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Unit 11

Complex Numbers
11.1 Definition of Complex Numbers
1 . .
, 1 is
square whose number a as denoted
is , by denoted unit imaginary The
2
=

i e i
i
k k n
i i =
+ 4
periodicity of i
11.1 Definition of Complex Numbers
11.1 Definition of Complex Numbers
11.1 Definition of Complex Numbers
Let a and b be any two real
numbers. Numbers of the form
a + bi are called complex
numbers. The collection of all
complex numbers is called
complex number system.
i
i g e
4
4 3 . . +
complex number
pure imaginary number
11.1 Definition of Complex Numbers
Let a and b, where a and b be a
complex number. The real
number a is the real part of
a + bi and b is the imaginary
part of a + bi.
i
i g e
4
4 3 . . +
complex number
pure imaginary number
11.1 Definition of Complex Numbers
Note :
(1)The real number system is included
in the complex number system. The
set of all complex numbers

is always denoted by C.
{ } 1 and , :
2
= e + i R b a bi a
C
R
11.1 Definition of Complex Numbers
Note :
(2) For convenience, we always use
the letter z to denote a complex
number. To express the real and
imaginary part of a complex
number z explicitly, we write
z = a + bi

11.1 Definition of Complex Numbers
Note :
(3) We always use the symbol Re(z)
to denote the real part of z and the
symbol Im(z) to denote the imaginary
part of z.
3 ) Im(
2 ) Re( then
3 2 if . .
=
=
=
z
z
i z g e
11.2 Operations of Complex Numbers
Let z
1
= a
1
+ b
1
i and z
2
= a
2
+ b
2
i, where
a
1
, a
2
, b
1
, b
2
are real
numbers, be two
complex numbers, then
(1) z
1
+ z
2
+ (a
1
- a
2
) + (b
1

+ b
2
)i
(2) z
2
z
2
= (a
1
a
2
) + (b
1

b
2
)i
(3) z
1
z
2
= (a
1
+ b
1
i)(a
2
+
b
2
i)
= (a
1
a
2
b
1
b
2
) +(a
1
b
2
+ a
2
b
1
)i
0 ,
) )( (
) )( (
) 4 (
2
2
2
2
2
2 1 1 2
2
2
2
2
2 1 2 1
2 2 2 2
2 2 1 1
2
1
=
+

+
+
+
=
+
+
=
z for i
b a
b a b a
b a
b b a a
i b a i b a
i b a i b a
z
z
11.1 Definition of Complex Numbers
Let z
1
= a
1
+ b
1
i and z
2
= a
2
+ b
2
i, where
a
1
, b
1
, a
2
, b
2
are real numbers, be two
complex numbers. z
1
= z
2
if and only if
a
1
= a
2
and b
1
= b
2
.
i.e. two complex numbers are equal if
and only if they have the same real and
imaginary parts respectively.
P.344 Ex. 11A
11.3 Complex Plane
x
yi
0
(2, 3)
y
x 0
2 + 3i
Complex plane is also called the Argand plane
or Argand diagram.
imaginary axis
real axis
11.4 Polar Form of a complex Number
Let P be the point in a complex
plane representing the complex
number z = a + bi, where a and
b are real numbers.
The length r of the vector , where O denotes the
origin, is defined as the modulus or absolute value of
the complex number z, denoted by |z|. The angle u
turned from the positive real axis to the vector is
defined as the argument or amplitude of the complex
number z, denoted respectively by arg(z) or amp(z).
OP
OP
y
x 0
2 + 3i
imaginary axis
real axis
r
u
11.4 Polar Form of a complex Number
y
x 0
2 + 3i
imaginary axis
real axis
r
u
The argument u of a given complex
number has infinitely many values
and those lying in the range
is called the principal value of
argument.
t u t s <
11.4 Polar Form of a complex Number
y
x 0
2 + 3i
imaginary axis
real axis
r
u
2 2
2 2
)] [Im( )] [Re(
| |
z z
b a
z r
+ =
+ =
=
) Re(
) Im(
)] tan[arg( tan
z
z
a
b
z
=
=
= u
u u u rcis z or i r z = + = ) sin (cos
P.349 Ex.11B
11.5 Multiplication and Division of Complex
Numbers in Polar Form
(a) Let z
1
= r
1
(cosu
1
+ isinu
1
) and
z
2
= r
2
(cosu
2
+ isinu
2
) be two complex
numbers in polar form, then
z
1
z
2
= r
1
r
2
[cos(u
1
+ u
2
) + isin(u
1
+ u
2
)]
(b) For any positive integer n and any
complex number in polar form
z = r(cosu + isinu), we have
z
n
= r
n
(cosnu + isinnu)
11.5 Multiplication and Division of Complex
Numbers in Polar Form
(c) For n ( ) complex numbers in polar form
z
1
= r
1
(cosu
1
+ isinu
1
)
z
2
= r
2
(cosu
2
+ isinu
2
)
z
3
= r
3
(cosu
3
+ isinu
3
)
: :
z
n
= r
n
(cosu
n
+ isinu
n
)
we have
z
1
z
2
z
n
=
r
1
r
2
r
n
[cos(u
1
+ u
2
++ u
n
) + isin (u
1
+ u
2
++ u
n
) ]
2 > n
11.5 Multiplication and Division of Complex
Numbers in Polar Form
Remarks :
If the complex numbers z
1
=a
1
+b
1
i
and z
2
=a
2
+b
2
i are in algebraic form
it is unwise to convert them in polar
form and then multiply them. The
best way is just to multiply them
directly.
11.5 Multiplication and Division of Complex
Numbers in Polar Form
)] sin( ) [cos(
then form, polar in
numbers complex two be , 0 where
), sin (cos
and ) sin (cos Let
2 1 2 1
2
1
2
1
2
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
u u u u
u u
u u
+ =
=
+ =
+ =
i
r
r
z
z
r
i r z
i r z
11.5 Multiplication and Division of Complex
Numbers in Polar Form
Properties of moduli :
. 0 where ,
| |
| |
and | || | | |
and numbers complex two any For ) 1 (
2
2
1
2
1
2 1 2 1
2 1
= = = z
z
z
z
z
z z z z
z z
n n
z z
n
z
| | | |
, integer positive
any and numbers complex two any For ) 2 (
=
. | | | ) Im( | and
| | | ) Re( | , number complex any For ) 3 (
z z
z z z
s
s
11.5 Multiplication and Division of Complex
Numbers in Polar Form
Properties of arguments :
. 0 where ), arg( ) arg( ) arg(
and ); arg( ) arg( ) arg(
, and numbers complex two any For ) 1 (
2 2 1
2
1
2 1 2 1
2 1
= =
+ =
z z z
z
z
z z z z
z z
11.5 Multiplication and Division of Complex
Numbers in Polar Form
Properties of arguments :
. 1 , 0 some for and 0 where
, 2 ) arg( ) arg( ) arg(
and 1 , 0 some for
, 2 ) arg( ) arg( ) arg(
then value, principal its to restricted is number
complex a of argument the if e Furthermor
2
2 1
2
1
2 1 2 1
= =
+ =
=
+ + =
k z
k z z
z
z
n
n z z z z
t
t
11.5 Multiplication and Division of Complex
Numbers in Polar Form
Properties of arguments :
) arg( ) arg(
, integer positive any
and number complex any For ) 2 (
z n z
n
z
n
=
P.354 Ex. 11C
11.6 Conjugate of a Complex Number
i z
i z e i
5 4
5 4 . .
=
+ =
Let z = a + bi, where a and b are real
numbers, be a complex number. The
conjugate of z, denoted by z, is
defined by . bi a z =
11.6 Conjugate of a Complex Number
Properties of conjugate numbers :
). Re( 2 and number real a is ) 1 ( z z z z z = + +
). Im( 2 ) 2 ( z i z z =
. | | and number real a is ) 3 (
2
z z z z z =
z z = ) 4 (
| | | | ) 5 ( z z =
) arg( ) arg( ) 6 ( z z =
. number real a is if only and if ) 7 ( z z z=
11.6 Conjugate of a Complex Number
Let z
1
and z
2
be two complex numbers, then
2 1 2 1
) 1 ( z z z z + = +
2 1 2 1
) 2 ( z z z z =
) )( ( ) 3 (
2 1
2 1
z z z z =
. 0 where , ) 4 (
2
2
1
= =
|
.
|

\
|
z
z
z
z
z
11.6 Conjugate of a Complex Number
For n complex numbers z
1
, z
2
, ,z
n
;
, ... ... ) 1 (
2 1 2 1 n n
z z z z z z + + + = + + +
, integer positive any and
number complex any for and
), )...( )( ( ... ) 2 (
2 1 2 1
n
z
z z z z z z
n n
=
n n
z z ) ( ) 3 ( =
P.356 Ex.11D
11.7 Imaginary Roots of a Polynomial Equation
Let f(x) be a polynomial with real
coefficients. If a + bi, where a, b are
real numbers and i
2
= -1, is a root of
the equation f(x) = 0 then a - bi is
also a root.
Imaginary roots of a polynomial
equation with real coefficients
occur in conjugate pairs.
11.7 Imaginary Roots of a Polynomial Equation
Polynomial equation with real
coefficients and with odd
degree must have at least one
real root.
P.359 Ex.11E
11.8 Addition and Subtraction of Complex Numbers in
the Argand Diagram
11.8 Addition and Subtraction of Complex Numbers in
the Argand Diagram
11.8 Addition and Subtraction of Complex Numbers in
the Argand Diagram
11.8 Addition and Subtraction of Complex Numbers in
the Argand Diagram
Triangle inequality
. number real negative non
some for ) (
if only and if holds equality The
. | | | | | | have we
, and numbers complex two any For
1 2 2 1
2 1 2 1
2 1
k
kz z or kz z
z z z z
z z

= =
+ s +
11.8 Addition and Subtraction of Complex Numbers in
the Argand Diagram
. | | ... | | | | | ... |
have we
, ,..., , number complex For
2 1 2 1
2 1
n n
n
z z z z z z
z z z n
+ + + s + + +
11.8 Addition and Subtraction of Complex Numbers in
the Argand Diagram
|, | || | | || ) 1 (
have we
, and numbers complex two any For
2 1 2 1
2 1
z z z z
z z
+ s
. | | || | | || ) 2 (
2 1 2 1
z z z z s
11.8 Addition and Subtraction of Complex Numbers in
the Argand Diagram
There is NO ordering for
complex numbers.
e.g. 3i > 2i
We just compare two complex numbers
by their moduli and arguments because
moduli and arguments are real numbers.
P.364 Ex.11F
11.9 Locus Problems in Argand Plane
Locus is the collection of all points
satisfying a given condition. The following
figures show the loci of points representing
the complex number z satisfying given
conditions :
(a) Re(z) = 0
11.9 Locus Problems in Argand Plane
Locus is the collection of all points
satisfying a given condition. The following
figures show the loci of points representing
the complex number z satisfying given
conditions :
(b) Im(z) > 2
11.9 Locus Problems in Argand Plane
Locus is the collection of all points
satisfying a given condition. The following
figures show the loci of points representing
the complex number z satisfying given
conditions :
) Im( ) Re( ) ( z z c >
P.367 Ex.11G
11.10 Geometry of Complex Numbers
(A) Collinear Points
number. real zero non a is where
, if only and if
collinear are , , Then . , ,
numbers complex the ly respective
ng representi diagram Argand the
in points distinct three be , , Let
1 2
2 3
3 2 1 3 2 1
3 2 1

z z
z z
P P P z z z
P P P
11.10 Geometry of Complex Numbers
(A) Collinear Points
Let P
1
, P
2
, P
3
be three distinct points
in the Argand diagram representing
respectively the complex numbers z
1
,
z
2
, z
3
. Then P
1
, P
2
, P
3
are collinear if
and only if there exist real numbers

1
,
2
,
3
, not all zero, such that

1
+
2
+
3
= 0 and

1
z
1
+
2
z
2
+
3
z
3
= 0.
11.10 Geometry of Complex Numbers
(B) Equation of a Straight Line
11.10 Geometry of Complex Numbers
(B) Equation of a Straight Line
11.10 Geometry of Complex Numbers
(C) Equation of a Circle
P.371 Ex.11H
11.11 De Moivres Theorem
For any real number u and
any rational number n,
(cosu + isinu)
n
= cos nu + isin nu

11.12 Application of De Moivres Theorem to Trigonometry
Direct application of De Moivres
theorem and the binomial theorem,
we are able to express
(i) multiple angles such as sin nu and
cos nu in terms of sinu and cosu, and
(ii) powers of sinu and cosu back again
into multiple angles.
P.377 Ex.11I
11.13 The nth Roots of a Complex Number
A complex number e is
called a nth root of another
complex number z
if and only if
e
n
= z.
11.13 The nth Roots of a Complex Number
Note :
(1) The nth root of a given complex
number is not unique.
1 1
3
=
i i
2
1
2
3
,
2
1
2
3
, 1 1
3
+ + =
11.13 The nth Roots of a Complex Number
Note :
(2) For any complex constant z
0
, the
equation has n roots, hence
there are nth roots of z
0
.
0
z
n
= =
11.13 The nth Roots of a Complex Number
). 1 ( ,..., 1 , 0 where
),
2
sin
2
(cos
roots distinct
exactly has then number, complex any
be , 0 where ), sin (cos Let
=
+
+
+
=
> + =
n k
n
k
i
n
k
r z
nth n
z
r i r z
n
k
t u t u
u u
11.13 The nth Roots of a Complex Number
) 1 ( ,..., 1 , 0 where
),
2
sin
2
(cos
are 0 where
), sin (cos of roots the addition, In
. of root is the , of root a is If
=
+

+
=
>
=
n k
n
k
i
n
k
r z
r
i r z nth
z nth w z nth
n
k
t u t u
u u
e
11.13 The nth Roots of a Complex Number
1 ,..., 2 , 1 , where
),
2
sin
2
(cos
as written be also can of roots the
All integer. any be and number complex
any be , 0 where ), sin (cos If
+ + + =
+
+
+
=
> + =
n m m m m k
n
k
i
n
k
r z
z nth
m
r i r z
n
k
t u t u
u u
11.14 Complex Cube Roots of Unity
Consider the equation x
3
1 = 0
x
3
=1
x = 1
How about the other two 2 roots?
(x 1)(x
2
+ x + 1) = 0
The other 2 roots are complex.
The complex cube root of 1 (denoted by e)
has the following properties :
(1) 1 + e + e
2
= 0
(2) e
3n
= 1, for all integers n.
11.15 The nth Roots of Unity
. 1 , ,..., , ,
as written be also can unity of roots
the all then ,
2
sin
2
cos set we If
. 1 ,..., 2 , 1 , 0 ,
2
sin
2
cos
are unity of
roots the hence, , 0 sin 0 cos 1 Since
1 3 2
=
+ =
= +
+ =
n n
nth
n
i
n
n k
n
k
i
n
k
nth i
e e e e e
t t
e
t t
11.16 Geometric Representation of the nth Roots of Unity
The points A, A
1
, A
2
,, A
n-1
represent
the nth roots of unity.
k m
n
m
AOA
m
s s = Z 1 where ,
2t
P.383 Ex.11J
11.17 The Factors of z
n
-1 and z
n
+ 1
Consider z
n
1 = 0 and suppose first that n =
2p, where p is a positive integer n > 2.

>
+
>
+
=
[
[

=
. 1 and odd is if
) 1
2
cos 2 ( ) 1 (
. 2 and even is if
) 1
2
cos 2 ( ) 1 (
1
) 1 (
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2 2
n
n
r
z z z
n
n
r
z z z
z
n
r
n
r
n
t
t
11.17 The Factors of z
n
-1 and z
n
+ 1
Consider z
n
1 = 0 and suppose first that n =
2p, where p is a positive integer n > 2.

>
+
+
+
+
+

= +
[
[

=
. 1 and odd is if
) 1
) 1 2 (
cos 2 ( ) 1 (
number. even positive a is if
] 1
) 1 2 (
cos 2 [
1
) 3 (
2
1
0
2
1
2
1
0
2
n
n
r
z z z
n
n
r
z z
z
n
r
n
r
n
t
t
P.388 Ex.11K
11.18 Complex-Valued Functions
A function whose range is the set C of all
complex numbers is a complex-valued
function or simply a complex function.
}. 2 { \ all for ,
2
1 2
) (
); 2 , 0 [ all for , sin cos ) ( . .
i C z
iz
i z
z g
i f g e
e
+
+
=
e + = u u u u
P.390 Ex.11L
11.19 Transforamtion of Complex Numbers
in the Argand Diagram
(A) Translation or Displacement
Let b be a fixed complex number,
the function f(z) = z + b, for all
is called a translation.
C z e
The geometric effect is to slide each
point on the plane in the direction
and by a distance determined by the
position vector of the point
representing b.
11.19 Transforamtion of Complex Numbers
in the Argand Diagram
(B) Enlargement
Let p be a fixed non-zero real
number, the function
f(z) = pz,
for all is called an
enlargement.
C z e
11.19 Transforamtion of Complex Numbers
in the Argand Diagram
(C) Rotation
Let u be a fixed real number. The
function f(z) = z(cosu + isinu), for
all is called a rotation and u
is the angle of rotation.
C z e
The function f(z) = iz is to rotate
every point representing z
anticlockwise through an angle 90
o

about the origin.
P.394 Ex.11M
11.20 Miscellaneous Examples
The three vertices of a triangle in the complex
plane are represented by the complex numbers
z
1
, z
2
, z
3
. Prove that if the triangle is equilateral,
then z
1
2
+ z
2
2
+ z
3
2
= z
2
z
3
+ z
3
z
1
+ z
1
z
2
.
11.20 Miscellaneous Examples
11.20 Miscellaneous Examples
P.398 Ex.11N