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CURRENT

ELECTRICITY

Electrical Appliances in the


Home

energy
All electrical appliances conver
_________ electrical
_________ into
t form of energy.
another, more _________
useful
Electrical energy (__________)
is produced because easy
it is
electricity
produceto __________,
transport
control
conver
_______
__________, __________,
and
t
Appliance
Energy Conversions
__________.

Radiant Heater

Fan Heater

Light Bulb

Main
Electrical
-> Heat Energy
Purpose:
energy -> Light Energy (glowing)
Waste:Electrical
-> Sound Energy
energy
-> Heat Energy
Main
Electrical (humming)
-> Kinetic Energy
Purpose:
energy
Waste:Electrical
-> Sound Energy
energy
(humming)
Main
Electrical
-> light Energy
Purpose:
energy
Waste:Electrical
-> Heat Energy

Efficiency of Appliances

All electrical appliances ordevice


___________ have anefficiency
______________fractions
percentage
put
work
want
it to do
Efficiency
is the __________ (or ______________)
of the
into that is _________ the that device is used for the ____
energy
we _____________
Main Job

Total Energy
Efficiency = Energy Used to do
In

Total Energy
Main Job
waste
To makedthis a percentage;
multiply it by 100
In
Energy __________ = _____________ Energy Used to do
__________

Example:
produced.

Energy for Main Job =100J 70J Efficiency = Main Job / Total In
= 30/100
= of
30J
In a light bulb, 100J
energy is input and
70J of heat is
= 0.3
= 30% and
What
the efficiency
a decimal
TotalisEnergy
In =
100J of the light bulb as

Efficiency of Appliances
1.Questions
When heating water a kettle ran for 5 minutes using 50J of energy. Only 40J of
energy was used to heat the water; the rest was wasted on heating the
surroundings and producing sound. How efficient is the kettle?
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____________________________
2. A space heater claims to be 80% efficient. In a test it was found that 350J of
energy was needed to run the heater, 200J of energy was used to produce heat,
80J went into driving the fan, and 70J of sound energy was produced. Is the heater
80% efficient? Why?
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________________________________
3. A computer is said to waste 15% of the electrical energy used on things like
producing heat (and the cooling system to cool it) and sound. If a computer uses an
average of 750J of energy a day, how much energy is wasted each day? How
energy much is useful?
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Static and Current Electricity

There are two types of electricity:


build up of electrical charge then sudden
release
Electricity:______________________________
flow of electrical charge (electrons) along a
conductor
Current
Static

Electricity:_____________________________

We will be dealing with Current Electricity


A closed path (a complete circuit)
To get current to flow we need:
A power supply to push the electrons (battery)

_______________________________________

Conductors for the electrons to travel on (i.e. copper


___
wires)
A load - something for the electrical energy to be

_______________________________________
transferred to (i.e. Light bulb, resistor, motor, etc.)

___

Current (I)

of electrons
Current (I) is the flow
______________.
This is 6.2 x 1018 electrons.
Thats 62 followed by 17
amperes (A)
It is measured in __________________.
zeros!!!!
Coulomb of electrons flowing past a given point in
1 amp is 1_________
A
1second
ammeter
Circuit diagram
Amperes are measured with an _______________.
symbol
Typical current
0.2A values:
= 200mA

4A
Small torch:____________
10A
Car headlight:________
Electric kettle:________ Direction electrons
flow

Positive
Terminal (the
long one)
Negative Terminal
(the short one)

Direction it is
drawn on a
diagram (how
scientists
used to think
it went)

Current Homework

1. Read pages 40-42 in textbook


2. Answer the Questions Below

1. What is electric current?


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______________ _______

2. Explain the difference between real and conventional current.


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____________________________

3. What kind of current is generated from a battery? A solar cell? What do you get from power
point?

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____________________________

4. What device is used to measure current (name and symbol)?


________________________

Generating Electricity

There are many ways to generate electricity but they all involve
transforming
________________
other types of energy.
There are 3 ways:

DC = direct
current

1. Batteries usechemical
______________
to produce
energy
DC ___ current.

What we call batteries are reallycells


_____. When we place 2 or more
________
cells together we get a battery.

2. Solar Cells uselight


______________
to produce
energy
DC ____ current.

More and more, solar cells are being usedlarge


in scale
__________________ electricity production. Like with batteries
combined of
together
in series
thousands
solar cells
can be ________________________ to
produce huge amounts of electricity.
kinetic energy
AC

3. Magnets use _______________


____ current.
coiltoofproduce
wire

Magnets are passed induced


through a ________________. When this
happens,
a currentInduction
is _____________. This process is called
Electro Magnetic

Power Stations

All Power Stations use electromagnetic induction to produce


turnways
the magnet
energy. They simple use different
to _______________.

Hydro-Electric Stations:

The device with arotating


________ magnet inside a coil is called
a
generator
turbine
__________.
A ___________ is attached to it which turns the
magnet.
Rotate
magnetfrom
faster
Increase
the Strength
As we saw from
the simulation
we of
can increase
the output
electromagnetic
induction
Increase # ofMagnet
turns
in coil by: 1.________________________
Increase diameter of coil
2._______________________
3._________________________
4.
_____________________________
This kinetic
is all power stations do!!!
moving
directly
(Youtube: Hydro-Electric Power How it Works)

chemical
potential
Use _________ Energy from
________
water to turn turbine
____________.
heat & boil
steam

Coal Stations: (Youtube: How a coal power station works)


Neutrons
nucleus
Burns
coal which releasesUranium
__________________.
This is used
nuclear
energy water to produce _______ which turns the
heat &
to
__________
boil
steam
turbine.

Potential Difference (Voltage)

We can think of voltage in two ways:


push
flowing
1. As the _________
given to get electrons
_______
Sometimes referred to as
_____
(_____________________)
EMF
electro
motive force

energy
source (i.e The voltage of a typical cell
1.5V
Used to describe an
____________
is
series in ______battery
_____; we can place cells together
(to form a __________)
to increase the voltage. 2 1.5V cells
3V in series gives ______, 6 1.5V
9V
cells in seriesElectric
give _____.
Potential Energy

2. The amount of ________________________


transforme the electrons
soun have
How much energy
heat is available to be
d _____________ (i.e.dInto
_______
in a speaker
devic
loador ________ in a toaster)
Each ________
(or _____) in a circuit usespotential
up somedifference
of the electric
e

potential of the electrons; this is why we use the term __________


any 2 points (describes thevoltage
drop
_____________
difference
in the electric potential
energy between _____________ in a circuit or the ____________)
0V
used
All electrons in a circuit will also
return to the power supply with
____ of electric potential energy.
up It is all ________ in the circuit!

Measuring Voltage

Voltage is measured involts


__________________.
(V)
6.2 x 1018
1 volt means each coulomb of charge(______________
electrons)
is given 1 joule of electrical energy.
Circuit diagram
V
symbol
Voltage are measured with avoltmeter
___________________.
1.5V
A typical cell provides a V or EMF of
______.
series
Connecting two or more in
______ to formbattery
a _______ increases
voltage.

Voltage Homework

1. Read pages 47-50 in textbook


2. Answer the Questions Below

1. What is electric potential? Use an analogy in your explanation


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2. Copy Learn Section (the bit shaded grey) on page 53 of text below.
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3. What device is used to measure voltage (name and symbol)?


________________________

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<

Branch
One

>
>

>

V
V 6V
Only one path for electrons
Bulbs share
______ the voltage
evenly
dimly
_____ so each
glow
_______. removed/blow
n____________
out
If one goes
bulb is
the
other
________ because
circuit
is broken
the _____________.

Branch
Two

http://phet.colorado.edu/simulations/si

<
i
i
>
i i

>

6V

Bulbs in Parallel + 12V


-

12V

V
12V

i<

i
>
i i
>
i
T

>

Symbol for light


bulb

<

<

+ 12V
-

<

Bulbs in Series

<

>

Series and Parallel Circuits

Two paths for electrons


Both bulbs get ______
full
voltage so both
glow bulb /
brightly
________.
branch
shared
Current is _____
in each
removed/blown
______ stays on
still is
a complete path
Ifthere
one isbulb

Basic Circuit Rules

Series Circuit

12V

4V

8V

Parallel Circuit

A
A

3A
2A

100

100

200
1A

= Symbol for resistor

3A

Current through
both resistors
the
(theres
___________
is only one
same. Drop
path!)
_______________________
__.
proportional
Voltage _______ across
each resistor is
______________ to its
resistance.
Total voltage equals sum of

200

Voltage drop across


both resistors
_________
is go back with
the
(must
_______________________
same. through
0V)
branch
_. proportional
Current _______ each
_______ is _____________
Total
the circuit
to its total resistance.
_____ current in _________

Short Circuits

In parallel circuits we can haveas_________


___________ we
many branches
want.
conductor
loads if one
devices
However,
of the branches consists only of short
a good
circuit
__________all(no
______ or _______ of any kind) we willload
get a
current
______________.
Virtually _________ will flow through the branch with no
components / devces
off
______
extremely large
no - load
This causes 2 things:
High
High
Sparks
Fire
All of the other ____________________ go _____
An _________________ current in the __________
branch
______ current = _____ heat = _______ or
_______!!!

Circuits Homework

1. Read pages 41-42 in textbook


2. Answer Questions 1- 5 on pg 47-48

below
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Circuits Homework Contd


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Resistance

Resistance can be thought of slowing


as ________ current.
()
Resistance is measuredohms
in _______________.
All materials (evenconductors
__________) have some resistance.
Materials with low resistance
are called ________. Those with
conductors
highinsulators
resistance are _________.
Factors that affect Resistance are:

longer the
1) Length:the
_________________

wire; the
the
greater
_______________________
resistance
2) Cross-sectional
Area:
As area resistance
_______________________
Like a highway; more lanes;
more
cars through
_______________________

properties
3) Material: different
________________
4) Temperature:resistance
_____________

as temperature
________________________

Resistance Contd

Resistors: devices made to specifically provide


resistance. They are used reduce
to
current
computers
________________. In complicated
circuits,
TVs as those
mobile
voltage
such
in __________, ______,
and
current phones
___________
used to keep ________ and
_________ at specific levels needed for other
components (parts) to work properly. Ohms ()
Ohms
millions can have
Resistors
a ()
large range of a
few_______
of ______.
1kto _________
1000
1

kilohm (____)
1M = _______
1 000 000
1 megohm (____) = ___________

An Analogy to Help Understand


Circuits

Ohms Law

In circuits; current, voltage, and resistance are


related.
We can make a circuit to discover this
What does a battery look
relationship.
like?
We can also draw them with symbols:
A
Power SupplyV (Cell):_______
Wires (Conductors):_____
Ammeter must
Resistors:____________
be connected in
series
A
Voltmeter:________
Ammeter:_________

Circuit
Diagram:
Voltmeter
must
be
connected in parallel

Ohms Law

Ohms Law: Thecurrent


________ flowing through a circuit
proportional
(conductor) is __________
to the ________ _______
potential difference
Most common
between its ends.

IR
V = _____
V/I
R = V/R
_____

form

I = _____

Ohms Law Problem: A circuit with a 12Important:


resistor is connected to a 6V
power V
supply.
it?
Given:
= 6V What is the
I = current
V/R through
Must use Proper Units:
R = 12
Voltage in Volts
= 6/12
Current in Amps
I=?
= 0.5A
Resistance in Ohms
If not; you must convert first!

Ohms Law Lab

V
Make a Circuit as shown and fill in the following charts:

Power
Supply
Setting
(Volts)

Voltmete
r
Reading
(V)

Ammete
r
Reading
(I)

V/I
(ohm
s)

Resistan
ce of
resistor
(ohms)

Power
Supply
Setting
(Volts)

2V

2V

4V

4V

6V

6V

8V

8V

10 V

10 V

12 V

12 V

Voltmete
r
Reading
(V)

Ammete
r
Reading
(I)

V/I
(ohm
s)

Resistan
ce of
resistor
(ohms)

Use Lab on page of booklet for method (we will use 56 and 330 resistors
so we can use bigger voltages then in the lab) Do it twice, once for each

Ohms Law Lab Contd

1.
2.
3.

Plot values from above graph and answer questions below:

Calculate the slope of the lines:______________________


What does the slope represent?_____________________
Explain the difference in slope of the lines.
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_____________________________________________________

Ohms Law Homework

1. Read pages 53-59 in textbook


2. Answer Questions 1- 4 on pg 56 below
3. Answer Questions 1- 6 on pg 59-60 below
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Electrical Power

Power isthe rate at which energy is transformed


__________________________________.
Watts (W)
Power
Energy/Time
Its

unit is __________. (_______=__________)


P = E/t or E = Pt

A general equation for


power
power
ratings
is:_______________
2400W (2.4kW)
1100W (1.1kW)
Electric devices
60W
400Whave __________.

80 W

Kettle:____________
Iron:__________
Voltage
curren
P

= VI

TV:_______
Power Drill:__________

Lamp:___________

For circuits: Power = ______ x ______ or


_______

Power and Paying For


Electricity

Why the electrical power equation works:


The

equation P=VI works because of how Volt


the
ampere _________,
coulomb
joule
_______,
_________,
and _______
are related.
Consider
the battery on
the right:
General
Description:
Scientific
Each coulomb of charge
gains _________
12
______
from
joules
the
_________.
battery
___
2 coulombs of charge
every second
leave the battery
___________
24
chemic
So ___ joules ofal________
electric
energy is converted
al
________ energy every

12V

Description:
12V
PD = ________

<

2A

2A

Current =
_____

Battery

24 W
12V x 2A = 24W

<

Power Dissipated

resistance
wires
Any part of a circuit with ___________
(even the
energy (wires heat up electrical -> heat
______) dissipate
energy)
______________________________________.
Calculating Power
dissipated:
potential
current
VI

Power = difference
________________
xresistan
_________ (P
current
IR=
____)
current
resistanc ce
current
I2 R
But, Potential Difference =
e ________ x _________ (V
potential
=____)
difference
So,
Power = ________ x ________ x ________ (P =
_____)
**Current
2
a) Given:
P=I R
b) Given:
doubled;
P = I 2R
2
R = 5
= (2) (5)
power
R = 5
= (4)2(5)
I Example:
What
is the power
dissipated in
a 5 resistor
= 2A
= 4(5)
quadrupled!!
I = 4A
= 16(5)
through it isP a)
Pwhen
= ? a current
= 20W
= ?2 A b) 4A?
= 80W

Power & Energy

Electrical devicestransform
__________ electrical energy to
another energy
form of __________.

Power
If we know the ______________
of the device (or
rating
appliance) we can
calculate how much energy is being
transformed/used: Power
time
Pt

Energy transformed
____________ x ________ (E = _____)
Joules (J)=rating
The unit is ______________.

Example: A 1000W heating element is turned on for 5


seconds;
how much
electrical energy
does it use?
**UNITS**
P = 1000W
E = Pt
t = 5s

= 1000(5)
= 5000J

To get Joules we must have power


in Watts and time in seconds

We can also find electrical


used as follows:
Voltag energycurrent
time

Energy
VIttransformed =e__________ x _________ x _________
(E = ________)

Power Homework

1. Read pages 60 - 62 in textbook


2. Answer Questions below
3. Answer Questions 1, 2, 4 on pg 64 below

1. What is electrical power? How can you calculate the power rating of an appliance?
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2. What is the unit for power (name and symbol)?


________________________________.

3. Answer these in the space provided.

A) current in a 60W bulb plugged into a 12V outlet

B)Power in a toaster that draws 6A of current when plugged into a 240V outlet

C) The current a 1000W microwave draws when plugged into a 240V outlet

D)Calculate the resistance and the current of a 75W bulb plugged into a Australian household power
point.

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Power Homework Contd


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Calculating Cost of Electricity

Kilowatt-hours
(kWh)
Electric supply companies supply energy
in
____________________. joules
This isHUGE
more convenient then _________ because they are
working
with ___________ Pt
amounts of energy.Watts
energy
For
_______
____ but hours
instead of _______ we
kilowatts
(kW) we still use E =second
s of ________; _______ are
use ____________ and instead
used.
1 kWh = 1000Wh
x60 (60min in 1hour)
Converting
between
Joules
and Kilowatt-hours:
= 60

000Wmin
= 360 000Ws
= 360 000J

x60 (60sec in 1min)


1 Ws =
1J

Example:
much energy
is supplied
a 2kW heater used
P
= 2kW How
E = Pt
In Joules:
6kW = to6(360000)
3 hours? =How
tfor
= 3hr
2(3) many Joules is that?= 21 600 000J
= 6kWh

Calculating Cost of Electricity

per__________________.
kilowattEnergy companies will charge a rate
peak times
This rate could change depending hour
on the time of day;
__________ costs
more then ______________.
off-peak
Houses have a meter to show how much energy has been
used. However it indicates
Total energy used since the meter was
installed
____________________________________
so to find the
energy
used over a certain
period subtract
Initial reading
Finaltime
reading
______________ from _______________. To find cost
multiply energy used by the rate.
peak
off-peak
Some houses have two meters; ________ and _________.

Calculating Cost of Electricity

Example: Using meter readings below and a rate of


$0.15/kWh calculate the cost of electricity used.
4 1710

4 2935

kWh

kWh

Initial Reading

3 months later

Energy Used Final Reading Initial


=
Reading
= 42935
- 41710
= 1225 kWh

Cost = Energy Used x


Rate
= 1225(0.15)
= $185.75

Cost Homework

1. Read pages 63 in textbook


2. Answer Questions 3&5 on pg 64 below

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Cost Homework Contd


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Transmitting Electricity

current
AC
Power Plants Producealternating
_________________
or _____
current.
This is for two
main reasons:
transformed
transformers

1. It can be ______________
using ___________.
very high
power lost This
current
voltage
2.
It can be transmitted at
______________.
reduces the _________ in theiron
wires,
corereducing the
__________in
primary transmission.
secondary

Transformers:turns
are basically an ________ with coils on
either side; a ____________
voltageand ___________
voltage coil.

The ratio of ________


from the
to secondary coil
Np = Ns
Or primary
NpVs = NsVp
is the same as the
ratio
of
input
________
to output
Vp Vs
________.

step - down
As an equation:
step up

Transmitting Electricity
Another feature of the transformer is that power
____________ is
conserved.
Pout
ViIi
VoIo
Input Power Output Power Pin
Or; ___________ = ____________. (____ = _____ or _____ =
_____)
Ip=10A

NpVs
= NsVp What is P
Pout
Pout = Vspower,
Is
in = output
Example:
the
voltage,
and current
2400
=
2400I
s
100Vstransformer
= (1000)(240)shown?
ViIi = Pout
Np=100
Is = 1A
100Vs = 240000
240(10) = Pout
Vp=240V
100
100
Pout = 2400W
Vs = 2400V

Is=?

from the

<

Ns=1000
Vs=?

<

P = I 2R

Why is this important? It allows transmission over long


squared
distances!

1 000 000

Look at equation for power loss:


The current is _________. So if we reduce it has a huge effect.

Transmitting Electricity

The electricity supplied to homes 240V


is ________. It is transmitted at ahigher
much
both types
________ voltage
so _____________ transformers are needed. There is a
series of steps
of that take place from power station to consumer which is
summarised in the figure below:

Step-up
Transformer

Primary Coil Secondary


(Small # of
turns)

Coil # of
(Large
turns)

Step-Down
Transformer

Primary Coil Secondary


(Large # of
turns)

Coil
(Small # of
turns)

Transmitting H/W

1. Answer Questions below

1. The following paragraph is about transformers. Fill in the blanks:

Some electrical energy is lost as _______________ when it travels


through wires. A greater current results in a _______________ heat
loss. A step-up transformer is a device which converts
_______________ voltage to _______________ voltage so as to
reduce the _______________ which results in less energy loss
through the wires. A _______________ transformer converts high
voltage to low voltage. A transformer consists of two coils of wire and
an _______________ core. The alternating electric current in the first
coil produces a _______________ field in the iron core (This is exactly
how an electromagnet works). This alternating magnetic field, in turn,
induces an electric _______________ in the second coil of wire (which
is how an electric generator works). The change in voltage depends on
the _______________ in each coil of wire. If there are more turns in
the second coil, the voltage will _______________ (step-up
transformer). If there are less turns in the second coil, the voltage will
_______________. (step-down transformer)

Transmitting Homework Contd


2. If a step down transformer has 330 turns in the first coil and 33 turns in the second
coil and has an output voltage of 110V, what was the input voltage?
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3. If a step up transformer has an input voltage of 200V connected to a coil with 200
turns, how many turns would the second coil need to provide an output voltage of
2400V?
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Electricity Review

Complete all questions from Topic on pg.68 - 69 of text.

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KINEMATICS
THE STUDY OF
MOTION

Roller Coaster

Measuring Rollercoaster Performance

Lets watch some Youtube videos of some of the biggest rollercoasters in the
world
What
are some of the key features
that make these rollercoasters
exciting?
Height
High
Big Accelerations

G Forces
__________________
____________________
__________________

__________________
Speeds
__________________
____________________

During this unit we will develop the skills to analyse


these
features of our model
average
speed
rollercoaster.
This speeds
includes using
video analysis.
Instantaneous
at any

Types
of of the unit you will be able toforces
acceleration
By
the end
find _____________________,
point
___________________________________
using different methods,
Energy
_________________, and understand the ________ and _________________ at
play.
You will also be able

to make a graph
similar to this:

Distance and Displacement

change
Motion involves movement or
____________in an objects position.

We will just be studying motion instraight


a __________________.
line

However, it is important understand the difference between distance


and displacement.
Distance: How far an object moves alongpath
a ______________.
Itscalar
is a ___________; it hasmagnitude
only a ____________________.
Displacement: How far an object is from the starting point,
magnitude
measured
a ____________.
straight in
line
vector It is a _______; it is described
direction
with a ____________
and A
a to
__________.
Point
B as the crow
Examples: 1) A man runs to the store and
back which is 5km away. What distance did he travel? His
flies
displacement?

2) To get to work I have to drive 8km North then 6km East. What distance do I travel? What is my
finis Distance =8km+
displacement?
Distance =5km + 5km

start / finish

8km

Displacement = 0km
(finished where he
started)

start

6km
= 14km

>

5km

= 10km

5km

>

>

stor
e

>

6km

Displacement =(82 + 62)


= (64 + 36)
E

= 10km NE
direction

Speed and Velocity

We often use speed and velocity interchangeably; however


they are technically different.

change
distance
time________.
Speed is the ___________
in
__________ over
Speed = ________
It is scalar
a __________.
distance ________
time
S(_________).
= d/t
change
displaceme
time
Velocity is the __________
in ____________ over
________.
Velocity = ______________
It isvector
a
displaceme nt ________.
time
V=disp/t

_______________.
nt

Example: Calculate the average


of trip=if it10km
takes me 15 minutes?
Given:
S speed
= d/tand Average velocitydisp
v = disp/t
d = 14km
NE
convert
= 14/0.25
t = 0.25hr
= 10/0.25
t = 15min
to
= 56km/h
= 40km/h
= 0.25hr hours!
NE
km/h
m/s

Most common units are _______ and _______.


Convert
60km/h
S between
= d/t
Shortcut:
We
need to
to be able to convert
these units, heres
how: (Example 3;
page 11) Distance = 60km
m/s
= 60 000m/3600sec

Get
units
right!!!

= 60 000m
= 16.67m/s
Time = 1hr
= 60min = 3600sec So, 60km/h = 16.67m/s

m/s -> km/h


3.6
Km/h -> m/s
3.6

Average Speed

Think about your trip to school. You did not go atconstant


a ___________
speed. You stopped and started, sped up and slowed down. If
you looked at the speedometer of your car (or bus) itinstantaneous
would tell you
your ______________ speed or how fast youmoment
are going at that
exact __________. So if we know the distance travelled and time
taken,
average
we can only calculate the ______________ speed.

Examples:

1. What is the average speed of a train ride that goes from

Shorncliffe to the City


25km) in 45 minutes. Give your answer in km/h.
d
2. A man completes a 70km bike race with an average speed of 30km/h.
How long did it take him?
S
t

Given:
S = d/t
d = 25km
= 25/0.75
t = 45min
= 33.33km/h
= 0.75hr
*** if we left as min; our unit
for speed would be km/min

Given:
d = 70km
s = 30km/h
t=?

t = d/s
= 70/30
= 2.33hr
= 2hr 20min

*** 0.33hr = 0.33(60)


= 20min

Acceleration

v = final speed
u = initial speed

Acceleration is the __________


change
in speed over
time
______.
Acceleration =final
initial
time
a (___(v-u)/t
___________
_________________
_____.
= ________)
speed
Deceleration occurs
when speed
_________ over time. It has the
decreases

unit_______ as acceleration but negative


sign
same
has a _______________.

Its main unit ismetres


________ per
_______
________
second
squared
m/s2(_______)
m/s2
Acceleration due to gravity is9.8
_________.
This means that every
second its speed has
_______ from the last.
9.8increased
m/s
So, 1second after an object is dropped its speed is
9.8_________
m/s
2(9.8)
= 19.6
2 seconds after its going
____________;
5 seconds5(9.8)
after = 49 m/s
m/s
________

A
car increases
it speed from 95km/h to 110km/h to
Examples:
pass. It does this in 5sec. What is its acceleration in
km/h/s? In m/s2

u = 95km/h
v = 110km/h
t = 5s

a = (v-u)/t
= (110-95)/5
= 15/5
= 3 km/h/s

3km/h/s = 3 3.6 = 0.83m/s2

A runner finishes at race travelling at 12m/s. He comes


to a stop after 3 sec. Whats his acceleration?

u = 12m/s
v = 0m/s
t = 3s

a = (v-u)/t
= (0-12)/3
= -12/3
= -4 m/s2

Cartoon Physics!

Cartoon Physics!

Cartoon Physics!

Speed & Acceleration


Homework
Read
pages 7-11 of text and the cartoons in booklet

Complete all questions from Exercise 01 on pg.11 of text.

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Feeling Forces

closely related
Forces and Acceleration arevery
____________________;
we
actually feel them the same way.
This is because a force is need to
cause a change in motion
________________________. (RECALL: Acceleration is a
change in motion)
motion
OR: No
force, no change in ________;
bigger
bigger no acceleration!
Also, the ________ the force; the ________
the
proportional
acceleration.
So, force and acceleration are said to be
Spring cart
demo!!!
________________.
the empty trolley!
If I push two trolleys, one empty
and one filled with
smaller
groceries, with the same force; which
halved one goes further?
_______________________.

Or, it takes a greater


________ force to accelerateheavier
a _______ object
the at the same rate oflighter
a ________ object.
inversely
So, with a constant force; acceleration and mass
are
________ proportional
F = force (N)
All this can be summarised with the following formula:
m = mass (kg)
ma a = accel.
a = F/m (but it is more commonly given F
as= _______)
(m/s2)
This is Newtons Second Law of Motion!
F
m

All objects on Earth


__________________
experience a force due
gravity
fall________
to _____________
but dont continually
supporting there is normally a ________
because
force from the ground or a desk

2
9.8m/s/s
9.8m/s
If the supporting force is removed; all objects fall with an
acceleration
__________________
of ____________ or _____________
100due to
9.8gravity
980N
(N)
So, the force
pulling a 100kg man toNewtons
the Earth

is

F = ma = (______)(___) = _____ (Force is measured in

We can also experience what is calledperceived


a ____________ force.

inertia
This is because of _____________.
This is the idea that all objects
current
of
will stay
in theirstate
______________________
unless acted up by an
firstmotion
outside
force (Newtons ________ law of motion).
Examples: (fig 1.5a-b & train)

internal
Just like how we are free to move around in a car or train; our
organs
_____________
___________ can move around inside of us; This is what
fall stomach
suddenlywhen you
gives you that funny feeling in your
_______________!!!

Cartoon Physics!

Cartoon Physics!

Feeling Forces Homework

Read pages 12 & 13 and cartoons above

Answer questions 1-6 on page 16 of text

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Rollercoaster Forces

Rollercoaster designers use the conceptsinertia


of ___________
create
along with changes in the direction of the
track to
Recall: A
change inon
direction
requires a
_______________
different
_______
the riders.
forces
force!
These forces combine with the force of
___________
gravity
gravity
(_________ always acts on objects
to pull
them of the
toward
the centre
_______________________) Earth
NOTICE:

Forces in a Loop:

Gravity always acting


down
Gravity always same
magnitude (since mass of
cart does not change)
Force of cart always acting
toward the centre of the
track

Combining Forces

magnitude
direction
Forces arevectors
_______; so they have
a ________ (size) and
a
_______. arrows
vectors
We uselength
_____________
arrowto represent forces (and
sizeall
_________)
arrow
direction

The _______
the
_______
is proportional to the ______ of
Big force toofthe
right
small force to the
the force
left
align
Tip-to-tail
The ______ points in the _______________ of the force
Vector triangle

Right-angle
Pythagoras
To add vectors we _______
the two (or more) forces
net
magnitude

___________ to form a _______________.


trigonometry

This triangle is a __________ triangle


so we can use
direction
B
_____________ theorem
to calculate the ___________ A
of+the
tip-to-tail
A + B
combined
A 3N _____ force.
B 2N

Object

A 3N

Object
Net force = 1N
In seniorNet
physics
you will also learn
to use
force = 5N
_________________
to calculate the net forces exact
1N
B 2N
5N
Object
Object .
___________

Situation 1: There are 2 forces acting on an object. The first is 25N acting South and
the other is 35N acting West. What is the magnitude of the resultant force?
Mathematically

43N

25N

Object
W

4.3cm

35N

35N

Net force =

25N Graphically

(352

252)

+
= (1850)

= 43N SW

Net force
= 4.3(10)
= 43 N SW

2.5cm
= 25N

3.5cm
= 35N

Scale: 1cm = 10N of Force

Situation 2: There are 3 forces acting on an object. The first is 125N acting North, the
second is 70N acting East, and the other is 35N acting West. What is the
magnitude of the resultant force?
35N

Mathematically

70N

Object

35N
125N

Graphically

Net force
= 3.73(35)
3.6cm
= 129.5 N NE = 125N

2 cm =
70N

1 cm =
35N
3.7cm

125N

Net force =(1252 + 352)


= (15625+1225)
= 130N NE

Scale: 1cm = 35N of

*125/35
=3.6cm

Combining Forces:

Read pages 13-15

Answer questions 7-10 on page 16 of text

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Rollercoasters as Energy
Converters #1

at ________________
the
Rollercoasters are only powered
of the
ride; to get them
_______________________________.
theto
top
of the first beginning
hill/drop
Its the speed from thefirst
__________that
keeps it going
drop
after that!

Heres why:

Gravitational Potential
lifted
Energy
Whenmgh
an object is ______;
it gains
m
kg
____________________________
mass
acceleration
g
gravity
9.8m/s2
PE = _____ where: __ = height
______ (in ___)
h
m
__ = ___________
to ________
Kineticdue
Energy
K
(_______)
E
mv2
2
m
kg
__ = __________
of the object (in __)
mass
v
velocity
m/s
speed
When an object is dropped it gains ________________ (___)
Joules
J
KE = (_____)/___ where: ___ = ______ (in ____)
***Actually ALL forms of energy measured in

Kinetic vs. Potential Energy

At the point of maximum potential energy, the car has minimum


kinetic energy.

Examples:

A rollercoaster car and


passengers is pulled up
the first hill of the track. Its
mass is 350kg and the hill
is 120m tall. Calculate the
PE.
m=
g = 9.8m/s2
350kg
h
= 120m *Units all

good!

PE = mgh
= 350(9.8)(120)
= 411600J

Calculate the Kinetic


Energy of the same
cart/passenger combo
when it has a speed of
30m/s.
m=
*Units all
350kg
v = 30m/s good!
KE = mv2
2
= 350(30)(30)
2
= 157500J

A cannon ball of mass


1.25kg is fired. It has a
muzzle velocity of 500m/s.
Calculate its KE.
m=
*Units all
1.25kg
v = 500m/s good!
KE = mv2
2
= 1.25(500)(500)
2
= 156250J

What did you notice about the kinetic energy of the two
objects?
*Very
Similar
*velocity/speed is squared so a small object travelling very fast can
have as much KE as a big object travelling slower

How do we get Joules for PE & KE when we multiply totally different things
together? Lets consider units.

There are only a few _______


units (these are
__________,
_________,
Base
kilograms
metres
and
___________); the rest are combinations Base
of these _____ units.
seconds

Property
Height/distance/
Measured
length

SI Unit

Notes on the Unit

Metre (m)

SI Base Unit

Mass

Kilograms (kg)

SI Base Unit

Time

Seconds (s)

SI Base Unit

Speed/velocity
Acceleration
Force
Energy

Metres/second (m/s)
Metres/second2
(m/s2)

Newtons (N)
Joule (J)

A combination of base units


A combination of base units
Given a special name but still a combination
of base units (1N = 1kgm/s2)
Given a special name but still a combination
of base units (1J = 1kgm2/s2)

Lets Prove that PE and KE have the same unit:


PE = mgh
KE = mv2
2
= kg (m/s )(m)
No unit so we can leave it out
2
= kgmm
= kg (m/s)(m/s)
s2
= kgmm = kgm2
= kgm2
ss
s2
s2

Rollercoasters as Energy Converters #1 Homework:

Read pages 19-21

Answer questions 1-3 on page 25 - 26 of text

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Rollercoasters as Energy
Converters #2

decreases
As an object falls; its height obviously
_____________. So,
decreases
its PE also
______________.
increases
But as it falls; its speed increases
____________. So, its
KE
_____________.
constantly
PE an object
KE falls; its PE converted
When
is ________________to KE. If
we add the ___ and ___ of a falling object at any point of its
fall (justthe
after
release,
half way down, just before contact
same
number
with ground); we will get ______________________.
predict

We can use this knowledge to _______ the carts velocity from the
earlier example at the bottom of the hill. 0J
We know 0J
that at the bottom of the hill PE = ____ and at the top of
KETOP
KEBOT
PE(just
the hill KE = ____
to fall)PETOP
BOT before it begins

So, this means _________ = _________ & __________ =


KEBOT =__________
PETOP =
KE = mv2
2(411600) = 350v
2
411600J
2
m=
v2 =823200/350
Example: Calculate the velocity of the cart at the bottom of the hill.
2KE =

350kg
v=?

v = (2352) = 48.5m/s

life
But this this isnt exactly what happensReal
in ______________.

If you were to touch the wheels of the cart what did you think you
They are
would notice?
_______________________
HOT!!! of
friction
Friction
This is because
__________.
_________ is a forceopposes
that
Surfaces
movetwo
over each
____________ motion and is present
whenever
heat
heat otherFriction causes
energy_______
_____________________________.
and _______ converte
is a form of __________. So some ofKE
the PE is
d to heat. (Not all converts to ____)
_____________
hear
energythe rollercoasters wheels rolling over the
You can also _________
track. Sound is a form of ________ so some of the PE is also
converted to sound.
This is represented
in the graph:

Cartoon Physics!

Cartoon Physics!

Rollercoasters as Energy Converters #2 Homework:

Read pages 21-25 and cartoon physics

Answer questions 4-7 on page 26 of your textbook.

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Topic Review: Complete all questions (1-21) on pages


31-33

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Rollercoaster Investigation

Sketch of Track (Label the key dimensions):

Name of Section

________________

Section
Length

Key Heights

Mass of car:

Rollercoaster Analysis I:

Finding Speed & Velocity using Distance, Displacement and Time.

Use the video to get times; distances and displacements by taking measurements directly from the
rollercoaster.

Entire Rollercoaster
Average Speed

Average Displacement

Track Section: First Drop


Average Speed

Average Displacement

Instantaneous Speed at end of drop

Track Section: Loop


Average Speed

Average
Displaceme
nt

Instantaneous Speed at top of loop

Instantaneous Speed at end of loop

Track Section: Second Hill


Average Speed

Average Displacement

Inst. Speed at top of 2nd Hill

Inst. Speed at end of 2nd Hill

Track Section: Flat


Average Speed

Average Displacement

Instantaneous Speed at end of Flat

Extra Work Space:


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Rollercoaster Analysis II:

Finding Speed & Velocity using Energy.

Entire Rollercoaster
PE & KE at Start of Track

PE & KE at End of Track

Energy Lost

Energy Lost per cm of Track

Track Section: First Drop


PE at Start and End of Sectoin

KE at Start and End of Section (include


Losses)

Speed at End of Section (Average or


Inst?)

Track Section: Loop


PE at Start, Top, End of Loop

KE at Start, Top, End of Loop

Speed at Top and End of Loop

Track Section: 2nd Hill


PE at Start, Top, End of 2nd Hill

KE at Start, Top, End of 2nd Hill

Speed at Top and End of 2nd Hill

Track Section: Flat


PE at start and end of flat

KE at the start and end of flat

Speed at end of Flat

Extra Work Space:


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Discussion Questions:

1. Complete the table:

Point on Track

Speed (Method I) Speed (Method


II)

End of First Drop


Top of Loop
End of Loop
Top of 2nd Hill
End of 2nd Hill

End of Flat

2. Discuss any differences. Which method do you think was more accurate, why?.
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3) What are the advantages and disadvantages of each method?


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4) Consider the Energy v Length of Track graph from below. Using all the
information gathered using Method II (PE and KE) complete one of these for our
coaster.

Energy Changes Over a Rollercoaster Track