student Learning Interactions

Environment

Student

Collaboration Student

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Layer 2: Human-Centered Features Limitations => Effect on Design


Humans receive the learning experience (human learning), not computers (machine learning) Human communication: fundamental limitations has pervasive effect on design

Environment

Learning Interactions

Learner

Learner is not a computer. Human learners have limitations -- complicates receiving information from learning interactions.

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Layer 2: Human-Centered Features


Why humans arent computers
Humans arent reliable receivers of information:
Humans mishear or dont hear at all Retransmission is necessary

Humans arent predictable receivers of information:


Humans hear different than desired Different strategies are necessary

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Layer 2: Human-Centered Features


Why humans arent computers (contd)
Humans learn differently (and over time):
Humans differently from each other Same human may learn differently over time Need intelligent customization, configuration Need rich knowledge library for diverse humans

Negotiate learner styles:


Learner alone or system coach alone cannot determine best learning style

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Layer 2: Human-Centered Features


Constructing LTSA System Components
#1: Start with human sensory input: multimedia delivery to learner (similar to entertainment) #2: Add feedback loop for human unreliability #3: Add records database for varying teachers, infer intelligently about student capability #4: Add rich knowledge library, search, and lookup for diversity of humans #5: Add negotiated learning styles

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Step #1: Transferring Information


Multimedia Learner

Delivery

Transfer information to Learner Sensory input/interactions for humans Delivery of Multimedia: same as entertainment

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Step #2: Feedback/Coaching Loop


Multimedia Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation

System Coach

Feedback necessary, humans are unreliable receivers, e.g., they dont hear what you tell them Current state of feedback loop: Behavior, Evaluation, Assessment
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Step #2: Feedback/Coaching Loop (contd)


Multimedia Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation

System Coach

System Coach: determines corrective actions Locator Index: Loop recovers from errors, focuses on target
1998-05-21 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance

e.g., next lesson (Learning Content) towards objective directs Delivery of Multimedia to Learner

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Step #3: Records Database


Multimedia Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

System Coach

Performance information

helps infer corrective action over long periods of time nomadic students: allows student migration (handoff) to different teachers (e.g, grade promotion) and different institutions

Records Database: Learners history, objectives


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Step #4: Knowledge Library


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

System Coach

Humans are unpredictable and diverse Knowledge libraries necessary to match human diversity System Coach:
directs different learning styles and strategies based on Learners history, objectives, and Assessment supported via queries to Knowledge Library for appropriate Learning Content
LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance

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Step #5: Advice from the Learner


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Humans are self-aware: can give advice on learner styles Learning Styles:

interaction between Learner and system to negotiate different learning styles negotiation might actually be assertion: Learner may assert (e.g., experimentation), or system coach may assert (e.g., primary school might dictate learning style)
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Review: System Generated Solely By Human-Centered Features


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

#1: Transferring Information #2: Feedback loop: unreliable Learners #3: Records Database: history supports intelligent inferences, history allows Learner migration #4: Knowledge Library: varying/diverse student capabilities #5: Learning Style: negotiate between Learner/system
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Review: System Generated Solely By Human-Centered Features


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

#1: Transferring Information #2: Feedback loop: unreliable Learners #3: Records Database: history supports intelligent inferences, history allows Learner migration #4: Knowledge Library: varying student capabilities #5: Learning Style: negotiate between Learner/system
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Review: System Generated Solely By Human-Centered Features


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

#1: Transferring Information #2: Feedback loop: unreliable Learners #3: Records Database: history supports intelligent inferences, history allows Learner migration #4: Knowledge Library: varying student capabilities #5: Learning Style: negotiate between Learner/system
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Review: System Generated Solely By Human-Centered Features


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

#1: Transferring Information #2: Feedback loop: unreliable Learners #3: Records Database: history supports intelligent inferences, history allows Learner migration #4: Knowledge Library: varying student capabilities #5: Learning Style: negotiate between Learner/system
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Review: System Generated Solely By Human-Centered Features


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

#1: Transferring Information #2: Feedback loop: unreliable Learners #3: Records Database: history supports intelligent inferences, history allows Learner migration #4: Knowledge Library: varying student capabilities #5: Learning Style: negotiate between Learner/system
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Layer 3: System Components


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Processes: Learner, Evaluation, System Coach, Delivery Stores: Records Database, Knowledge Library Flows: Behavior, Assessment, Performance (past, present, future), Indexes
(query, content, and locator), Learning Content, Multimedia, Learning Style

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Learner (process, human)


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Abstraction of student Can represent more than one student Learner:


Receives Multimedia Emits Behavior Negotiates Learning Style

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Learning Styles (data flow)


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Learners preference as input to system System Coach can negotiate and/or restrict Learners preferences Surrogates: e.g., parentlearner, teacher system Other possible surrogates: e.g., parentsystem, student system, mentorlearner

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Behavior (data flow)


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Observable Behavior of the Learner, coded, and sent to the Evaluation process

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Evaluation (process)
Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Evaluation:
Receives Behavior Receives Learning Content (context of Learners Behavior) Stores Performance info based on Evaluation of Behavior Produces Assessment given to System Coach

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Performance Information Stored By Evaluation (data flow)


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Evaluation of Behavior: can emit Performance info Stored in Records Database

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Records Database (data store)


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Stores Performance information as Learner history Retrieves and stores Learner history records for System Coach

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Performance Information Received By System Coach (data flow)


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

System Coach gets Learner history by retrieving Performance information from Learners Records Database Can select strategies based on history

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Performance Information Stored By System Coach (data flow)


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

System Coach can store Performance information, too:


bookmarks (incomplete sessions) certifications (milestones, completion of module) objectives (outlines for future sessions)

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Assessment Information (data flow)


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Evaluation process can emit Assessments: where there student is at System Coach can use Assessment information, along with other information, to select appropriate learning experience

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System Coach (process)


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style

1
Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

System Coach

Sends, receives, and negotiates Learning Style with Learner

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System Coach (process)


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation 2 Performance (current) Performance 3 (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Receives current Assessment information and Performance information (history and objectives) for future learning experiences
2 3

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System Coach (process)


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index 4

Learning Style
System Coach

Query Indexes sent to search for appropriate material Content Indexes (metadata) returned as found Learning Content Extracts the Locator Indexes (e.g., URLs) from the returned Content Indexes (metadata)

Queries to the Knowledge Library:

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System Coach (process)


Multimedia Learning Content 5 Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Style
System Coach

Locator Indexes (similar to web URLs) are sent to Delivery process to identify (not transfer) Learning Content Note: Delivery is responsible for retrieving and Knowledge Library is responsible for transferring Learning Content
5

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Query Indexes (data flow)


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Query Index specifies what to search for in Knowledge Library System Coach sends Query Indexes to search the Knowledge Library for appropriate Learning Content, based on Assessment info and Performance info from Records Database

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Knowledge Library (data store)


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Database searched via Query Index Returns Content Indexes (metadata) of Learning Content that matches the Query Index Emits Learning Content based on Locator Index from Delivery process

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Content Index -- Metadata (data flow)


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Search of Knowledge Library returns Content Indexes (metadata) for Learning Content that matches Query Index Content Indexes (metadata) are similar to card catalog entries in a library Locator Indexes (e.g., URLs) can be extracted from Content Indexes (metadata)
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Locator Index (data flow)


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

System Coach extracts Locator Index from the Content Index for appropriate learning experience Locator Index is similar to call number in a library, and similar to URL of the World Wide Web

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Learning Content Received By Delivery (data flow)


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Delivery Process sends a Locator Index to the Knowledge Library pointing to Learning Content Knowledge Library returns Learning Content to Delivery process

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Delivery (process)
Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Receives Locator Index (e.g., URLs) that identify learning experiences desired by the System Coach Transforms Learning Content to Multimedia Sends Learning Content to Evaluation to give context of Learners Behavior Sends interactive Multimedia to the Learner
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Learning Content Sent By Delivery (data flow)


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Delivery process sends Learning Content to Evaluation to give context of Learners Behavior

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Multimedia (data flow)


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Delivery process generates Multimedia learning experience based on Learning Content

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Functional vs. Actual Learning Technology Systems


LTSA components identify functional boundaries and critical interfaces Actual systems integrate several components into individual products Functionality exists in actual systems but may be embedded within larger system (several components combined) or single component spread across several systems

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Actual Implementation Example #1: Web-Based Learning


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Abstraction Implementation
Human Human Interface (e.g., X Windows Win95) Presentation Tool (browser)

Student Records (database) Courseware Database (web servers)

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Actual Implementation Example #1: Web-Based Learning


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Abstraction Implementation
Human Human Interface (e.g., X Windows Win95) Presentation Tool (browser)

Student Records (database) Courseware Database (web servers)

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Actual Implementation Example #2: Flight Simulator, Flight Instructor


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Abstraction Implementation
Flight Simulator

Flight Instructor

Pilots Logbook

Pilot
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Actual Implementation Example #3: Non-Electronic, Traditional Classroom


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Abstraction Implementation
Student
Student Uses Library

Teacher
Teacher Points Student To Books (A Locator Index)

Grades

School Library
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Report Cards, Transcript


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Retrieves Teaching Materials LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance

Actual Implementation Example #4: Home Study Course


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Abstraction Implementation
School
Home Study Course
LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance

Student

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Layer 4: Stakeholder Perspectives


Each stakeholder has a view, but not complete picture Show each stakeholder perspective within LTSA Stakeholder perspectives used to validate views and subsets of LTSA components Its in there! (if not, let us know!)

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Layer 4: Stakeholder Perspectives (contd)


Stakeholder perspectives analyzed by:
Primary design issues: LTSA components that greatly affect design and implementation for stake holder (shown as red/bold) Secondary design issues: LTSA components that affect design and implementation of stake-holder, but not critical (shown as blue/dash ---) Other LTSA components: insignificant design issue or not applicable (no highlight/green fill)

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Layer 4: Stakeholder Perspectives (contd)


Stakeholders, typically, have different and/or incompatible priorities Differing priorities: obstacles to consensus Non-technical (political, business) issues just as important as technical issues Cataloging stakeholder perspectives is critical for building consensus

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Abstraction-Implementation:
System Components ==> Stakeholder/Design Perspectives
Learner

Multimedia Learning Content

Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Abstraction Implementation Various Stakeholder/Design Perspectives


Learner, Assessment, Institution, Metadata, Intelligent Tutor, Mentoring, Collaboration, Ontology, Task, etc.
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Isolated LTSA Stakeholders


Isolated LTSA subsets -- little interaction with neighboring LTSA components Little overlap with other isolated stakeholders Relatively simple integration Can make use of isolated component standards Best stakeholder examples: Records, Metadata, Multimedia

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Learner-Centered
Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: learner keeps his/her records, learner has influence on negotiated learning style Secondary: assessment and performance info

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Assessment-Centered
Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: educational standards, behavior, evaluation, assessment records, records database reporting Secondary: learning style, learner, system control (adaptive administration)

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Records, Certifications
Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: records database, performance info Secondary: evaluation, assessment info, system coach

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Task Model, School-To-Work


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: records database Secondary: performance info

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Institution-Centered
Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: system control, administration, records, reporting, negotiating (many times: asserting) learning style Secondary: learner collaboration, teachers, evaluation (grading), delivery infrastructure (including multimedia and behavior observation correlated by learning content)

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Content-Centered
Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: delivery, multimedia, invocation via locator index (e.g., URLs), learning content format Secondary: assessment, content search (query index, content index), knowledge library, learners user interface

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Metadata
Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: query index (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs), and associating locator indexes with content indexes Secondary: knowledge organization, learning content (presentation)

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Ontologies, Expert Systems


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: knowledge design and knowledge representation in knowledge library, learning content (presentation) Secondary: query index (search), content index (metadata), and locator index (e.g., URLs)

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Learning Objects
Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: knowledge library, query index (search), content index (metadata), learning content (presentation) Secondary: evaluation, performance info and database, assessment info, system coach, locator index (e.g., URLs)

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Multimedia
Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: delivery, multimedia, query index (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs), hardware limitations Secondary: system coach, knowledge library, learning content format, behavior

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Collaboration, Asynchronous Learning


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: communication among students with same roles (collective learner), communication modes (multimedia), delivery tools, and differing time zones Secondary: system control by coordinator/moderator, learning style negotiated among participants and coordinator/moderator

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Multiple Role, Team Learning


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: communication among students, but different roles (collective learner), communication modes (multimedia), delivery tools, and differing time zones Secondary: system control by coordinator/moderator, learning style negotiated among participants and coordinator/moderator

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Overlapping LTSA Stakeholders


Concerns many, most, or all LTSA components Overlaps with other stakeholders Differing, conflicting designs priorities Relatively complex integration Potential non-technical, political, or business obstacles to consensus and interoperability Best stakeholder examples: Experimentation, Intelligent Tutoring Tools, Distance Learning

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Mentoring, Coaching
Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: learner and mentor/coach jointly perform evaluation and jointly choose direction Secondary: tools and delivery support mentoring, coaching, experimentation, recordkeeping

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89

Interactive Environment
Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: learner directs style, learner is observed, delivery is responsive to evaluation Secondary: assessment info, system coach, locator index (e.g., URLs)

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90

Simulation
Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: delivery, multimedia, learning content to correlate multimedia and behavior, assessment info, system coach, locator index Secondary: behavior, performance info, records database

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Learning Tool-To-Tool Communication


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: system coach, evaluation, assessment info, query index (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs), delivery, invocation Secondary: multimedia, learning style, performance info, records database, knowledge library, learning content

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92

Sequencing, Pre-Requisites, Co-Requisites


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: system coach, evaluation, assessment info, query index (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs), delivery, invocation Secondary: multimedia, learning style, performance info, records database, knowledge library, learning content

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Experimentation, Discovery
Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: learner chooses direction, acquires knowledge during experimentation, learner, system coach, query index (search), content index (metadata) Secondary: learner does self evaluation, tools and delivery support experimentation, behavior, assessment info, locator index (e.g., URLs), delivery, multimedia
1998-05-21 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance 94

Intelligent Tutoring Tools


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: learner chooses direction, acquires knowledge during use of tutoring tool, knowledge library may be implicit (not explicitly defined) in tutor Secondary: tutor does evaluation, tools and delivery support experimentation

1998-05-21

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95

Distance Learning, Distributed Learning


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: distributed and nomadic communication of all flows (behavior, performance, multimedia, etc.) Secondary: processes and stores components NOTE: Take note of primary design issues (red/bold)
How does this slide differ from all others? Answer: All flows are primary, everything else is secondary
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96

Parallel LTSA Stakeholders


Integration of multiple sessions, each with differing learning experiences and interactions Synchronization of multiple sessions: starting, stopping, coaching, learner interfacing Integration, collaboration, and synchronization of feedback and coaching strategies Best stakeholder example: Student Teacher

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Parallel Sessions for Same Learner

Primary: multiple, simultaneous learning experiences; multiple flows of behavior, learning style, multimedia Secondary: multiple evaluation, system coach, and delivery processes Example: flight simulator -- simultaneous training of flying skills, navigation skills, communication skills, cockpit resource management
LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance 98

1998-05-21

Student Teacher
Student

Teacher

Primary: student teacher as a teacher Secondary: student teacher as a student

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Multi-Tiered Process Improvement


Student

Teacher

Principal

Student is evaluated by teacher, teacher coaches student Teacher is evaluated by principal, principal coaches teacher Principal is evaluated by school board, school board coaches principal Teacher is also evaluated by performance of his/her students Principal is also evaluated by performance of his/her students
LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance 100

1998-05-21

Standards and Specification Development Organizations


IEEE, ANSI, ISO: Accredited Standards IEEE (LTSC) 1484
Specs

ANSI

ISO

Specs From Consortia ADL

AICC

IMS

ARIADNE
Liaising

Requirements
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101

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IEEE 1484 As A Stakeholder (IEEE 1484 Roadmap)


IEEE 1484 working groups (WGs) and study groups (SGs) each involve certain areas of LTSA Some LTSA components should not be standardized, e.g., evaluation methods, delivery systems Some LTSA components should be standardized outside 1484, e.g., multimedia, education standards, cultural adaptation More info: http://www.manta.ieee.org/p1484

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IEEE 1484.1: Architecture and Reference Model WG


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: all components Secondary: none

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IEEE 1484.2: Learner Model WG


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: learner, negotiated learning style, evaluation, performance info, assessment info, system coach Secondary: behavior

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IEEE 1484.3: Glossary WG


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: none Secondary: all components

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IEEE 1484.4: Task Model WG


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: records database Secondary: performance info

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106

IEEE 1484.6: Course Sequencing WG


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: system coach, performance info, assessment info, query index (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs), invocation of learning content Secondary: learning style, records database, knowledge library, delivery, learning content

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107

IEEE 1484.7: Tool/Agent Communication WG


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: system coach, behavior, evaluation, assessment info, performance info, records database, query index (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs) Secondary: query index (search), content index (metadata), knowledge library, delivery

1998-05-21

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108

IEEE 1484.9: Task Ontology WG


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: knowledge library, learning content (presentation) Secondary: query index (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs)

1998-05-21

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109

IEEE 1484.10: CBT Data Interchange WG


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: system coach, performance info, assessment info, query index (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs), invocation of learning content Secondary: learning style, behavior, records database, knowledge library, learning content, delivery

1998-05-21

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110

IEEE 1484.11: Computer Managed Instruction WG


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: performance info, assessment info, query index (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs), invocation of learning content Secondary: behavior, records database, system coach, knowledge library, learning content, delivery

1998-05-21

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111

IEEE 1484.12: Learning Objects Metadata WG


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: query index (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs) Secondary: system coach, knowledge library, learning content, delivery

1998-05-21

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112

IEEE 1484.13: Student Identifiers SG


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: performance info, records database Secondary: learner, system coach

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Other Specification Development Organizations As Stakeholders


Educoms Instructional Management Systems (IMS) Project http://www.imsproject.org Aviation Industry CBT Committee http://www.aicc.org DoD Advanced Distributed Learning http://www.adlnet.com European Union ARIADNE Project

1998-05-21

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114

Educoms Instructional Management Systems (IMS) Project


Main areas of development:
Metadata: learning technology metadata Content objects: learning content, course structure Management systems: collaboration, reporting Profiles: student records External services: interface to institution

More info: http://www.imsproject.org

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IMS Metadata
Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: content index (metadata) and associating locator indexes with content indexes Secondary: query index (search), locator index (e.g., URLs), knowledge organization in knowledge library

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116

IMS Content Objects


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: knowledge library, content index (metadata), learning content (presentation) Secondary: evaluation, performance info, assessment info, system coach, locator index (e.g., URLs), delivery

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117

IMS Management System


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: learner, system coach, performance info, locator index (e.g., URLs) Secondary: negotiated learning style, records database, content index (metadata), knowledge library, delivery

1998-05-21

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118

IMS Profiles
Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: records database, performance info Secondary: evaluation, assessment info, system coach

1998-05-21

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119

IMS External Services


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: records database, student registration, institution back office Secondary: performance info

1998-05-21

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Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC)


Develops guidelines and recommendations for CBT in aviation applications Subject areas: Courseware Delivery Stations, Digital Audio, Operating Windowing System, CBT Peripheral Devices, Computer Managed Instruction (CMI), Courseware Interchange, Digital Video, Icon Standards More info: http://www.aicc.org

1998-05-21

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121

AICC AGR003: Digital Audio


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: multimedia Secondary: delivery

1998-05-21

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122

AICC AGR005: CBT Peripheral Devices


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: behavior, delivery, multimedia Secondary: learner

1998-05-21

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123

AICC AGR006: Computer Managed Instruction


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: performance info, assessment info, query index (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs), invocation of learning content Secondary: behavior, records database, system coach, knowledge library, learning content, delivery

1998-05-21

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124

AICC AGR007: Courseware Interchange


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: system coach, performance info, assessment info, query index (search), content index (metadata), locator index (e.g., URLs), invocation of learning content Secondary: learning style, behavior, records database, knowledge library, learning content, delivery

1998-05-21

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125

AICC AGR008: Digital Video


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: multimedia Secondary: delivery

1998-05-21

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126

AICC AGR009: Icon Standards


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: learner, learning content Secondary: delivery, multimedia

1998-05-21

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127

AICC CRS002: Glossary of Terms Related to CBT


Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: none Secondary: all components

1998-05-21

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128

DoD Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL)


Research and development areas:
Promote widespread collaboration. Exploit Internet technologies. Develop next generation learning technologies. Create reusable content, and lower costs, with object-based tools.

Supplies requirements to IMS More info: http://www.adlnet.org

1998-05-21

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129

ADL Collaboration
Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: all components, ADL addresses collaboration of learning technologies and learning technology requirements Secondary: none

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European Union - ARIADNE


Collaborative browsing Learning technology metadata Working with IMS More info: http://tina.lancs.ac.uk/computing/ research/cseg/projects/ariadne/

1998-05-21

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131

ARIADNE Metadata
Multimedia Learning Content Learner Behavior

Delivery

Evaluation Performance (current) Performance (history) Records Database Performance (new)

Learning Content Content Index (metadata) Knowledge Library Query Index

Learning Style
System Coach

Primary: content index (metadata) and associating locator indexes with content indexes Secondary: query index (search), locator index (e.g., URLs), knowledge organization in knowledge library

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Layer 5: Operational Components


Common components that build the system Operational components may serve several functions Several system components may be implemented via the same operational components, e.g., performance info and learning content both coded as XML (an operational component)

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Layer 5: Operational Components (contd)


Operational components are identified by:
Systems, e.g., clients and servers Connectors (interface protocols), e.g., HTTP, PPP Busses (namespaces), e.g., URLs, telephone numbers

Components (systems) on a bus can talk to each other via interface protocols

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Abstraction-Implementation:
Stakeholder/Design Perspective => Operational Components

Various Stakeholder/Design Perspectives


Learner, Assessment, Intelligent Tutor, Distance Learning, Mentoring, Collaboration, Ontology, Task, etc.

Abstraction Implementation
Protocols Data Storage
1998-05-21

Human Interface Processes Interchange Control Flow

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135

Information Busses:
Example: Internet Client-Server Bus, Client Perspective
Client

- Client connects to many servers - On-demand connections


Server

Server

- Several servers may have same purpose, but varied resources; like libraries: same interface, but varied collections of books

Server
1998-05-21 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance 136

Information Busses:
Example: Internet Client-Server Bus, Server Perspective
Server

- Server handles requests from multiple clients - On-demand connections


Client

- Clients may appear homogenous, but have different identities

Client

Client
1998-05-21 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance 137

Information Busses:
Example: Combining/bridging two busses
Web Server 1 User

Web Browser: sits on two busses: both window manager application & web application
GUI App 1 Web Client

Window Manager Application Bus


Examples: X Windows, Win95

World Wide Web Bus of Browsers and Web Servers


Web Server 2

GUI App 2

GUI App 3
1998-05-21 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance

Web Server 3
138

Information Busses:
Example: Combining/bridging three busses
World Wide Web Bus of Browsers and Web Servers Web Browser: GUI<->Web
GUI App 1 Web Client Chat Server GUI App 2 Chat Client 1 Chat Client 2
139

User

Web Server 1 Web Server 2

Chat Bus of Sessions

Window Manager Application Bus

Chat Session: GUI<->Chat


1998-05-21 LTSA 4.00 Overview, Frank Farance

Information Busses: Commonly Used Busses/Protocols


Layer 5 is: collection of common bus protocols, no specific requirements Examples:
Transport, Network, Data Link: TCP, UDP, IP, Ethernet, telephone Application, Presentation, Session: X11, HTTP, IRC, SMTP, NNTP, FTP, TELNET Data, Control, Security: HTML, XML, RDF, RPC, CORBA, DCOM, HLA, Kerberos, HTTPS, SSL, HLA

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Summary of Five LTSA AbstractionImplementation Layers


Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Layer 4 Layer 5
1998-05-21 Protocol & Interface Busses System Components Learner Environment Interactions
Learner

Environment
Interactions

Five Human-Centered Features


M
D LC KL CI QI L B A P E P RD

LC
LI LS SC

40+ Stakeholder Perspectives

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141

LTSA Layer Summary (contd)


Layer 1:
Learning experience: learners interacting with the environment A learner (abstract) may represent several students (humans) From information technology perspective, flow is one-way: environment ==> learner Collaboration is within the learner abstraction

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LTSA Layer Summary (contd)


Layer 2:
Because the learner abstraction is implemented with humans (human learner), rather implemented with computers (machine learning), the nature of humans has pervasive effect on system design Fundamental limits of human communication

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LTSA Layer Summary (contd)


Layer 2 (contd):
Humans arent reliable receivers of information: retransmission Humans arent predictable receivers of information: different strategies Humans learn differently (and over time): customizable, configurable

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LTSA Layer Summary (contd)


Layer 3:
System notation: process, store, flow Human-centered feedback loop: learner, behavior, evaluation, assessment, system coach, delivery, multimedia More intelligence from learning content: need records database and performance records Learner has different teachers during his/her lifetime: records database facilitates hand-off

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LTSA Layer Summary (contd)


Layer 3 (contd):
Humans each learn differently (and learn differently over time): rich knowledge library required; query indexes and content indexes (metadata) make best use of knowledge library Learners and their surrogates (e.g, parent, mentor) negotiate learning styles with system coaches and their surrogates (e.g., institution, teacher, courseware developer)

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LTSA Layer Summary (contd)


Layer 4:
Stakeholders each have own, incomplete perspectives All stakeholders perspectives are incorporated in LTSA system components diagram IEEE 1484: working groups specifying critical interfaces; some technical standards outside of 1484; education standards are necessary but outside scope of 1484 and technical standards

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LTSA Layer Summary (contd)


Layer 5:
Bus notation: bus, connector, system Operational components: actual implementation One operational component (e.g., HTTP) might be used by several system components (e.g., records database, knowledge library) One system component (e.g., delivery) might use several operational components (e.g., HTTP, HTML, MPEG)

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LTSA Layer Summary (contd)


Layer 5 (contd):
Bus may be used for several purposes Systems on bus share common namespace, e.g., URLs, process IDs, object IDs Systems may be connected, simultaneously, to several busses

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LTSA Layer Summary (contd)


Layer 5 (contd):
Systems dynamically connect, on-demand to other systems (e.g., clients to servers) System connectivity is not pre-arranged Connections (protocols) may serve several purposes (e.g., XML used for performance records and learning content; MIDI used for behavior and multimedia)

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LTSA Conformance
LTSA conforming products/services
provide the critical interfaces (functionality) that conform to one or more components of LTSA: Learner (Collaboration), Behavior, Evaluation, Performance, Records Database, System Coach, Query Index (search), Content Index (metadata), Locator Index (e.g., URLs), Knowledge Library, Delivery, Multimedia identify the protocols that describe the bus interface identify the interface point

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LTSA Conformance
LTSA conforming products/services Measuring conformance: the system under test is called the implementation under test A system that conforms to the LTSA specification is called a conforming implementation A conforming implementation shall conform to all five layers.

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LTSA Layer 1 Conformance


Validating Learner-Environment interactions The implementation under test shall identify the boundaries of the Environment, the flows of Interactions, and the Learner. The implementation under test shall identify the Learner's relationship to human students. Examples of Learner/Student relationship:
Is the Learner represented by more than one Student? Is there collaboration among the Students?

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LTSA Layer 2 Conformance


Validating human-centered features The implementation under test shall identify the methods for addressing the human-centered features:
unreliable learners unpredictable and diverse learners nomadic learners influence on learning style

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LTSA Layer 3 Conformance


Validating decomposition into LTSA system components The implementation under test shall identify the available LTSA system components: Learner, Learning Style, Behavior, Evaluation, Performance, Records Database, Assessment, System Coach, Query Index, Content Index, Locator Index, Knowledge Library, Learning Content, Delivery, Multimedia.

1998-05-21

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LTSA Layer 4 Conformance


Identifying which LTSA subset (stakeholder) is applicable -- stakeholders can be any subset, not limited to the examples in the LTSA specification Mapping conceptual to actual system components The implementation under test shall identify the subset of applicable LTSA system components. The implementation under test shall identify the boundaries and mapping of LTSA system components.

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LTSA Layer 5 Conformance


Identifying the information busses -- bus protocols and topology not limited to examples in LTSA specification The implementation under test shall identify the information busses in use, their namespace, control protocols, and mapping to LTSA system components.

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Open Issues
Verifying stakeholders perspectives Identifying and refining operating components: protocols, interfaces Public review in IEEE 1484.1 and other fora

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Summary
Yourdon (systems notation): tried and true Bus notation used for larger number of component Five abstraction-implementation layers:
Learner and environment interactions Human-centered features System components Stakeholder perspectives Operational components

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Summary (contd)
Wide range of implementations supported All stakeholders perspectives identified Reflects commercial systems

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