# Undecidable problems about turing machines

4/24/12

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halting

Introduction  How to decide a problem if it is undecided ? 4/24/12 .

 4/24/12 The last three actions depend on the . A Turing machine is a primitive. and • switches to the next state. • writes a symbol on the tape.Turing machine  • the control unit reads the current tape symbol. In each “cycle”: • moves one position to the left or right. yet general. computer with an infinite tape.

Turing Machine Model 4/24/12 .

. F). .  is the input alphabet not containing the special blank symbol. are all finite sets and:   Q is the set of states. B.  . where Q. where    .Turing machine undecidable problem Turing machine is a 7-tuple [1]: (Q. q0. .  . R} is the transition 4/24/12 function. .  is the tape alphabet not containing the special blank symbol.  : Q x   Q x  x {L.

that a Turing Machine cannot solve such as Halting problem  P=NP  Membership  etc.  4/24/12 .Turing machine undecidable problem  They are several problems.

Halting Problem  Difficulty with the Turing Machine  Not guaranteed to terminate  Don’t know when it will terminate  Still an unsolved problem  Is there a method for analyzing a Turing machine to determine if and when it will terminate its computation?  It is a famous problem because it. 4/24/12 . became the first problem that proof to be undecideble through an algorithm.

and 0 if M(x) does not stop. code(M)—one can ask whether there is a Turing machine Mhalt which.  As a Turing machine M can be coded by a finite string—say. given code(M) and the input x. eventually stops and produces 1 if M(x)stops. 4/24/12   .Halting Problem (Introduction) The Halting Problem for Turing machines is to decide whether an arbitrary Turing machine M eventually halts on an arbitrary input x.

Issue  HOW TO DETERMINE THAT THE HALTING PROBLEM IS UNDECIDEBLE 4/24/12 Contradiction theory .

the Turing machine H exists. assume that the Halting problem is solvable and then find a contradiction. that is.Theorem 1: The Halting problem of Turing machine is unsolvable.   Then. if H can solve the Halting problem for input e(M)&x it should be able to solve the Halting problem for 4/24/12 .   Proof: The proof is by contradiction. that is. then there must be a Turing machine to decide the Halting problem (Church thesis).   If the Halting problem is solvable.

(The halting problem is unsolvable)  Theorem: HALT Basic idea  Suppose TM is undecidable  that is decidable. we HALTTM will prove that every decidable language is also Turing-Acceptable A contradiction! 4/24/12 .

Halting Problem Statement Is this machine(program) when it is given an input it will STOP and say YES or it doesn’t STOP (infinite loop)  Input {any string} TM  Output STOP and yes I accept that input  DON’T STOP and it go into and infinite loop  HOW TO DETERMINE THAT THE MECHINE WILL GO INTO THE INFINITE LOOP (in 4/24/12 advance)  .

w M is M w Decider for HALTTM YE M w S N M doesn’t halt w O on input 4/24/12 halts on input .HALTTM Suppose that decidable Inpu t stri ng .

ML Decider L Decider for HALTTM for ? s Input strin g ML halts on s N O YE S halts and accepts halts and rejects reje and ct halt ML s RunML with input s acce s and pt halt ML reje and ct halt s 4/24/12 .

Therefo L is re. every Turing-Acceptable language is decidable But there is a Turing-Acceptable language which is undecidable. decidable SinceL is chosen arbitrarily. Contradicti on!!!! END OF PROOF 4/24/12 .

The answer  THERE IS NO MATHEMATIC TO DO IT . THAT’S WHY IS CALL UNDECIDEBLE 4/24/12 .