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4/23/12

Computer Hardware Requirements for Real – Time applications

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4/23/12

Although almost any digital computer can be used for real time computer control and other real time operations , they are not all equally easily adapted for such work. the majority of embedded computer-based systems the computer used will be a microprocessor , a microcomputer or a specialised digital processor. digital processorsdigital signal processors

 In

 Specialised  Fast

 Parallel

computers- transputer and special RISC(reduced instruction set computers)

.4/23/12 General purpose computer  The general purpose microprocessors include -Intel XX86 series -Motorola 680XX series -National 32XXX series -Zilog Z80 and Z8000 series.

4/23/12 Schematic diagram of a general purpose digital computer GENERA L PURPOS E REGIST ER ALU CONTR OL DATA ADDRESS CONTROL MAIN MEMORY INPUT/OUTPU T INTERFACE PERIPHER ALS .

4/23/12 Central Processing Unit  CPU=ALU+ register Control unit + general purpose  ALU>carry out arithmetic and logic operations  General purpose registers>storing data temporarily while being processed.and sets up necessary data paths and timing cycles for execution of the . unit>supervises the operations within the CPU.--fetches program instructions from main memory --decodes the instructions  Control -.

--addressing methods.4/23/12  The choice of computer for process control include: --wordlength. --information transfer rate. . --no of registers. --interrupt structure. --instruction set.

Fast access storage.contains data . .Auxiliary storage- Disc or magnetic tape. RAM(random access mem) ROM(read-only mem) PROM(programmable ROM) EPROM(electronically PROM)  2. pgm and results which are currently being operated on.4/23/12 Storage  1.

electrical. Mechanical(physical) structure. Operator I/O . Computer I/O.and Funtional. Bus Structure:    .4/23/12 Input and Output:    Process I/O.

lines. and status lines.  Control .4/23/12 Bus lines can be divided into three functional groups  Address  Data lines.

microcontroller is similarly a single-chip device that is specifically intended for embedded computer control applicatios.  The  The .Single-chip microcomputers and microcontrollers  All 4/23/12 the components necessary for a complete computer are provided on one single chip. microcomputer is that it typically will have on board the chip a multiplexed.

A typical single chip computer oscilla tor Control Procesi ng unit Program store EPROM (4 kbytes) Data store RAM (128 bytes) External 4/23/12 Hardware timers Interrupt controller Serial communication controller i/o ports (4) .

4/23/12 Specialised processors Developed for two main purposes:  Safety-critical  Increased applications. Advantage:  Formal verification(using mathematical proofs). It is easier to write assemblers and  . for safety-critical applications the approach has been to simplify the instruction set so called reduced instruction set computer(RISC). computation speed.

1986) Main features are:  Formal 4/23/12 logic.  No  No .all event handling is done using polling dynamic memory allocation.1988.dettmer.viper(cullyer. interrupts. mathematical description of processor  Integer arthmatic(32bits)and no floating point operations.Example.

4/23/12 Parallel computer Three categories: SIMD (single instruction stream.) MIMD (multiple instruction stream.) . multiple data stream. single data stream.) MISD (multiple instruction stream. multiple data stream.

4/23/12 Control unit instructi Processo ons r unit da memta ory SISD computer .

4/23/12 Control unit 1 Control unit 2 Control unit n instruction s Stream 1 instruction s Stream 2 Processor unit 1 Processor unit 2 Processor unit 3 Memo ry unit instruction s Stream n MISD computer .

4/23/12 proces sors Unit 1 Contr ol unit Unit 2 Unit n dat a Stream 1 dat a Stream 2 dat a Stream n Shared Memory Or InterConnecti on Network SIMD computer .

4/23/12 Control unit 1 Control unit 2 Control unit n instruction s Stream 1 instruction s Stream 2 proces sors dat Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit n a dat a instruction s Stream n dat a Shared Memory Or InterConnecti on Network MIMD computer .

memory. it has A CPU.  On-board  External  Communication links for direct pt-pt connection to other transputer chips.4/23/12 MIMD MIMD systems are obviously the most powerful class of parallel computers in that each processor can potentially be executing a different pgm on a different data set. memory interface. The most widely available MIMD system is INMOS transputer. .

occam. for use with the transputer. is based on the assumption that the application to be implemented on transputer can be modelled as a set of processes that communicate with each other via channels  Occam .4/23/12  INMOS developed a special programming language.

4/23/12 Digital signal processors  Speech processing  Telecommunications  Radar hi-fi systems .