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People Management

BM014-1

Approaches to motivation

Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory People Management BM014-1 Introduction . you should be able to: •Define motivation •Explain fear •Understand Content Theories of Motivation: 1.Learning Outcomes At the end of this chapter.Needs Hierarchy Theory 2.

” Discuss.Quick Review Question 1. “A knowledge of theories of motivation can help managers to achieve their organisation’s goals and objectives. What are the disadvantages of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs? People Management BM014-1 Introduction . 2.

ii. a particular level of effort (intensity). INTENSITY and PERSISTENCE of voluntary behaviour (McShane and Von Glinow.Motivation Definition: Motivation refers to the forces within a person that affect his or her DIRECTION. for a certain amount of time (persistence). motivated employees are willing to exert : i. toward a particular goal (direction) People Management BM014-1 Introduction . 2003) According to McShane and Von Glinow (2003). iii.

Motivation Motivating employees challenging because: has become very • Organisations change the jobs that people perform • Employee needs are changing People Management BM014-1 Introduction .

such as pain or the threat of pain. Is using fear an effective way to get the job done? People Management BM014-1 Introduction . It is a basic survival mechanism occurring in response to a specific stimulus.Fear What is fear? Fear is an emotional response to threats and danger.

Content Theories of Motivation • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory People Management BM014-1 Introduction .

Content Theories of Motivation Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Need for self actualization Esteem need Belongingness need Security or safety needs Physiological needs People Management BM014-1 Introduction .

Content Theories of Motivation Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • He set out the theory of human needs • According to him. • These needs form a pyramid with the physical needs (lower needs) at the base while the need for the realisation (higher needs) at the apex • The lower needs must be satisfied for the emergence of higher ones People Management BM014-1 Introduction . human needs form a hierarchy.

Content Theories of Motivation Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • According to him. every individual has a hierarchy of needs • At any one moment. it is no longer a MOTIVATOR • It is replaced by a higher order need which has not been satisfied yet People Management BM014-1 Introduction . there is one need which is dominant and remain dominant until it is satisfied • Once that need is satisfied.

Content Theories of Motivation Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Although Maslow did not develop this theory to answer the problem of motivating employees. the implications are obvious • Managers must identify the needs of their subordinates and provide the means of satisfying these needs in an organization content • The implied rigidity of the hierarchy has been criticised as not taking account of the strength of need some individuals feel which alters the ranking order and causes people to seek satisfaction of some seemingly higher level ones before lower level ones People Management BM014-1 Introduction .

achievement. “What do individuals want from their jobs?” • He asked hundreds of people that question in the late 1950s and the carefully analysed their responses • He concluded that people preferred jobs that offered opportunities for recognition.e. i. responsibility and growth • Managers who concerned themselves with things like company policies.Content Theories of Motivation Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory • Herzberg sought an answer to the question. employee pay. creating narrow and repetitive jobs and developing unfavourable working conditions might placate their workers but they would not motivate them People Management BM014-1 Introduction .

if managers want to motivate their people they should redesign jobs to allow workers to perform more and varied tasks • Much of the current interest in enriching jobs and improving the quality of work life can be traced to Herzberg’s research • The theory arose out of a research survey of 200 engineers and accountants on job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction People Management BM014-1 Introduction .Content Theories of Motivation Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory • According to him.

motivating factors and hygiene factors • MOTIVATING FACTORS are factors which encourage an employee to do well. job recognition. it does not course job dissatisfaction but just a lack of a job satisfaction. job responsibility. i.e. challenging work and personal growth People Management BM014-1 Introduction .Content Theories of Motivation Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory • He concluded this was covered by 2 different groups of factors. It increases satisfaction. achievement. namely. It arose from the content of the job (intrinsic). If this factor is missing. career advancement.

working conditions. job security and salary People Management BM014-1 Introduction . i. It arose from the context of the job (extrinsic). For example company policy / administration.Content Theories of Motivation Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory • HYGIENE FACTORS – if absent causes job dissatisfaction but even when present did not contribute significantly to job satisfaction.e. environment in which the job is done. It reduces dissatisfaction.

• Furthermore.Content Theories of Motivation Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory • In order to obtain high performance from the employees. it has also been criticized for placing money as a hygiene and not motivating factor • Many companies have developed job enrichment based on this 2-factor theory People Management BM014-1 Introduction . the organization must provide strong MOTIVATIONAL factors and ensure that negative HYGIENE factors (which would detract from performance) are not present • This theory has been criticized because it lacks scientific method and is based on short evidence.

Essential Reference Chapter 5 Organisational Behaviour 4th Edition (2008) McShane & Von Glinow McGraw-Hill People Management BM014-1 Introduction .

Question and Answer Session Q&A People Management BM014-1 Introduction .