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Photography is the process of recording images on sensitized material by action of light and chemical process of sensitized material to produce a print.

The word photography is derived from Greek word meaning “to write or draw with light”



Ancient Greek Philosopher Aristotle observed that light passing through a small hole in the wall of a room framed on dawn image of an object. Until 1500AD this character of light was not used.



It consisted of a huge base with tiny opening in one side that admitted light and on opposite side. the light formed an inverted image of scene outside.  4/23/2012 4 . In Italy first crude camera. called a „camera obscure‟ (dark chamber) was made.

showed that changes caused in salts by light made permanent by chemical. Schulte discovered that silver salts turn dark when exposed to light.1727 :  German physicist Johann H. 4/23/2012 5 .   About 50 years later CarlScheeje. a Swedish chemist.

Joseph N.1826 :  Frenchman.N coated a metal plate with light sensitive chemical and then exposed the plate in the camera obscura for 8 hrs.  Resulting picture was the world‟s first photograph.  4/23/2012 6 .

1830 :  Louis Daguerre.  „Daguerreotyper‟ (15 to 30 sec. exposed a sheet of silver coated copper. a French man.  4/23/2012 7 .)  Produce sharp and detailed images. developed the image with mercury vapour and fixed it with table salt.

1839:  Britisher W.H Fox Talbot invented a light sensitive paper which produce a negative from which positive prints could be made  Use sodium thiosulphate as a fixing agent  Invention called “Photography”  4/23/2012 8 .

Archer  Coated a glass with mixture of silver salts and an emulsion made of wet.1851 :  British Photographer Frederick S. sticky substance “Coloidion”  4/23/2012 9 .

Maddox a British doctor  Used an emulsion of gelatin to coat photographic plates.  4/23/2012 10 .1871:  Richard L.

Mass production. introduced Kodak Box Camera.1888 :  George Eastman.   This Camera has a roll of gelatin coated film.  4/23/2012 11 .

 4/23/2012 12 .1924 :  Leica company introduced a 33mm pocket camera.

 4/23/2012 13 .1931:  Electric flash bulb was introduced.

 4/23/2012 14 .1935 :  Colour film was introduced commercially.

The area is determined by the focal length of the lens.Angle of view:  The particular portion of a scene that is covered by a camera lens.  4/23/2012 15 .

 4/23/2012 16 .  Nodal point :  Point where the ray of light appear to have come after passing through lens.Focal length :  The distance between the rear nodal point of the lens and focal plane when focus is set at infinity.

Aperture:  The opening in a lens system through which light passes. Lens openings are usually calibrated in numbers.  4/23/2012 17 . The size of the aperture may be fixed or adjustable.

Auto focus :  Camera adjusts the lens for correct focus on the subject automatically.  4/23/2012 18 .

 4/23/2012 19 .Back ground :  The part of the scene that appears behind the main subject of the picture.  Multiple objects in background should be avoided. or a solid-dark color such as dark blue.  For extra oral photographs background should be either a solid-white background.

a print that is made bigger than the negative or slide.  4/23/2012 20 .Blow up :  An enlargement.

Camera angle :  It marks the specific location at which camera is placed to take a shot.  Types :  Bird‟s Eye  High Angle  Eye Level  Low Angle  4/23/2012 21 .

 4/23/2012 22 .Candid pictures :  Imposed pictures. often takes without the subject‟s knowledge.

Double exposure :  Two pictures taken on one frame of film or two images printed on one piece of photographic paper.



Emulsion :  A thin coating of light sensitive material, usually silver halide in gelatin, in which the image is framed on film and photographic paper.



Exposure :  Amount of light required to take a photo. OR

The quantity of light allowed to act on a photographic material.



 4/23/2012 26 .  ISO 100 is ideal film.Film speed :  The measure of a sensitivity of a given film to light.  A closely related ISO system is used to measure the sensitivity of digital imaging systems.  Determined by various numerical scales.

 4/23/2012 27 .  Panorama :  A broad view. Over exposure : A condition in which too much light reaches the film. producing a dense negative as a washed out print. usually scenic.

 4/23/2012 28 .Range finder :  A device included on a camera as an aid in focusing.

Parallax :  This is the effect of looking through a viewfinder that is distinct from camera lens itself.  4/23/2012 29 .  It increases as going closer to subject.

 Zoom lens :  A lens in which the focal length can be adjusted over a wide range.  With zoom.Shutter :  It is movable cover in a camera which controls the time during which light reaches the film. camera is closer to object without moving physically closer.  4/23/2012 30 .

The aim of dental photography is to record a maximum of information under conditions. It helps in .  Excellent tool for teaching. which should be as reproducible as possible.  Excellent tool for communication.  4/23/2012 31 .  Patient education  Legal records for facial features for pre and post treatment.

 If all these conditions are standardized it is possible to take intra oral and extra oral photographs. the scale of reproduction and lighting should be constant. which allows direct comparisons.  4/23/2012 32 .  The photographic equipment used.Photographs for comparison over time can be obtained only if the conditions under which they are taken are reproducible. the framing of the picture.  Position of patient during photography should be standardized.

 Natural head position Line from outer canthus of eye to superior attachment of ear should be parallel to frankfurt horizontal plane.   4/23/2012 33 . Inter pupillary line should be parallel to horizontal plane.

4/23/2012 34 . short manual lenses on automatic bulbs  Single or twin lens reflex cameras.  Camera : The types of cameras that can be used for clinical photography include :  Orthoscan camera  Polaroid cameras  35 mm. which uses 120 film and 150 to 180 mm lenses. single lens reflex with 100 mm macro or 100-150 mm.

The earliest intraoral camera to use is the orthoscan camera.  It produces a 1:1 ratio in a properly oriented perspective (right is right. left is left) of full upper or full lower arches on Polaroid film only.  4/23/2012 35 .

 Polaroid 108 film produces a colour print in 60 seconds  4/23/2012 36 .  Polaroid 105 film prints a black and white print in 60 seconds. washed and dried. plus a black and white negative which has to be cleared in sodium sulfite solution.Polaroid type 107 film yields a black and white print in 15 seconds.

In this both the focus and depth of field can be observed visually on the viewing screen. The most suitable and frequently used clinical camera for dental photographs.   4/23/2012 37 . It has advantages over view finder cameras for the problem of parallax in close working conditions.

 Two parameters of particular importance are determined by the types of lens employed.  They are .The most critical item of equipment is the lens.  The scale of reproduction  The clear working distance  4/23/2012 38 .  The characteristics of the lens determines whether a camera can be used for dental photography.

  For dental photographic purposes maximum scales of reproduction of 1:1 or 2:1 are required.  Clear working distance :  It is the distance from the subject to the front surface of the lens. The scale of reproduction together with the focal length of the lens determine the clear working distance. 4/23/2012 39 .Scale of reproduction :  It is the ratio of image size to subject size.

75 x.  Distance from the monolight to subject is fixed about (1.  For best quality.  A rectangular .2m)  4/23/2012 40 .Most demanding aspect of clinical photography are patient lighting. monolight flash should be mounted in a corner of a room.35m soft box fits on the flash unit in horizontal position.1-1.

 4/23/2012 41 .To prevent shadows :  Small rectangular reflecting panel of .7m is used.35x.

 Frontal view : 4/23/2012 42 .

 Oblique view : 4/23/2012 43 .

 Lateral view : 4/23/2012 44 .

close to background panel. 4/23/2012 45 . 3.1-Instruct the patient how to use reflecting panel and adjust height on stool. 2-Set the standard time/diaphram couple with the monolight adjusted to full-power light emission.Position the patient head for extended and basal views with unchanged monolight position.

Position the Patient for right oblique views. 4/23/2012 46 .4. monolight should be oriented.

4/23/2012 47 . close to background panel and shoot the photo.Position the patient for right profile view.5.

 For taking intra-oral photographs a lateral flash source can create problems. the illumination will be uneven.  If the working distance is too short.Lateral Flash :  The simplest and most common arrangement is lateral mounting of the flash unit.  For this reason. when lateral flash is used the clear working distance should be long enough and the flash unit should be rotatable to a position directly beside the lens.  This results in high contrast pictures obtained with a minimum of technical complexity.  4/23/2012 48 .

 4/23/2012 49 .  The flash reflection takes the form of a ring surrounding the lens.  In this light axis and the optical axis of the camera coincides. giving a shadowless illumination. Ring Flash : Ring flash is extremely popular especially in intra-oral photography.

 Permits uniform illumination even at large scales of magnification and with short object distances. they do not clearly show surface texture  4/23/2012 50 .Advantages :  Highly inaccessible areas are well and uniformly illuminated.  Disadvantages :  Illumination is that the photographs lacks modeling.e. i.

Double Lateral Flash :  A combination of two laterally positioned flash sources gives evenly illuminated pictures. which also show some degree of modeling.  4/23/2012 51 .  Colour structure of teeth is reproduced better with lateral illumination than with axial lighting from a ring flash.  Advantage :  Adapt to the surface of the particular subject  Illustrate the particular point the picture is to convey.

 Lateral flash : Single or preferably double.  35 mm single lens reflex camera.  4/23/2012 52 . ring flash can also be used for intra oral photography. allowing reproduction on a scale of 1:1 or preferably 2:1.Recommended principal standard suitable for all aspects of dental photography are .  Macrolens of 100 – 135 mm focal length.

surface coated glass mirrors are required. Suitable mirrors as well as lip retractors are essential for high quality intraoral photographs. Intraoral Mirrors :  For good images.  Intra oral mirrors with handles are preferred  Extraoral Retractors :  Two sets of double-ended retractors  Small set  Double set  4/23/2012 53 .

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 Mid treatment photographs should be obtained at change of every arch wire.  4/23/2012 56 .  Four extraoral photographs and five intraoral photographs should be obtained before treatment.For maximum benefit and information nine pretreatment and nine post treatment photographs should be obtained.

profile (Right side preferably.Lips relaxed) 4.45 degree profile or (¾ profile – smiling)  4/23/2012 57 .Face-Frontal (Smiling) 3.Face-Frontal (lips relaxed) 2.Consist of following four shots : 1.

with reasonable margin all around.First. with lips in contact and in relaxed position.framing of shot should cover the patient‟s face and neck.  4/23/2012 58 . with eyes looking into camera lens.  Patient should hold their teeth and jaw in a relaxed (rest) position.  Patient should stand with their head in NHP.

 Ensuring the patient‟s inter-pupillary line is leveled  4/23/2012 59 .Make sure patient‟s head is not tilted or their face rotated to either side. shot should be taken at 90 degree to facial midline from front.

 In this patient should be smiling in a natural way with teeth visible.  This photo greatly aids in visualizing the patient‟s smile esthetics and soft tissue proportions during smiling. 4/23/2012 60 .

with eyes fixed horizontally. In this. 4/23/2012 61 .  Head should be in natural head position. patient is asked to bodily turn to their left.

 Patient is instructed to look into camera by turning their eyes to right to meet the lens and then smile. Patient is asked to turn their heads slightly to their right while keeping their body forward. 4/23/2012 62 .

the use of special cheek retractors and dental mirrors are required.Lower Occlusal 4/23/2012 63 . 1.Upper Occlusal 5.Frontal – in occlusion 2.  There are five required intra-oral photographs.Right Buccal – in occlusion 3.Left Buccal – in occlusion 4. For these shots.

 This is important to allow maximum visualization of all teeth and alveolar ridges  Photo should be taken 90 degree to facial mid-line using upper frenal attachment as a guide.  4/23/2012 64 .Lips retract by larger retractor sideways and away from gingivae. towards clinician.

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 4/23/2012 66 .  Clinician holds the right retractor and stretches it to extent that last present molar is visible.Flip the right retractor to narrow side  Left retractor remains in place as for previous frontal shot.  Right side of patient head should be towards clinician.

 It is similar to right buccal shot 4/23/2012 67 .

 Retractors inserted in a v shape. 4/23/2012 68 .

 Smaller retractors used  Retractors are inserted in a vshape to retract the upper lips sideways and away from teeth.  Insert the mirrors with its wider end inwards to capture max. width of arch posteriorly. 4/23/2012 69 .  Shot can be taken 90 degree to the plane of mirror for more visibility  Mid-palatal raphe used as a guide for orientation of shot. and pull it slightly downward .

4/23/2012 70 . For lower occlusal retractors should be in reverse v shape position.

Assistant would now lower the smaller retractors into a reverse “v” shape to retract lower lips sideways and away from teeth.  Lift the mirror upwards for reflection of lower arch. and patient is asked to lift chin up slightly.  Shot should be taken 90 degree to the plane of mirror.  4/23/2012 71 .

 Short guide to clinical digital photography  Clinical Digital Photography  Clinical Facial Analysis 4/23/2012 72 .

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