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Thesis or Dissertation?
– The guiding principle in terms of which all of your material, examples, illustrations, hypothesis, experiments, and analysis are coherent and relevant
– The written up product submitted at the end of a research project to fulfil the (total) requirements of a research degree.
The same word is often used for both. Resolve any confusion by thinking of this as the thesis-asargument and the thesis-as-dissertation 4/24/12
• The research question • The importance or significance of this question • Relationship to previous work in the area • How it will build on to existing knowledge in the area both empirical and theoretical • Methods of procedure • Results • Conclusions • What this thesis adds to knowledge • Suggested future work
What Is A Synopsis
• A synopsis is primarily a condensation, an outline or a short presentation of an article, of an essay or of a book. • A synopsis is not a list of opinions, or an examination of the feelings and/or conscious states, e.g. likes, dislikes, preferences, annoyances, etc., of the writer of the synopsis.
g. Plans can then be made to achieve these targets 4/24/12 . • Identification of species • Strategies for conservation • Objectives give a clearly defined target . conservation of landscape for future generation.Aim An aim is where we want to go in the future. measurable targets of how to achieve e. its goals. It is a statement of purpose e. Objectives are the stated.g.
Realistic – the objective should be challenging.Objectives The most effective objectives meet the following criteria: • • • • S – Specific – M . but it should also be able to be achieved by the resources available.Measurable A .Agreed by all those concerned R .Time specific 4/24/12 . • T.
Objectives are concrete. Objectives can be validated.The Difference between goals and objectives • Goals are broad • Goals are general intentions • Goals are intangible • Goals are abstract • Goals can't be validated 4/24/12 • • • Objectives are narrow. • • . Objectives are tangible. Objectives are precise.
Function of the Abstract • Abstracts (and Summaries) serve to reduce a long text to its essential key points . Both come at the beginning of a text. and serve to indicate and predict the structure and content of the text which follows. • An abstract is generally seen as a more specialized form of summary.summing up the study. 4/24/12 .
4/24/12 . • An abstract is generally seen as a more specialized form of summary.Function of the Abstract • Abstracts (and Summaries) serve to reduce a long text to its essential key points . and serve to indicate and predict the structure and content of the text which follows.summing up the study. Both come at the beginning of a text.
it should be highly attractive. It should have the capacity to force the Reader to read the entire assignment at one go. The purpose of this part of the senior research paper is to put forward the main objective of the research • re-establish the topic of the assignment • indicate the methodology of research • state the main findings • 4/24/12 .abstract is the first thing after the title and table of contents that catches the reader’s attention.
dates.Include: • Purpose: An abstract should identify why the article was written. • Important Specifics: Include only those names. research conclusions. 4/24/12 . • Recommendations or implications: Include important recommendations. places or costs that are essential to understanding the original. and proposed solutions to the problem. A brief introduction should reveal the main purpose of the article. • Conclusions or results: Emphasize outcomes of surveys/tests.
tables and bibliographies. • 4/24/12 Jargon: Technical language or jargon may Omit . • Reference Data: Exclude information from footnotes. • New Data: Don’t compare the work with other articles. • Examples: Illustrations.• Opinion: Don’t include your own opinions. explanations and descriptions are unnecessary in an abstract. books or conferences. • Background: Material in introductions to articles provides information and anecdotes that are of little importance to understanding the article. • Irrelevant Specifics: Don’t include biographical data about the author. stick only to that information included in the original.
Abstracts are often too long because people forget to count their words and make their abstracts too detailed Too much detail. If the abstract is too long. it may be rejected .abstracts are entered on databases. Abstracts that are too long often have unnecessary details. • • • 4/24/12 . The abstract is not the place for detailed explanations of methodology or for details about the context of the research problem because there is simply no space to present anything but the main points of your research. and those is usually a specified maximum number of words.COMMON PROBLEMS • Too long.
• Authors need to be careful to cover the points listed above.Too short. for example. If the word limit is 200 but the author only write 95 words. Often people do not cover all of them because they spend too long explaining. he/she probably have not written in sufficient detail. 4/24/12 . the methodology and then do not have enough space to present their conclusion. • Shorter is not necessarily better. There is a need to review the abstract and see where he/she could usefully give more explanation Many writers do not give sufficient information about their findings • • Failure to include important information.
What is a hypothesis 4/24/12 .
and the goal of the researcher is to rigorously test the terms of the hypothesis. the hypothesis is taken to be true. 4/24/12 . • The concept of the hypothesis is a very important part of the scientific method .• A hypothesis is an explanation for a phenomenon which can be tested in some way which ideally either proves or disproves the hypothesis. • For the duration of testing. and it also holds true in other disciplines as well.
All of these are examples of Hypotheses because they use the tentative word "may.". • Bacterial growth may be affected by temperature. • Plant growth may be affected by the color of the light. How Are Hypotheses Written? 4/24/12 . • Temperature may cause leaves to change color.• Salt in soil may affect plant growth.
" we are making a prediction.For example. 4/24/12 . if we say "Trees will change color when it gets cold. "Ultraviolet light causes skin cancer." could be a conclusion. Or if we write.
then people with a high exposure to uv light will have a higher frequency of skin cancer. then exposing plants to low temperatures will result in changes in leaf color. • If leaf color change is related to temperature .Formalized Hypotheses • If skin cancer is related to ultraviolet light . if and then. They are necessary in a formalized hypothesis. • Notice that these statements contain the words . 4/24/12 .
Developing an Outline • Parallelism • Coordination • Subordination • Division 4/24/12 .
Parallelism • Each heading and subheading should preserve parallel structure.) 4/24/12 . the second heading should be a noun. Example: Pune the queen of Deccan Pune : historic Background • Choose flowering plants for plantation. • ("Choose" and "Prepare" are both verbs. • If the first heading is a noun. • Prepare list of flowering plants .
heading : colour. species. 4/24/12 . • Sub-Sub.Coordination All the information contained in Heading 1 Should have the same significance as them Information contained in Heading 2. Ground covers Activity Pattern. Trees. The same goes for the subheadings (which Should be less significant than the headings) Evaluation of college campus with reference to landscaping elements • Heading : Landscaping Features • Sub-heading :Plants. foliage.
Subordination • The information in the headings should be more general. Example: • Contribution of Famous Architects – Le corbusier – Louise Kahn 4/24/12 . while the information in the subheadings should be more specific.
Division • Each heading should be divided into 2 or more parts • Philosophy of Le-corbusier • Imp Projects • Books written 4/24/12 .
Conducive environment for nursery schools. 4/24/12 . A thesis is not an announcement of the subject My subject is • The study of living environment in schools vs. • A conducive living environment inculcate a good study culture amongst kids.Title of thesis Schools and Environment (title) vs.
vs.Concise statements Fancy glittering interiors are not always represent good architecture. and many architects have experimented with them vs. Lauri Baker’s architecture helped create a new way for architects to Deal With the vernacular construction practices vs Lauri Baker’s architecture helped create a new 4/24/12 way for architects to . but people have always been fascinated by them. Specific: Lauri Baker’s architecture is good. Fancy glittering interiors appeal to the basic human desire for high Class living(concise). Lauri Baker’s architecture helped create a new way for architects to Deal With the vernacular construction practices.
• Words and phrases should be deliberately chosen for the work they are doing.Conciseness • Use the most effective words. • Writers often fill sentences with weak or unnecessary words that can be deleted or replaced. but it always uses the strongest ones. • Concise writing does not always have the fewest words. 4/24/12 .
wasting energy expressing ideas better relayed through fewer specific words.Replace several vague words with more powerful and specific words. writers use several small and ambiguous words to express a concept. • Often. • More specific words lead to more concise writing. 4/24/12 .
Wordy: The Professor talked about several of the merits of extracurricular activities in his speech (14 words) Concise: The Professor advocated extracurricular activities in his speech. (20 words) 4/24/12 Concise: Our website presents criteria for determining the best material. (8 words) Wordy: Professor believed but could not confirm that students had feelings of interest for the topic. (6 words) Wordy: Our website has made available many of the things you can use for making a decision on the selection of best metrial. (14 words) Concise: Professor assumed that students are interested. (9 words) .
• Wordy: The teacher demonstrated some of the various ways and methods for cutting words from my abstract that I had written for paper. they can be deleted or replaced.Interrogate every word in a sentence Check every word to make sure that it is providing something important and unique to a sentence. (22 words) • Concise: The teacher demonstrated methods for cutting words from the abstract of my paper (12 words) 4/24/12 . If words are dead weight.
and can easily be inserted into another sentence without losing any of its value. 4/24/12 • Concise: Mud is an environment friendly building material in .Combine Sentences Some information does not require a full sentence. • Wordy: Mud is an environment friendly building material. With its use we can save energy and money as well.
Quoting. Paraphrasing. and Summarizing • These three ways of incorporating other writers' work into your own writing differ according to the closeness of your writing to the source writing. 4/24/12 .
They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author. using a narrow segment of the source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material. it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source. Once again.4/24/12 • Quotations must be identical to the original. • Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. . • Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words. including only the main point(s). taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage.
Use: Mughals built the garden. Instead of: Six possible causes of failure were identified in the • • 4/24/12 . • Instead of: The garden was built by Mughals.Active versus Passive Voice Wherever possible. use active verbs that demonstrate what is being done and who is doing it.
Direct versus Indirect Statements Direct statements are clear. Use: Presence of water • • 4/24/12 • . Use: Predominantly shady trees exists. concise. Instead of: It is common that the presence of water weaken the soil’s load carrying capacity. and do not wear on reader • Instead of: It should be noted that the shady trees were used for plantation.
Substitute words and phrases such as humankind. workforce. humanity. people. employees. workers. staff.Inclusive Language • Avoid using man or men to refer to groups containing both sexes. and staff hours. Avoid the use of masculine pronouns to refer to both • 4/24/12 .
• Instead of: When a landscape architect s begins to design an urban plaza . a landscape architect should consider Instead of: An architect should • • 4/24/12 • . he should consider Try: When landscape architect s begin to design an urban plaza . they should consider Or: When beginning to design an urban plaza.
(Wegener & Petty... 1994) (1) A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or In parentheses 4/24/12 .In-Text Citations • • • Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports.
Website Lynch. T. DS9 trials and tribble-ations review. Peoria. (2002). On-line.• • Ludwig. Robbins. 1996. Available from • 4/24/12 . PsychInquiry [computer software]. 2001. E. IL: Bradley University. January 4. New York: Worth. Tim. personal communication.
Gokhale 4/24/12 .Thanks for Patient Listening Dr. Vasudha A.
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