Personality and Lifestyles

Nehad Shukur/Ishik University


Chapter Objectives
When you finish this chapter, you should understand why: A consumer’s personality influences the way he or she responds to marketing stimuli (incentives). Consumers’ lifestyles are key to many marketing strategies. Psychographics go beyond simple demographics to help marketers reach different segments. Identifying patterns of consumption is superior to knowledge of individual purchases when a marketer crafts a
Nehad Shukur/Ishik University


• Personality: a person’s unique psychological makeup and how it consistently influences the way a person responds to his/her environment

Nehad Shukur/Ishik University


• psychographic variables are any attributes relating to personality, values, attitudes, interests, or lifestyles. They are also called IAO variables (for Interests, Activities, and Opinions). They can be contrasted with demographic variables (such as age and gender), behavioral variables (such as usage rate or loyalty), • Psychographics should not be confused with demographics. For example, historical generations are defined by psychographic variables like attitudes, personality formation, and cultural standard.
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Theories of personality Freudian Theory
• Is one of the cornerstone of modern psychology , this theory was built on the premise that unconscious need or drive , especially sexual and other biological drives are the heart of human motivation and personality .

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• Ego: mediates between id and superego Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-6 .Freudian Systems Personality = conflict between satisfaction and responsibility • Id: pleasure principle(immediate satisfaction ) • Superego: our sense of right and wrong (the counterweight to id).

• Consumer researchers have adapted some of Freuds ideas: • Freudian perspective also raises the possibility that the ego relies on the symbolism in product to compromise between the demand of the id and the exclusion of the superego. • Consumer cannot necessarily tell us their true motivation they choose products . even if we can plan a sensitive way to ask them directly • The person channels her unacceptable desire in to acceptable outlets when she uses products that signify these underlying desires. • By acquiring the product. the person vicariously experiences the forbidden fruit . Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-7 .

Freudian Systems (continued) Marketing Suggestions • This ad focuses on the conflict between the id and the superego • Ads often times use symbolism to motivate product purchases Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-8 .

Father of logical Psychology • believer of Freud • Established concept of collective unconscious • Explained the creation of archetypes – Old wise man – Earth mother • Young & Rubicam(major advertising agency ) uses the concept of archetypes in its BrandAsset® Archetypes model Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-9 .Carl Jung.

instead these neo-Freudians believed that social relationships are fundamental to the arrangement and development of personality for instance .• Non Freuds colleagues disagree with his contention that personality is primarily in stinctual and sexual in nature . Which he called Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-10 . Alferd Adler viewed human being as seeking to reach a variety of balanced goals .

Karen was also interested in anxiety . • Sullivan .Neo-Freudian Theories • Harry stack . another neo –Freudian . he was particularly concerned with the individuals efforts to reduce tension such as anxiety (nervousness) . Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-11 . stressed that people continuously attempt to establish significant and rewarding relationships with others. she proposed that individuals be classified in to three personality groups . she focused on the impact of child –parent relationships and the individuals desire to get the better feelings to anxiety .

Aggressive individuals :are those who move against others ( they desire excel (shine )and win respect ) 3. self sufficiency and individualism or freedom for obligations ) Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-12 . Detached individuals :are those who move away from others (they desire independence self –reliance . 2. Compliant individuals :are those who move toward others ( they desire to be loved .1. wanted and appreciated).

• Students classified as aggressive showed preference for Old Spice perfume over other perfumes Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-13 .Case study • And initial research uncovered a number of tentative relationships between college students scores and their product and brand usage patterns .for example : • Highly compliant students were found to prefer name –brand products such as Bayer aspirin .

• More recent research has found that children who scored high in self – reliance –who preferred to do things independently of others were less likely to be brand loyal and were more likely to try different brands. Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-14 .

Motivation • Motivation is the driving force with in individuals that push them to action . This driving Force is produced by a state of tension . which exist as the result of an unfulfilled need. Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-15 .

Motivational Research and Consumption Motives • Motivation research borrowed Freudian ideas to understand the deeper meaning of products and advertisement the approach assumed that : • Channel socially unacceptable needs into acceptable opening • The perspective riles on deepness interviews with individual consumers Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-16 .

or an extrovert (outgoing) • characters relevant to consumer behavior: – Innovativeness ( is the degree to which a person likes to try now things ).) .characteristic Theory • Personality character: identifiable characteristics that define a person (we might say that some one is an introvert (shy person . – Materialism (is the amount of emphasis a person places on acquiring and owing products.) – Self-consciousness ( is the degree to which person deliberately monitors and controls the image of the self that he or she project to others Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-17 .

expends the necessary effort to process brand information . Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-18 .– Need for cognition : is the degree which a person likes to think about things and by extension .) – Frugality: is the tendency to deny shortterm purchases and to make due with what they already own.

• Consider how you would describe the personality of a close friend . chances are that you would list a number of traits . kind and even tempered Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-19 .• The Trait Theory • Suggests that individual personalities are composed broad dispositions . such as outgoing or ingoing .

Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-20 .Are You an Innie or an Outie? • David Reisman first introduced the terms in exist between idiocentric and allocentric personalitiesnerdirected and outer-directed more than 30 years ago. There are several differences that.

. Allocentrics are more likely to work on crafts.Idiocentrism or Allocentrism • Idiocentrics: – Individuals who have an individualist orientation • Allocentrics: – Individuals who have a group orientation • Differences between idiocentrics and allocentrics: – Contentment: Idiocentrics tend to be more content with life and their financial situation – Health Consciousness: Allocentrics are more likely to avoid unhealthy foods – Food preparation: Allocentrics spend more time preparing food – Travel and Entertainment: Idiocentrics are more interested in traveling.

teneded to finish the task. Individualist cultures have somewhere in between 0-35% allocentrics. aggressiveness.  High in expressiveness. and shift their opinions more easily. and had strong Allocentrics  Tend to behave like people in collectivist cultures  Collectivist cultures have between 30-100 % Allocentrics. initiation of action.  High on accommodating and avoidance of argument. dominance. . collectivist 035% idiocentrics. logical arguments.Idiocentrics  Think. eye contact. feel and behave like people in individualist cultures  Individualist 35-100 % idiocentrics. regulation of flow of communication.

Idiocentrics  Increases with affluence. is of low social class.  Increases when a person has been greatly exposed to western mass media or has been in western culture for many years. has limited education. much education. . has done little travel and has been socialized in a independent family  Increases when a person usually stays in a collectivist culture. has been socially mobile. has done much international travel. Allocentrics  Increases when a person has been financially dependent on some ingroup. leadership roles.

spend more time preparing food More likely to work hard and stay late at work More interested in traveling to other cultures Nehad Shukur/Ishik University Workaholics Less likely to work hard Travel and Entertainment Visit library and read more 6-24 .Are You an Innie or an Outie? Idiocentrics (individualist orientation) Allocentrics (group orientation) Contentment( satisfa More satisfied with current life Less satisfied with current life ction ) Health Consciousness (awareness) Food Preparation Less likely to avoid unhealthy foods More likely to avoid unhealthy foods Spend less time preparing food Love kitchen.

Are You an Innie or an Outie? • If you live your life based upon what others tell you to do . • If you instead listen to your own soulspecially in matters o the heart and spirt –then you are an innie Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-25 . have or care about –even if that –“other” is your leader then you are outerdirected . be .

Brand Personality • Brand personality: set of traits people attribute to a product as if it were a person • Brand equity: extent to which a consumer holds strong. favorable. and unique associations with a brand in memory—and the extent to which s/he is willing to pay more for the branded version of a product than for a nonbranded (generic) version Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-26 .

comfortable Snobbish (high and mighty ). adaptable Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-27 . uncultured Versatile. sophisticated(complicated ) Cheap. schizophrenic Familiar.Brand Behaviors and Possible Personality Trait Inferences Brand Action Brand is repositioned several times or changes slogan repeatedly Brand uses continuing character in advertising Brand charges high prices and uses exclusive distribution Brand frequently available on deal Brand offers many line extensions Trait Inference changeable.

Lifestyles • Lifestyle defines a pattern of consumption reflecting a person’s choices of how one spends time and money • Lifestyle marketing perspective: people sort themselves into groups on the basis of: – What they like to do – How they spend spare time . – How they spend disposable income Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-28 .

Colorado’s Lifestyle Marketing Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-29 .

Lifestyles as Group Identities • Forms of expressive symbolism • Self-definition of group members = common symbol system – Terms include lifestyle. consumer group. taste public. status culture – Each person provides a unique “twist” to be an “individual” • Tastes/preferences evolve over time Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-30 . symbolic community.

communicate.Building Blocks of Lifestyles • Product usage in desirable social settings • Consumption style • Patterns of behavior – Co-branding strategies: brands team up with other companies to promote their products understand this – Product complementarity: symbolic meanings of different products relate to one another – Consumption constellations: define. and perform social roles Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-31 .

Figure 6.2 Consumption Style Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-32 .

Discussion • What consumption constellation might characterize you and your friends today? Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-33 .

Psychographics can help marketers to understand these differences. Adidas is a good example. who are Nehad Shukur/Ishik University young girls who hang out at malls. popgirls. When marketers combine personality variables with knowledge of lifestyle preferences.• when consumers share the same demographic characteristics. It describes shoe buyers as gearheads. who are hard core runners. and 6-34 . they have a much deeper level of insight into consumer segments. they can still be very different people.

and anthropological factors to: – Determine market segments – Determine reasons for choosing products – Fine-tune offerings Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-35 . sociological.Psychographics • Psychographics: use of psychological.

Forms of Psychographic Analysis Lifestyle profile Product-specific profile General lifestyle study Product-specific study Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-36 .

AIOs • Grouping consumers according to: – Activities( how spends his /her time) – Interests( what he/she find interesting ) – Opinions( how he/she view himself and the world around him ) • 80/20 Rule( 20% only of products users account of 80% value ): lifestyle segments that produce the size of customers – Heavy users and the benefits they derive from product Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-37 .

3 Lifestyle Dimensions Interests Family Home Job Community Recreation Fashion Food Media Achievements Opinions Themselves Social issues Politics Business Economics Education Products Future Culture Age Demographics Education Income Occupation Family size Dwelling Geography City size Stage in life cycle Club membership Community Shopping Sports Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-38 .Activities Work Hobbies Social events Vacation Entertainment Table 6.

Psychographic Segmentation Uses • • • • • • To To To To To To define target market create new view of market position product better communicate product attributes develop product strategy market social/political issues Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-39 .

Figure 6.3 VALS2 TM Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-40 .

Discussion • Construct separate advertising executions for a cosmetics product targeted to the Belonger. and Maker VALS types. Experiencer. Achiever. • How would the basic appeal differ for each group? Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-41 .

Global Psychographic Typologies • Global MOSAIC identifies segments across 19 countries • RISC measures lifestyles/sociocultural change in 40+ countries • Exploration/Stability • Social/Individual • Global/Local Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-42 .

Day trading. Blogging. Can you predict what will be “hot” in the near future? • Identify a lifestyle trend that is just surfacing in your universe. Vegetarianism. and justify your prediction. • Describe this trend in detail. • What specific styles and/or products are part of this trend? Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-43 .Discussion • Extreme sports.

CA) Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-44 .g. 90277 zip code in Redondo Beach..Geodemography • Geodemography involves using data on consumer expenditures and other socioeconomic factors with geographic information about the areas in which people live to identify consumers who share common consumption patterns – “Birds of a feature flock together” – Can be reached more economically (e.

and how accurate is it? Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-45 . • Why do they make this assumption.Discussion • Geodemographic techniques assume that people who live in the same neighborhood have other things in common as well.

milk chocolate has less milk – In United States. food must be healthier Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-46 . Campbell’s soup is saltier than in Mexico – In Germany.Food Cultures • Food culture refers to patterns of food and beverage consumption that reflects the values of a social group • Differences in international food cultures: – In China.

4 European Food Cultures Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-47 .Figure 6.

and occupation • Maximize effectiveness.” “Money and Brains. Inc. • 66 clusters of U. home value. and impact of marketing communications Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-48 . cost-efficiency.” “Kids and Cul-de-Sacs” – Ranked by income.PRIZM by Claritas.S. zip codes – Example: “Young Influential.

4 Comparison of PRIZM Clusters Furs and Station Wagons New money. swimming pools. and laundromats.Table 6. shanty-type homes without indoor plumbing High Usage Country clubs Wine by the case Lawn furniture Gourmet magazine BMW 5 Series Rye bread Natural cold cereal Low Usage Motorcycles Laxatives Nonfilter cigarettes Chewing tobacco Hunting magazine Chevrolet Chevette Canned stews High Usage Travel by bus Asthma medicine Malt liquors Grit magazine Pregnancy tests Pontiac Bonneville Shortening Low Usage Knitting Live theater Smoke detectors Ms. gardens Tobacco Roads Racially mixed farm town in South Small downtowns with thrift shops. diners. Magazine Ferraris Whole-wheat bread Mexican foods Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-49 . parents in 40s and 50s Newly built subdivisions with tennis courts.

Behavioral Targeting • Behavioral targeting refers to the serving of customized ads (primarily online) based on the prior activity on those sites by the target • Data collected are anonymous but still privacy proponents express concern Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-50 .

Chapter Summary • Consumer personality influences the way one responds to marketing stimuli • Lifestyles are an important aid to many marketing strategies • Psychographics go beyond simple demographics to help marketers understand different consumer segments • Identifying patterns of consumption are valuable components of a lifestyle Nehad Shukur/Ishik University 6-51 .

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