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4/24/12

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halting

Introduction How to decide a problem if it is undecided ? 4/24/12 .

4/24/12 The last three actions depend on the . A Turing machine is a primitive. and • switches to the next state. • writes a symbol on the tape.Turing machine • the control unit reads the current tape symbol. In each “cycle”: • moves one position to the left or right. yet general. computer with an infinite tape.

Turing Machine Model 4/24/12 .

. F). . is the input alphabet not containing the special blank symbol. are all finite sets and: Q is the set of states. B. . where Q. where .Turing machine undecidable problem Turing machine is a 7-tuple [1]: (Q. q0. . . R} is the transition 4/24/12 function. . is the tape alphabet not containing the special blank symbol. : Q x Q x x {L.

that a Turing Machine cannot solve such as Halting problem P=NP Membership etc. 4/24/12 .Turing machine undecidable problem They are several problems.

Halting Problem Difficulty with the Turing Machine Not guaranteed to terminate Don’t know when it will terminate Still an unsolved problem Is there a method for analyzing a Turing machine to determine if and when it will terminate its computation? It is a famous problem because it. 4/24/12 . became the first problem that proof to be undecideble through an algorithm.

and 0 if M(x) does not stop. code(M)—one can ask whether there is a Turing machine Mhalt which. As a Turing machine M can be coded by a finite string—say. given code(M) and the input x. eventually stops and produces 1 if M(x)stops. 4/24/12 .Halting Problem (Introduction) The Halting Problem for Turing machines is to decide whether an arbitrary Turing machine M eventually halts on an arbitrary input x.

Issue HOW TO DETERMINE THAT THE HALTING PROBLEM IS UNDECIDEBLE 4/24/12 Contradiction theory .

the Turing machine H exists. assume that the Halting problem is solvable and then find a contradiction. that is.Theorem 1: The Halting problem of Turing machine is unsolvable. Then. if H can solve the Halting problem for input e(M)&x it should be able to solve the Halting problem for 4/24/12 . Proof: The proof is by contradiction. that is. then there must be a Turing machine to decide the Halting problem (Church thesis). If the Halting problem is solvable.

(The halting problem is unsolvable) Theorem: HALT Basic idea Suppose TM is undecidable that is decidable. we HALTTM will prove that every decidable language is also Turing-Acceptable A contradiction! 4/24/12 .

Halting Problem Statement Is this machine(program) when it is given an input it will STOP and say YES or it doesn’t STOP (infinite loop) Input {any string} TM Output STOP and yes I accept that input DON’T STOP and it go into and infinite loop HOW TO DETERMINE THAT THE MECHINE WILL GO INTO THE INFINITE LOOP (in 4/24/12 advance) .

w M is M w Decider for HALTTM YE M w S N M doesn’t halt w O on input 4/24/12 halts on input .HALTTM Suppose that decidable Inpu t stri ng .

ML Decider L Decider for HALTTM for ? s Input strin g ML halts on s N O YE S halts and accepts halts and rejects reje and ct halt ML s RunML with input s acce s and pt halt ML reje and ct halt s 4/24/12 .

Therefo L is re. every Turing-Acceptable language is decidable But there is a Turing-Acceptable language which is undecidable. decidable SinceL is chosen arbitrarily. Contradicti on!!!! END OF PROOF 4/24/12 .

The answer THERE IS NO MATHEMATIC TO DO IT . THAT’S WHY IS CALL UNDECIDEBLE 4/24/12 .

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