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Community Assessment and Evaluation

What is a Community?
• WHO Definition: • A social group determined by geographic boundaries and/or common values and interests • Types of Communities: • Geopolitical • Phenomenological • Solution

Communities • Three Components: • People • Residents • Place • Geographical and Time Dimensions • Function • Aims and Activities of the Community .

school nurse.Community • The Community can be: • The setting for practice • Focused on individuals • Ex: Home health. community-based clinics • The target of practice • Focused on the broader community • Ex: Public health nurses .

and several of co-workers. the foreman. • Is this an example of communityoriented nursing? • Why or why not? . the nurse interviews the worker.Example • In treating a worker injured at a construction site.

Community as Client and Partner • Direct clinical care aspect of practice • Changes in individual’s health will affect health of community • Two key concepts: • Community health • Partnership for community .

and sociocultural influences of the environment that surrounds a specific group of people.Community Assessment • Community assessment includes examination of biological. • Gain information and clarify need for change • To empower those responsible in the context of that change • Critical for identifying methods to improve the health of at-risk clients. . psychological.

Community Health • Three Common Components: • Status • Physical (morbidity/mortality) • Emotional (client satisfaction. mental health) • Social (crime) • Structure • Services and resources • Demographics • Process • Effective community problem solving and functioning .

Assessing Community Physical Health Status • Measures • Vital Statistics • Live Births • Infant Mortality • Incidence and Prevalence rates • Morbidity • Mortality • Health risk profiles of selected aggregates • Nursing Intervention: • Focus on primary and secondary prevention .

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Assessing Community Emotional Health Status • Will have to use surveys and informant interviews: • Client satisfaction • Mental/emotional health .

unemployment.Assessing Community Social Health • Look at Crime. environment .

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school health services • Service use patterns • Hospital bed occupancy days. social workers • Intervention: • Program planning or community development . provider visits • Health providers • # of physicians. nursing homes.Assessing Community Structure • Measures: • Health facilities • Hospitals. dentists. nurses.

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Assessing Community Health Process • Measures: • Commitment to community health • Awareness of self and others • Conflict containment • Management of relationships with society • Intervention: • Best strategy is to use health promotion (primary prevention) .

Community-Focused Nursing Practice and the Nursing Process • • • • • Assess community health Identify community problems Plan intervention for improvement Implement intervention Evaluate intervention outcome .

Assessment of Community Health Three steps to community assessment: •Gather existing data and generate missing data • Data generation from interaction. generally qualitative •Develop a composite data base •Interpret (Analyze) data .

Data Collection • Need to get usable information • Requires: • Gathering or compiling existing data • Generating missing data • Interpreting data • Identifying community health problems and community abilities .

Data Collection • Objective: •Secondary Analysis of Existing Data •Quick. time-consuming. and cheap •Surveys •Expensive. easy. low-return •Informant Interviews •Qualitative data • Subjective: •Participant Observation •Windshield Surveys .